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Grammar - Theuseof“it”
Lead in ____ was a sunny day. Peter decided to go for a walk to the park, though _____ was two miles away. ____ was so comfortable to walk on the street. Suddenly ____began to rain. He found __ hard to walk there. Then he took a bus home. Unfortunately ____ went wrong. When he got home, he was wet through. Thus ____ was a day that he would never forget. 基本用法 1. it 作代词 2. it 作形式主语 3. it 作形式宾语 4. it 用于强调句中 一、it 作代词 S1. What is this? It is a cellphone. S2. What is that? It is his dictionary. S3. Whose book is this? It is Mr. Cheng’s. S4. Where is your English book? It is here. S5. My cat is missing, I can’t find it anywhere. S6. What a beautiful baby? Is it a boy? Draw a conclusion: 1. It---词性? ______ 可以用作人称代词, 代指_______________ 还可以替代指示 代词_____ 或______或__________________________ It is Friday today. It was very cold last Monday. It is about 8:30 now. It is about 25km from Longxian to Bazi. It lies in the south of Shaoguan city. It is 40° C ! You got a high fever! It rains heavily. It is November 11, 2005. 2. it 可以用作非人称代词, 表示_____,_____, ______, ______, ______, ______等。 【辨析 it, one, the one, that】 : it 的用法: it,单数,特指,相当于“the + 单数/不可数名词”;与所指代名词属同一类,而 且是同一个。 I like this house with a beautiful garden in front, but I don’t have enough money to buy ______. A. one B. it C. this D. that

one 的用法: one,单数,泛指,相当于“a/an + 单数名词”,与前面所指代名词属同类但不是 同一个, 指同一类中的一个。 one 可以根据语义在它的前面或后面加上一些定语。 I haven’t a pen, can you lend me one? I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have ______. A. it B. those C. them D. one the one 的用法: the one, 单数,特指,相当于“the + 单数名词”,与所指代名词属同类,但不是 同一个,具体哪个往往由其后面的定语决定。 There are 35000 night clubs in Tokyo, and you don’t often see _____ that is empty. A. it B. that C. one D. the one that 的用法: that, 特指,单数,相当于“the + 单数/不可数名词”,与所指代名词同类,但不同 一,that 可以根据语义在它的后面加上一些定语,多数是 of 短语;它的前面不能 存在任何定语。 My seat was next to _______ of the teacher. A. one B. it C. that D. seat Nine in ten parents said there were significant differences in their approach to educating their children compared with _______ of their parents. A. those B. one C. both D. that 二、作引导词,在句中作形式主语或形式宾语,代替后面的动词不定式、动名 词或从句。 1) 代替 “to do” It is important for us to learn English well. I found it necessary to tell him about the matter. 2) 代替 “doing” It is no use quarrelling with him about it. I think it no good talking to her. 3) 代替 “clause” It doesn’t matter whether he will come or not. I think it necessary that we will attend the meeting. (一) it 用作形式主语 替代作主语的从句、动词不定式、动名词,而把真正作主语的从句、动词 不定式、动名词置于句尾。常用于以下特殊句式: 【一】常用的四种由 it 作形式主语的主语从句 1. It is/was + adj. + for/of sb. to do sth. that… 2. It is/was + 过去分词 + that … 3. It is/was + a/an + n. + that …

4. It + vi.(happens to sb./strikes sb./takes +时间/…) + that …

1. It is/was + adj. + that…

for/of sb. to do sth.

(1)It is/was+adj.+for sb.to do sth. for 前的形容词通常为描述事件的形容词:如 easy, difficult, necessary, impossible, important 等 ______is illegal ______ a man to drive a car without a license. (2)It is/was+adj.+of sb. to do sth. of 前的形容词通常为描述人的形容词:如 kind, clever, nice, rude, cruel, considerate, foolish, wise 等 It's kind ______ you to help me with the problem. (3)it 作形式主语,从句做真正主语 ①It is clear(/obvious/true/possible/certain/…) that ... 很明显他已经知道了真相。 ____________________________________________________________________ ②It is important(/vital/essential/necessary/strange/natural/...) that ... 在此句型中,that 后的从句中要用“should+动词原形”的形式,其中 should 可以 省略,意为“竟然;应该” 。 好好学英语很重要。 ____________________________________________________________________ 2. It is/was + 过去分词 + that … ①It is said(/reported/believed/thought/ known/told/hoped/…) that ... 众所周知,姚明是世界闻名的足球运动员。 ____________________________________________________________________ ②It is suggested(/ordered/demanded/requested /commanded/…) that ... 在此句型中,that 后的从句中要用“should+动词原形”的形式,其中 should 可以 省略,意为“竟然;应该” 。 大家建议会议应该予以推迟。 ____________________________________________________________________

3. It is/was + a/an + n. + that … It is a pity(/a shame/an honor /fact /a surprise/...) that ... 该句型中, that 后的从句一般用虚拟语气(should + 动词原形) should 可省去,表示 出乎意料,常译为“竟然”。没有这种意义时,则不用虚拟语气。例如: It is no wonder that… 难怪… 你们班竟然发生这样的事情,真是件耻辱。 ____________________________________________________________________ 他生病了,真遗憾! ____________________________________________________________________ 4. It + vi.(happens to sb./strikes sb./takes +时间/appears/seems…) + that … 他似乎对打篮球不感兴趣。 ____________________________________________________________________ 令他震惊的是他竟然成功考上了大学。 ____________________________________________________________________ 【二】It 做形式主语,动名词做真正主语的常见句型有: It’s no good (in) doing… 做…没有好处 It’s no use (in) doing… 做…没有用 记住:There be 的几个固定句型: There is no point (in) doing… 做…没有意义 There is no sense (in) doing…做…没有意义 There is no trouble (in) doing…做…不困难 There is no difficulty (in) doing…做…不困难 There is no possibility that… …是不可能的 There is no doubt that…毫无疑问…? There’s some doubt whether/if …有疑问… 【注意】 : 加名词的一般为 There, 加形容词的一般为 It, 例外: It’s no use/good (in) doing sth. 【特殊情况】 : It’s useful to do sth. It’s useless(/no use) (in) doing … There is no need (for sb.) to do sth.做…没有必要 (二)it 作形式宾语 当复合宾语中的宾语是不定式、动名词、宾语从句时,往往把宾语放在它的补足 语后面,而用 it 作形式宾语,放在宾语补足语之前。 该句型中的 it 作形式宾语,常用的动词有 think, believe, make, find, consider, feel 等。 【 6123 结构】 主语+动词+it+形容词/名词+不定式/动名词/从句 6. 指主句中常用的动词:think, believe, make, find, consider, feel; 1. 指的是形式宾语 it;

2. 指的是宾补的两种形式:形容词或名词; 3. 指的是真正宾语的三种形式:不定式短语,动名词短语或 that 引导的宾 语从句。 ①常见的 it 做形式宾语构成的句型: sb. think/find/consider it important (necessary/helpful…) that… (for sb.) to do sth.

我觉得每天早上大声读英语对我很有用。 ____________________________________________________________________ ②make it clear that…弄清楚;使明白 ③take it for granted that… 认为…是理所当然的 ④make it a rule that…使…为习惯 ⑤在动词 like, love, enjoy, prefer, hate, appreciate 后接 if/when/that 从句时一般 用 it 做形式宾语。 结构为:sb. like/love/enjoy/prefer/hate/ appreciate it if/when/that… ⑥在短语 answer for 负责, depend on 依赖, insist on 坚持, see to 负责, 照顾后接 从句时一般用 it 做形式宾语 结构为:depend on/insist on/see to it that… 我认为在考试中作弊是不对的。 ____________________________________________________________________ 如果她天天迟到的话我也无能为力。 ____________________________________________________________________ 如果你给我些有用的信息,我将很感激。 ____________________________________________________________________ 我讨厌人们边吃东西边说话。 ____________________________________________________________________ 【常见的固定用法有】: make it 成功,安排在或定在某时间 forget it 别提了,忘了它吧

Don’t mention it 别提了,表示不用谢 It doesn’t matter 没关系 It (That) depends 视情况而定 You guessed it 你猜着了 It’s hard to say 很难说 It’s up to you to do sth.由你来决定做某事 If I can help it 如果我有办法的话 When it comes to…当谈到…时 The chairman thought ___ necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting.(05 全国) A. that B. it C. this D. him I’d appreciate ____ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer.(2006 山 东) A. That B. it C. this D. you 三、用于强调句型中 1. 强调句的一般句式: It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who ... 2. 强调句的一般疑问句式: Is/Was it + 被强调部分 + that/who … 3. 强调句的特殊疑问句式: 特殊疑问词 + is/was it that … 4. not until 的强调句式: It is/was not until + 被强调部分 + that ... 把下面这句话改成强调句。 I met Tom in the park yesterday. 1)强调 I:_________________________________________________ 2)强调 Tom:______________________________________________ 3)强调 in the park:______________________________________________ 4)强调 yesterday:______________________________________________ It was five o’clock ______ I got home. It was at five o’clock ______ I got home. It was ___ back home after the experiment. A. not until midnight did he go B. until midnight that he didn’t go C. not until midnight that he went D. until midnight when he didn’t go In which play is ___ your brother appears? A. that where B. this when C. it that D. it where It was in the lab ___ was taken charge of by Professor Zhang ___ they did the

experiment. A. where; that C. that ; where

B. which ; where D. which; that

四、it 引导的其他惯用句型 It is/It has been +时间段(a long time)+since + sb. didsth.“自从…已经过了…” It is/was/will be +时间段(a long time) +before + sb. do/didsth. …“过了很久才…; 很久以后才…” It isn’t/wasn’t/won’t be +时间段(a long time) +before + sb. dosth. …“没过多久 就…” 1.It’s years ______(since, before, after, that) I painted this beautiful picture. 2.It will be years ______(since, before, after, that) I paint this beautiful picture. 3.It was years ______(since, before, after,that) I painted this beautiful picture. 4.It’s for years ______(since, before, after, that) I have painted this beautiful picture.

1. The Parkers bought a new house but ___ will need a lot of work before they can move in. A. they B. it C. one D. which 2. We’ve been looking at houses but haven’t found ___ we like yet. A. one B. ones C. it D. them 3. I’m moving to the countryside because the air there is much fresher than ___ in the city. A. ones B. one C. that D. those 4. If I can help ___, I don’t like working late into the night. A. so B. that C. it D. them 5. As the busiest woman in Norton, she made ___ her duty to look after all the other people’s affairs in that town. A. this B. that C. one D. it 6. I’d appreciate ___ if you would like to teach me how to use the computer. A. that B. it C. this D. you 7. ____ is our belief that improvements in health care will lead to a stronger, more prosperous economy. A. As B. That C. This D. It 8. I hate_____ when people talk with their mouths full. A. it B. that C. these D. them 9. It was in the lab____ was taken charge of by Professor Black____ they did the experiment. A. that, where B. which, that C. whom, that D. which, where 10. They are all classmates. ____ is no wonder that they should help each other with their studies. A. There B. It C. This D. That 11. ____ to all that Taiwan is the largest island in China. A. As knows B. As we know C. It is known D. What is known 12. Will you see to____ that our gift is taken back? A. me B. yourself C. it D. them 13. ____is weeks since he was drunk. He hasn’t been drunk so much like this. A. He B. It C. That D. There

14. Tom’s parents as well as his head teacher are constantly telling him not to surf the internet too much , but__ didn’t help. A. which B. they C. she D. it 15. The Chinese government strongly expects ___to be more patriotic college students joining the army to strengthen our defensive forces. A. thereB. it C .that D. one

16. It’s natural that not a few young people dislike ___when others tell them how to do things. A. That B. this C. it D./ 17. The politician made __known to the public that he won’t enter for the next election. A. so B. this C. that D. it 18. --I hear an accident happened to Jack and he is in hospital now. --How can __ be? I saw him shopping this very morning. A. he B. it C. this D. one 19. It is not I but Mr. Green who___ in charge of the operation on the child. A. is B. am C. are D. were 20. We live in a world in which only the strongest can make___ to the top. A. him B. one C. it D. her 21. — Isn’t ___mean ___ him not to make a donation? — Yes. He is always mean with money. He is the last to help others. A. that; for B. that ; of C. it; for D. it ;of 22. When I tried to find___ that prevented him from joining us in the activity, he kept silent all the time. A. why it did B. what it did C. what it was. D. why it was. 23. Will you please see to ___that all the children are safe during the trip? A. which B. this C. it D. that 24. ___is a pity that you’ve forgotten both her address and her telephone number.How can we get in touch with her now? A. There B. It C. This D. That 25. --Do remember never to keep medicine within the reach of the children. ---_____. A. Heard it B. Make it C. Got it D. Taken it 26. I don’t think __ worthwhile taking so much trouble to persuade him to join us. Henever joined us and he may even make things worse. A. this B. that C. there D. it 27. It was not until 1949___ real national industry began. A. While B. when C. that D. since 28. ____ makes no difference to me who will be sent abroad for further study. A. It B. There C. This D. That 29. It was at the gate ___ he told me the news. A. that B. what C. which D. when

30. Is ____ necessary to tell his father everything? A. it B. that C. what D. he 31. Was it in this palace ___ the last emperor died? A. that B. in which C. in where D. which 32. Is ____ possible to fly to the moon in a spaceship? A. now B. man C. that D. it 33. Was it during the Second World War ___ he died? A. that B. while C. in which D. then 34. Is ___necessary to complete the design before National Day? A. this B. that C. it D. he 35. I don’t think ____ possible to master a foreign language without much memory work. A. This B. that C. its D. it 36. Does ____matter if he can’t finish the job on time? A. this B. that C. he D. it 37. It was not ____ she took off her dark glasses ____ I realized she was a famous film star. A. when, that B. until, that C. until, when D. when, then 38. Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work harder, but ___ didn’t help. A. he B. which C. she D. it 39. ____ is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. A. There B. This C. That D. It 40. How long ____to finish the work? A. you’ll take B. will take youC. you’ll take it D. will it take you 41. It was through Jack ____ Mary got to know Bob. A. who B. whom C. how D. that 42. It was simply for that reason ____ I wouldn’t tell him the truth. A. why B that C. which D. so 43. I think ______ right that you didn’t go there. A. you B. that C. it D. its 44. ______ is no good ______ without doing anything. A. This; talking B. It ;to talk C. It; talking D. That; to talk 45. It ______ Mike and Mary who helped the old man several days ago. A. was B. are C. were D. had been 46. ______ four years since I left my home town. A. It was B. There was C. There is D. It is 47. People in the west make ______ a rule to buy Christmas presents for their relatives and friends. A. that B. it C. this D. as 48. ______ needs further discussion whether we’ll build a library or not. A. That B. This C. It D. The thing 49. We found ______ impossible to get rid of the nuclear waste. A. that B. this C. / D. it 50. There is a photo on the wall. _____a photo of Lei Feng.

A. It B. It’s C. Its D. He’s 51. His father kept telling him that he should work harder, but ______ didn’t help. A. it B. he C. which D. she 52. He felt ______ to work for human rights and progress. A. it his duty B. his dutyC. that is a duty D. that is his duty 53. Let’s get through the work quickly._____ seems to be little time left now. A. It B. There C. That D. Here 54. _____ is different between A and B. A. There B. It C. Where D. What 55. _____ is no difference between A and B. A. There B. Where C. It D. What 56. He said,“______ a long way to school._____ a long way to go yet before we arrive.” A. It is; There is B. There is; It is C. It is; It is D. There is; There is

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