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2014届高三英语查漏补缺效果考核检测:阅读理解基础 Word版含解析


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(建议用时: 30 分钟) A 体裁 科普文 题材 地球变暖 词数 381

Move Earth—It’s Not Science Fiction LONDON—Scientists have found an unusual way to prevent our planet from over

heating: move it to a cooler spot. All you have to do is send a few comets(彗星)in the direction of Earth, and its orbit will be changed. Our world will then be sent spinning into a safer, colder part of the solar system. This idea for improving our climate comes from a group of US National Aeronautics and Space Administration(NASA)engineers and American astronomers. They say their plan could add another six billion years to the useful lifetime of our planet—effectively doubling its working life. The plan put forward by Dr. Laughlin, and his colleagues Don Kory can sky and Fred Adams, needs carefully directing a comet or asteroid so that it passes close by our planet and sends some of its gravitational energy to Earth. “Earth’s orbital speed would increase as a result and we would move to a higher orbit away from the Sun, ”Laughlin said. Engineers would then direct their comet so that it passed close to Jupiter or Saturn. The comet would pick up energy from one of these giant planets. Later its orbit would bring it back to Earth, and the process would be repeated.

In the short term, the plan provides an ideal way to global warming, although the team was actually concerned with a much greater danger. The Sun is certain to heat up in about a billion years and so “seriously compromise” our biosphere( 生物 圈)—by cooking us. That’s why the group decided to try to save Earth. The plan has one or two worrying aspects, however. For a start, space engineers would have to be very careful about how they directed their asteroid or comet towards Earth. The smallest miscalculation(误算)in orbit could fire it straight at Earth—with deadly consequences. There is also the question of the Moon. As the current issue of Scientific American magazine points out, if Earth was pushed out of its current position, it is “most likely the Moon would be stripped away from Earth”. This would greatly change our planet’s climate. 1. What makes the scientists plan to move Earth? A. A few comets are moving to the direction of Earth. B. Earth’s working life is coming to an end soon. C. Earth will become too hot for mankind to keep alive. D. The moon is moving farther and farther away from Earth. 2. If the plan is successful, Earth will have a working life of A. 12 billion B. 6 billion C. 18 billion D. 24 billion years.

3. What serious problems might the plan cause according to the passage? A. The comet might hit Earth and man might lose the Moon. B. Earth might be moved too far away and man might be frozen to death.

C. The comet might hit Jupiter or Saturn and never return to Earth. D. Earth’s working life might be greatly shortened. 4. What does the underlined word“compromise”mean? A. Provide. B. Benefit.

C. Share. D. Endanger. B (2013· 扬州模拟) 体裁 记叙文 题材 梅西介绍 词数 378

Every time Lionel Messi breaks a record, it seems appropriate to compare him to the legends that came before him. In 2012, he rewrote soccer history on multiple occasions, and his latest record came when he scored his 86th goal of the calendar year, breaking Gerd Muller ’s previous mark, before wrapping up the year with 91 goals. All statistics indicate that Messi is currently the best player in the world, and that he will go down in history as the top footballer of his generation. But when he is judged against all-time greats like Pele and Diego Maradona, he still has work to do. We don’t know whether the Barcelona striker will have another year in which he records more than 90 goals, but he must still sustain( 维持 )a similar level of production for the next several seasons. Messi has already taken part in three of Barcelona ’s victorious Champions

League(冠军联赛)campaigns, and he played an important role in two of them. In order to firmly establish himself as the greatest club football player in history, he must win the tournament a few more times. Most importantly, the Argentine(阿根廷人)needs to win on the international stage. Regardless of what Messi does for Barcelona, his legacy will be incomplete if he cannot win the World Cup with Argentina. Both Pele and Maradona led their countries to the top of international soccer during their careers, and Messi’s performances for his country have been severely disappointing. While he was still a teenager in 2006-and his lackluster(平淡的)showing is excusable due to his youth-he cannot brush off the disappointment that characterized Argentina’s performance in 2010. But the 4-0 loss to Germany in the 2010 World Cup Quarter Final seems to have sparked Messi. He scored 12 times for Argentina last year, and the next World Cup could finally be Messi’s breakout performance in blue and white stripes. Due to all of his accomplishments, it is easy to forget that the extraordinary footballer is just 25 years old. If he can avoid injury or lengthy slumps( 低潮状 态)until his speed and skills start to decline due to age, he may continue to break records and win trophies. 5. What will Messi have to do in order to be complete in his soccer career? A. He must win the World Cup with Argentina. B. He must win the tournament a few more times. C. He must defeat Pele and Maradona.

D. He must avoid injury or lengthy slumps. 6. How was Messi’s performance in 2010 World Cup? A. Excellent. C. Disappointing. B. Inspiring. D. Normal.

7. What can we infer from the passage? A. Messi has firmly established himself as the greatest club soccer player in history. B. Messi will try his best to win the next World Cup with Argentina. C. Messi can avoid injury and lengthy slumps to break records and win trophies. D. Pele and Maradona led their countries to the top of international soccer during their careers. 8. What is the best title of the passage? A. Lionel Messi, the Best Soccer Player of All Time B. Lionel Messi, the Greatest Soccer Player in History C. Barcelona and Lionel Messi D. World Cup and Lionel Messi C (2013· 南京模拟) 体裁 说明文 题材 旅游指南 词数 326

No matter which tourist destination you visit, chances are you’ll see Lonely Planet guidebooks in the hands of travelers. Lonely Planet is one of the world ’s largest travel guide brands, publishing more than 500 different guides in eight languages. This

year marks the company’s 40th anniversary. The popular brand also produces television shows, websites and podcasts, all dedicated to travel. Some people praise Lonely Planet books because they make traveling easy and affordable. They save you time and keep you from missing the very best things in a place. And of course, their reviews of hostels, hotels and restaurants, in addition to ticket information about your destination, are useful. This can be great if you’re a nervous traveler, or if you haven’t traveled by yourself before. If you’re in a country where you don’t speak the language, sometimes there’s nothing better than getting into a taxi and opening up a guidebook. You simply point to a map, directing the taxi driver to a hostel that ’s cheap and clean, with friendly staff and cold beer. But others criticize Lonely Planet and other travel guide publishers. They say guidebooks take the fun and spontaneity(自发性)out of traveling, and that part of the enjoyment of travel comes from the fact that anything can happen. They also lament(哀叹)that if you follow a guidebook, you’ll end up doing the same things and having the same experiences as everyone else. You might end up seeing the same group of people over and over, because everyone is reading the same book and following the same trail. Another criticism of travel guides is that they have an overly(过度的)large influence on local communities. For example, some locals dedicate their lives solely(仅仅)to behaving in ways that attract tourists. They fake a traditional lifestyle, wear traditional clothes and live in traditional houses just to attract tourists’ dollars. 9. The Lonely Planet guidebook can bring you the following advantages EXCEPT

that

.

A. it can help you to save time and money when traveling B. you will not miss the best things without having to make choices C. it provides a lot of useful information about your destination D. you can easily find a nice place to stay in a strange city 10. Who will find a Lonely Planet guidebook very useful? A. Someone who always takes a taxi when traveling. B. A tourist who likes to repeat others’experiences. C. A person who’s nervous touring an unfamiliar place. D. A native traveler who is traveling alone. 11. People criticize the guidebook because .

A. the guidebook is not as useful as most travelers expect B. travelers using it will be bored with meeting the same people on their journey C. travelers using it may not get the chance to have unexpected adventures D. local people keep their old lifestyle under the guidebook’s influence 12. What does the underlined word “fake” in the last paragraph probably mean? A. mistake B. learn C. pretend D. create

13. What do we know about the “The Lonely Planet guidebook” from the text? A. It is a world-famous brand that only produces guidebooks for travelers. B. It is popular around the world providing travelers with guidance in several languages. C. It influences many travelers’traveling experiences but is of no use to local people. D. The writer loves it very much because of the convenience it brings to travelers.

【拓展训练】 1. 从阅读理解 A 中找出以下短语并写出它们的意义。 (1)in the direction of (2)put forward (3)as a result (4)pick up (5)point out __________ __________ __________ __________ __________

2. 翻译并仿写下列阅读理解 A 中的句子。 (1)All you have to do is send a few comets in the direction of Earth, and its orbit will be changed. 翻译: _____________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ 仿写: 学生所要做的一切就是努力学习, 那样他们就会在将来有所建树。 __________________________________________________________________ (2)The Sun is certain to heat up in about a billion years and so “seriously compromise” our biosphere—by cooking us. 翻译:______________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________________ 仿写: 抽烟对你的健康一定有害处。 ____________________________________________________________________

答案解析
【文章大意】科学家们找到了一种非同寻常的阻止地球过热的方法。 1. 【解析】选 C。细节理解题。文章首句说科学家们找到了一种非同寻常的办 法防止地球过热 , 第六段又提供了解决地球变暖问题的理想办法 , 但科学家们 真正关心的是更大的危险: 大约十亿年以后太阳肯定会更炙热 , 以至于将人类 化为灰烬。 2. 【解析】选 A。细节理解题。根据文章第二段末句可知答案。注意关键词语: another six billion years, doubling its working life。 3. 【解析】选 A。细节理解题。最后两段分别指出该计划可能带来的两大恶果: 一是万一轨道计算出错会使被控星体撞向地球, 二是地球脱离原轨道后很可能 会失去月球, 从而导致气候巨变。 4. 【解析】选 D。词义猜测题。本题可用排除法排除不符合文意的答案。句意: 大约十亿年以后太阳肯定会更加炙热 , 从而严重损害地球的生物圈 ——把人类 化为灰烬! 【文章大意】本文介绍了足球明星梅西到目前为止在足球方面取得的成就, 以及他今后要努力的方向。 5. 【解析】 选 A。 细节理解题。 根据文章第六段“his legacy will be incomplete if he cannot win the World Cup with Argentina”可知。 6. 【解析】选 C。细节理解题。根据文章倒数第三段 “he cannot brush off the disappointment that characterized Argentina’s performance in 2010”可知。 7. 【解析】选 B。推理判断题。根据文章第六、七段可知。

8. 【解析】选 A。主旨大意题。根据文章主要介绍了球星梅西的经历和成就, 故 选 A。 【文章大意】本文介绍了世界最大的旅游指南品牌之一的 Lonely Planet 以 及人们对它的评价。 9.【解析】 选 B。 细节理解题。 文章的第三、 四段讲述了人们喜爱 The Lonely Planet guidebook 的理由, A、 C、 D 都可以找到相应的出处, 只有选项 B, 前部分“you will not miss the best things”是正确的, 但后部分“without having to make choices”和文 章相违背, guidebook 列出很多东西同样要选择。 10.【解析】选 C。细节理解题。根据第四段 if you’re a nervous traveler 可以确定 C 正确。 A 和 D 是对第四段中有关 in a country where you don’t speak the language 和乘坐 taxi 的误解。B 项在第五段有相联系的信息, 但那是人们对 guidebook 的 批评, 不属于本题(guidebook 的优点)的范畴。 11. 【解析】 选 C。 推理判断题。 文章的第五、 六段是人们对 guidebook 的批评, 是 本题的信息源。“They say guidebooks take the fun and spontaneity out of traveling, and that part of the enjoyment of travel comes from the fact that anything can happen. ”告诉读者选项 C 正确。 选项 A 是文章中没有提到的内容。 “You might end up seeing the same group of people over and over, because everyone is reading the same book and following the same trail”的意图是要批评 guidebook 造成游客选择 相同的旅游线路 , 造成旅游的单一和乏味 , 并不是真的说游客走到哪里都会遇 见相同的人, 选项 B 是对这句话的误解; 在 guidebook 的影响下, 当地居民并不 是“keep”(保持)他们的传统生活方式 , 而是“fake”了所谓的传统生活方式来取悦 游客。

12. 【解析】选 C。词义猜测题。从上下文可知“fake”一词具有贬义, 因为此段 是对 guidebook 的批评, 所以当地人不是“learn”(学习), 也不是“create”(创造)了 传 统生活 模式 , 而是 “wear traditional clothes and live in traditional houses”, “pretend”(假造)了一种传统生活方式来取悦游客而已。 13. 【解析】选 B。推理判断题。从文章的第二段可知 B 项正确和 A 项错误 ——“only produces guidebooks”。Guidebook 不但影响了游客也影响了当地居民, 因此 C 项错误。 作者的态度是中立的, 把正反双方的观点都客观陈述了出来, 并 没有表明个人立场, D 项错误。 【拓展训练】 1. (1)朝……方向 (2) 提出 (3) 结果 (4) 捡起; 拾起 (5) 指出

2. (1)你所要做的一切是朝地球的方向发送几颗彗星, 那样它的轨道将会被改变。 All the students have to do is study hard, and they’ll make their way in the future. (2)大约十亿年以后太阳肯定会更加炙热 , 从而严重损害地球的生物圈——把人 类化为灰烬。 Smoking is certain to do harm to your health.

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