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高中英语语法复习--名词性从句


在复合句中起名词作用的从句叫名词性从 句(Noun Clauses)。名词性从句的功能相 当于名词或名词词组, 它在复合句中能担 任主语、宾语、表语、同位语、介词宾语 等,因此根据它在句中不同的语法功能, 名词性从句又可分别称为主语从句、宾语 从句、表语从句和同位语从句。

{What he does is important. {This is what

he does every day.
This is his job.

His job is important.

{I don’t like what he does every day. {
I don’t know about the man, Mr. White. I don’t know about the fact that he is a teacher.

I don’t like his job.

1 That he will succeed is certain.

2 Whether he will go there is not known. 3 What he said is not true. 4 Where he hid the money is to be found out . 5 Whoever comes is welcome. 6 How we can help the twins will be discussed at the meeting. 7 When they’ll start the project has not been decided yet.

形式主语it

为避免主语冗长,句子头重脚轻,经常用it作 形式主语,主语从句放在后面作真正的主语。 1. It is certain that he will succeed. 2. It is not known whether he will go there. 3. It has not been decided yet when they’ll start the project.

1.他犯了那样一个错误真是遗憾。 ___________________________ That he made such a mistake is a pity . It is a pity that… 2.他来不来不重要。 Whether he will come or not __________________________doesn’t matter. It doesn’t matter whether…

that引导主语从句时,可用it充当形式主 语,that不能省略。
1. It + 系动词 + 形容词 + that…… 2. It + be + 名词 + that…… 3. It + be + 过去分词 + that…… 4. It + 特殊动词 + that……

1. It’s likely / possible / important / necessary / clear that… 很可能/重要的是……/必要的 是……/很清楚…… 2. It’s said / reported that… 据说/据报道…… 3. It seems / appears / happens that… 似乎/好 像/碰巧...... 4. It’s been announced / declared that…已经 通知/宣布…… 5. It’s no wonder that… 并不奇怪/无疑…… 6. It’s a pity / a fact / common knowledge (众 所周知)/ a common saying (俗话说) that…

It is said that the professor has already succeeded in carrying out the experiment. 据说这位教授已经成功完成了这个实验。 It is certain that most of the Senior 3 students wish to be admitted to college. 很明显大多数的高三学生希望能被大学录取。 It happened that I had been away when he called. 他打电话来时, 我恰好不在。

“It is necessary /important /natural /strange… + that从句” 和 “It is suggested /advised /ordered /requested /required /insisted + that从句” It is high time that sb should do sth
从句的谓语常用should do形式。

分析句子,判断该句子中含有什么类型的从句。

1. They know that the habit will kill them. 2. It all depends on whether they will support us. 3. He asked how much I paid for the violin. 4. He made it clear to the public that he did an important and necessary job. 5. I find it necessary that we should do the homework.

宾语从句在句中充当宾语成分 (可以作谓语动词、介词、不定式等非谓语 动词的宾语)

that, whether, if who, what, which, whoever, whatever, when, where, why, how

1. whether和if都可以引导宾语从句
当whether后紧跟or/or not时,不用if. I don’t know whether I will stay or not. 介词后面的宾语从句不能用if.

I worry about whether I hurt her feelings.

2. that在宾语从句中
在主+谓+it (形式宾语) +宾补+that从 句(真正宾语)的句型中不省略 We must make it clear that we mean what we say. 由连词and连接的两个由that引导的 宾语从句中,第二个that不省略。 He told me (that) he would come and that he would come on time.

@ it 作形式宾语
(1) make /find/ feel / consider / think it + adj / n + that… / to do… (2)it 指代后面从句所叙述的内容, 常用于这 些动词后,like/dislike/love/hate/appreciate/ make…后常跟if 或when从句 I hate it when people laugh at the disabled .

2. 我认为我们保持冷静很重要.
I think it important that we should keep calm .

3 他发现学一门外语很有必要。 He found it necessary that he should learn a foreign language.

分析句子,判断该句子中含有什么类型的从句。

1. The question is whether we can rely on him. 2. That’s because we were in need of money at that time. 3. He looked as if he was going to cry. 4. That’s why I was late.

表语从句:在句中充当表语成分,一 般放在系动词之后。 作用:对主语进行解释说明。

that / whether / as if / as though (if不引导表语从句)

who / whom / whose / which / what

when / where / why / how / because

常用句型
? ? ? ? That is why/ because…. The reason why… is that… 他经常撒谎,我们不能相信他。 He often tells lies and that is why we can’t trust him. We can’t trust him and that is because he often tells lies. The reason why we can’t trust him is that he often tells lies. 他所给的迟到的理由是他遇到了交通阻塞。 The reason that he gave for being late is that he was caught in the traffic jam.

?
? ? ?

特别注意
why he was late for school 1. The reason _____ that he got up late. was _____ 2. The reason ____ that he gave for his absence was ______ hethat was ill. reason 后面的表语从句只能用 that 引导 , 不能用 why 引导 , 但 reason 后面的定语从 句可以用why或者that 引导。

同位语从句在句中充当同位语成分,其一 般跟在一些抽象名词(idea; belief; fact; truth; problem; news等)后面,对名词作进 一步解释说明。

同位语从句常用that引导或用连接副词 when / where / why / how / whether

1. Two thirds of all girls in Britain are on a diet./ The fact ________________________________________ _______ worries their parents and teachers a lot.

The fact that two thirds of all girls are on a diet worries their parents and teachers a lot.
2. The Queen of England was on a three-day visit in ______________________________________________ China./ the news last night. ______ We heard _________

We heard the news last night that the Queen of England was on a three-day visit in China.

3. Teenagers should not spend too much time online./ Many British parents hold the view. ________

Many British parents hold the view that teenagers shouldn’t spend too much time online.
4. Chinese students should be given more free time./ ______________________________________________ The suggestion is welcomed by many people, ______________ especially kids in school.

The suggestion that Chinese students should be given more free time is welcomed by many people, especially kids in school.

n. + 连接词 + 从句 1.同位语从句的格式: 2.能接同位语从句的名词有: fact, idea, news, order, belief, suggestion, advice, information等
3.连接词通常是that,也可根据含义选用 whether, what, when, where等来引导 同位语从句。

where he comes from. 1. I have no idea _______ how he 2. He can’t answer the question _____ got the money. that 3. He gave us many suggestions _______ we should get up earlier and take more exercise. that he will win. 4. I have no doubt ______ whether he will win. 5. I have some doubt ________

1. 定语从句是先行词的修饰语, 它不涉及先行 词的具体内容。定语从句中that不但起连 接作用, 而且在定语从句中充当一个句子成 分, 充当从句的宾语成分时可省略。

2. 同位语从句对中心词的内容作进一步的解 释和说明, 表明中心词的具体内容。 引导同位语从句的that在同位语从句中不 做任何成分, 只起连接作用, 无具体含义, 且不 可省略。

1. We expressed the hope that they had expressed. 定语从句 2. We expressed the hope that they would come to China again. 同位语从句 1. The information has been announced that more middle school graduates will be admitted into university. 同位语从句 2. The information that he revealed at the meeting is of great value. 定语从句

请用名词性从句翻译下面的句子 1.这就是我要离开的原因。 This is why I want to leave. 2.你永远都不知道我想要什么。 You will never know what I want. 3.我们的家乡跟过去不一样了。 Our hometown is not what it used to be. 4.失去的东西看起来比我们拥有的好。 What we lost seems better than what we have. 5. 谁最后离开房间都应该关灯。 Whoever finally leaves the room should turn off the lights.

1. ______ That the baby could speak made his parents very happy. 主语从句 2. I wonder ________ whether you will go shopping or stay at home. 宾语从句
3. This is _____ why he was often late for school. 表语从句 4. We all know the truth ____ ____ that the earth moves around the sun. 同位语从句

1. 重要的是你做什么,而不是说什么。 The important thing is what you do, not what you say.
2. 他出生在何时何地还不知道。

When and where he was born has not been found.

3. 那个人何时被谋杀,为什么被谋杀尚不知 道。 When and why the person was murdered is still unknown. 4. 问题是他对那个小男孩做了些什么。 The problem is what he has done to the little boy. 5. 我们相信他已经挣了足够的钱来盖所房子。 We believed that he had earned enough money to build a house.

请用适当的词完成以下文章 An Unforgettable Day What made the day unforgettable was 2______ _1______ that I had very bad luck that day. On that day, 3______ when I that woke up, I found 4_________it was too late for school. I hurried downstairs and found my bike 5__________ which/ that was broken was stolen. I had no choice but to run to school. Arriving at school, I could only see three school guards, all of 6_____ whom looked at me in surprise. Then they told me the fact 7_____ that it was Sunday. After I came back home, I found my house broken into, 8______ because I left my keys in the door. As a result, I was punished by my parents, 9______ which made me unhappy. That is 10_____ why it was an unforgettable day for me.


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