5.take part in参与，参加
20.as well也，还，同样地 21.unfortunately adv.不幸地 22.mess n.混乱，脏乱
23.scholarship n.奖学金→scholar n.学者
24.traditional adj.传统的→tradition n.传统
25.celebration n.庆祝，庆典→celebrate vt.庆祝
26.power n.控制力；权力→powerful adj.强大的 27.destroy vt.破坏，毁坏→destruction n.破坏，毁灭 28.decorate vt.装饰，布置→decoration n.装饰 29.boil vt.&vi.煮沸，沸腾→boiling adj.沸腾的
30.serve v.服务；服役；端上(饭菜)→service n.服务
31.congratulation n.祝贺→congratulate vt.祝贺
32.entrance n.入口→enter v.进入
33.invitation n.邀请；请柬；诱惑→invite vt.邀请
34.contribute vt.捐助；贡献→contribution n.贡献 35.merry adj.高兴的，愉快的→merrily adv.愉快地 36.apply vi.申请；vt.应用→application n.申请(书)；应用 黑暗的
37.darkness n.黑暗，漆黑→dark n.黄昏；暗处；adj.深色的；
39.production n.生产，制造；产量 →product n.产品，产物；结果 →produce v.生产，制造
1.On this day，the moon is said to be its biggest and brightest. 据说这一天的月亮是最大最亮的。 2.If a friend gets an invitation to a wedding，you can go with him/her，even if you don’t receive an invitation yourself. 如果一个朋友收到了去婚礼的请帖，即使你本人没有收到
3.We tried to stay awake as long as possible to see Father Christmas but the next thing we knew it was morning. 为了看到圣诞老人，我们努力使醒着的时间尽可能的长， 但是我们所知道的下一个事情就是早上了。 4.At the bottom of the bed was the stocking，now full of all
kinds of small presents and sweets.
5.I put so much food in my mouth sometimes that it was hard to swallow. 我把如此多的食物塞入口中以至于很难吞咽。 6.It was believed that any village that did not give food would have bad luck.
dis- disappear /? dIs?′pI?/vi.不见；消失；灭绝 disapprove /? dIs?′pru?v/vi.&vt.不赞成；不许可；不同意
discourage /? dIs′k?rId?/vt.使泄气；使沮丧；阻拦
1 occasion n.时刻，时节；大事； 节日
(1)on no occasion位于句首时倒装的考查
on one occasion曾经，有一次
on this/that occasion在这个/那个时候 on no occasion绝不，不会 occasional adj.偶尔的，间或发生的 occasionally adv.有时，偶尔
It is an occasion for all the family to celebrate.
这是个值得举家庆祝的时刻。 What do they say when they meet on a formal occasion?
(1)I call on my parents on occasion. (2)On no occasion should you do such a thing like that. (3)I can remember very few occasions when he had to ask for leave because of ill health.
2 celebration n.庆祝；庆典 (a specially-organized event to celebrate...)
in celebration of为庆贺??
congratulate sb./oneself on sth.因??向某人/自己庆贺 Congratulations！祝贺！恭喜！ Usually，no matter how far away or how busy we are， we will try to return home for the celebration. 通常不管我们多么远，多么忙，我们都努力回家来庆
夯实基础 语法填空 (1)The old couple held a party to celebrate (celebrate) their fiftieth wedding anniversary last week. (2)I want to congratulate you on your success with all my heart. (3) Celebrating/To celebrate (celebrate) Christmas is their custom. (4)I congratulated myself on having chosen a good woman to be my wife.
3 power n.能力；力量；权力； 动力
? 应试指导 在谚语中的应用
come to/into power掌权；上台
in one’s power在某人的掌控中
beyond/out of one’s power某人不能胜任的，
超出某人能力的 do all in one’s power尽力而为
As the saying goes，knowledge is power. 俗话说，知识就是力量。 She is said to have the power to foresee the future. 据说她有预测未来的能力。 She interviewed six women who have reached positions of
great power and influence.
夯实基础 (1)语法填空 ①The president is the most powerful (power) man in America. ②They have invented a new car，which is powered
(power) by solar batteries.
(2)He told her that he would do everything in his power to prove that he was the man for her. ①He told her that he would do what he could to prove that he was the man for her.(改为含有what从句的复合句)
②He told her that he would do his best to prove that he
was the man for her.(用do one’s best改写句子)
4 destroy v.摧毁，毁灭； 破坏(damage...badly)
destroy one’s health有害健康
destroy one’s career/hopes毁灭某
cause/do damage to对??造成破坏
The fire destroyed most of the building.
All hopes of a peaceful settlement were destroyed by his
speech. 和平解决的希望都被他的讲话给毁了。 Failure was slowly destroying him. 失败渐渐地把他毁了。
①The bridge was destroyed by the flood.
②The strong sandstorm damaged most of the young trees. (2)语法填空 ①Smoking weak now. ②His hope destroyed (destroy)，he felt helpless.
destroying (destroy) his health，he is quite
5 decorate v.装饰；装修
decorate...with...用??装饰?? decoration n.装饰；装修；装饰品 The hall is decorated with flowers.
(1)With its simple decoration (decorate)， the main
bedroom is a peaceful heaven. (2)He decorated his room with pictures of all his favorite sports figures.
6 serve v.服侍??进餐；服役；
serve sth.to sb.＝serve sb.sth.给某人 端上?? serve the people为人民服务 serve as当作；作为 at the service of sb.＝at one’s service 听??差遣；随时准备为??做事 server n.服务器；侍者
Who will serve lunch to us/serve us lunch? 谁招待我们吃午饭？ The company said it would focus on making more competitive servers ， storage and networking gear ， as well as analytic software. 该公司说，它将专注于生产更有竞争力的服务器、存储设 备和联网设备，以及分析软件。
(1)When the news came that the war broke out，he decided to serve in the army (去部队服役).
(2)She ushered(引导) me into the front room， which
served as (用作) her office.
(3)We are at your service (随时为你服务). Don’t
hesitate to turn to us if you have any further problems.
7 apply vt.&vi.涂(put or spread sth.onto a surface)； 应用(use)；使用；申请(make a request)；涉及 (concern，relate)
? 应试指导 申请类写作高频词汇
apply (to sb.) for sth.(向某人)申请某物 apply to适合 apply sth.to sth.把某物应用(涂抹)于?? apply oneself to (＝be applied to)(doing)sth.致力于/集中
Apply some medicine to his wound.
What you said doesn’t apply to me. 你所说的并不适合我。
夯实基础 (1)用apply的适当形式填空 ①The new technology，if applied to rice growing，will help increase the grain output. ②His application for membership of the organization was rejected.
③If the applicant is not a true candidate for the job，do
not interview him.
(2)If you apply yourself to the job in hand，you’ll soon finish it. ① Applying yourself to the job in hand，you’ll soon finish it.(用现在分词短语作状语改写句子) ② Applied to the job in hand，you’ll soon finish it.(用过
attend v.出席，参加(be present) ；照料，护理
(take care of)；处理，对付(deal with)
其高级词汇是be present at
attend school/class/church上学/上课/做礼拜 attend on/upon sb.伺候某人；照顾某人
attend to sb./sth.处理；倾听；照料；专心；注意 Thousands of people attended the ceremony.
数千人参加了庆典。 They will not attend the Olympic Winter Games. 他们不会出席本届冬奥会。 The main thing is to attend to the injured. 首要任务是照顾伤者。
夯实基础 用attend短语的适当形式填空 (1)—Would you like to join us in the game? —I’m afraid not，for I have something important to attend to . (2)I’m staying at home tonight to attend on/to my father.
9 contribute v.捐献；捐助(give money or goods to...)； 是??的原因之一(be one of the causes of sth.)；贡 献；投稿(write...for...)
contribute to，result in，be responsible for，bring about，
contribute...to...把??贡献给?? contribute to(＝result in/lead to)有助于；导致 make a contribution/contributions to对??作出贡献
He contributed a lot of good ideas to the discussion.
他在这次讨论中提出很多好的想法。 Would you like to make a contribution to the hospital building fund? 你愿意为医院建设基金捐款吗？
夯实基础 (1)同义句改写 Various factors contributed to his downfall. Various factors resulted in/led to/was responsible for/ caused his downfall.
(2)In a discussion group ， it’s very important
that everyone contributes ( 每 个 人 都 贡 献 ) whatever’s in their minds.
10 link v.& n.关联；联系；关系
link...to/with把??连接起来 be linked to/with和??有联系
Researchers have detected a link between smoking and heart disease.
Television stations around the world are linked by
(1)Police suspect there may be a link between the two
(2)The newspapers have linked his name with hers. (3)The two spacecraft will link up with each other in orbit.
11 seriously adv.认真地；真诚地
take...seriously认真对待 be serious about对??严肃
I want people who take responsibility seriously.
I’m afraid I’m not a very serious person.
夯实基础 (1)It was a question which deserved serious consideration (认真考虑). (2)He was serious about (认真对待) the matter.
12 mess n.脏或乱的状态；弄乱， 弄脏
in a mess一片混乱 make a mess of把??弄乱 mess up把??弄糟 messy adj.杂乱的
When he returned home，he found everything in a terrible mess.
Don’t mess up the house while I am gone. 我不在的时候别把房子里弄得乱糟糟的。
(1)Mei began being upset and wondered why
everything was in a mess.
(2)As the work tends to be a bit messy (mess)，you’ll need to wear old clothes.
1 burn down把??烧毁；渐渐 烧完
burn...to the ground把??烧成平地
be burned/burnt out耗尽体力，累垮
be burning to do sth.热切盼望做某事
The village was burned to the ground during the war.
By the age of 25 she was completely burned out and retired from the sport. 她到25岁时就已体力耗尽，退出了体坛。
夯实基础 He is eager to tell us his great success.
He is burning to tell us his great success. (用burn短
2 take part in参与；参加
for one’s part就某人来说
for the most part(＝mostly)多半；
play a part in参加；对??起作用
A good listener takes part in the conversation，offering ideas and raising questions to keep the talk flowing.
Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel，
David Copperfield，was that it was rather closely modeled
on his own life.
夯实基础 选择方框内的短语填空 for the most part，in part，part with，play a part in (1)All this may play a part in the war on terrorism. (2)He naturally didn’t want to part with his house. (3)His success is in part owing to luck. (4)The students are， for the most part ，from villages.
3 depend on/upon依靠，依赖， 指望(＝rely/count on/upon)
? 多词一义 depend on，rely on，count on
depend on sb.to do...依靠某人做??
depending on取决于?? depend on it that...指望??；相信?? It/That (all) depends.视情况而定。 The cooking time needed depends on the size of the potato. 所需的烹饪时间取决于土豆的大小。 He depended on his writing for his income.
夯实基础 You can depend on him to help you.
(1) You can depend on it that he will help you.(用it作形式宾
语改写句子) (2) You can depend on his helping you. (用动名词改写句子)
4 on time准时；按时
in time及时 in no time立即，马上 at no time决不 at a time一次
at one time曾经；一度 keep time走得准；合拍 kill time消磨时间,
for the time being暂时
ahead of time提前
take one’s time别着急
Even if one makes a mistake，correcting mistakes in time is a good thing.
夯实基础 用time的短语填空 (1) At no time did I feel they were being unreasonable. (2)I want to be home in time for tea. (3)You’d better do one thing at a time ，so that you can concentrate on it. (4) At one time ，that kind of thing would have made me
5 put up建造，搭建；举起；留宿；
put away把??收起来，放好；储存 put back放回原处；耽搁 put down放下；写下，记下；镇压 put up with忍受，忍耐
In Picture 1，a man is trying to put up a banner on a
lonely tree surrounded by stumps，but in vain.
在第一幅画中，一个男子正努力把一面横幅标语挂在一棵 被树桩包围的树上，但没有成功。 (江苏· 书面表达)
Tall buildings have been put up，including classrooms， laboratory buildings and a library. 包括教室、实验楼和图书馆在内的许多大楼已经建起来了。 (福建· 书面表达)
(1)She put up a notice about the school trip to Italy. 张贴 (2)Several of the banks have decided to put up their interest rates. 提高
(3)I was soaked before I could put my umbrella up. 举起
(4)Would you be able to put me up for the night when I come to London？ 留宿
(5)It was Clare who first put up the idea of a concert to
raise money for the school. 提出
(6)John was in the garden putting a fence up. 建造，搭建
6 carry on (with) 继续；坚持
carry away拿走；冲走；吸引住 carry back将??送/带回原地；使某人记起 carry off赢得；获得 carry out执行；实施；履行；完成 carry through达成；贯彻；使渡过难关
Her bravery has given him the will to carry on with his life and his work.
She was yelling and screaming and carrying on. 她又喊又叫，嘴里说个不停。
夯实基础 用carry短语的适当形式填空 (1) Carry on with your work and try to get it finished while I’m away. (2)The first thing to be done is to carry away the earth. (3)Police say they believe the last week’s attacks were carried out by nationalists.
1 On this day，the moon is said to be its biggest
and brightest. 据说这一天的月亮是最大最亮的。
句型公式 sb./sth.is said to do...
在sb./sth.be said/thought/believed/hoped...to do/to be
doing/to have done结构中，根据动词不定式和said等
It is often said that human beings are naturally equipped to speak. 经常听人说人类天生就有说话的能力。 It is reported that John is one of the best teachers in the school. 据报道约翰是这个学校最好的老师之一。
上述结构可改为 It is said that... 据说??； It is thought that...大家认为??；It is believed that...人
们相信??；It is hoped that...人们希望??
(1)It is supposed that he is working in that big company.
He is supposed to be working in that big company.
(2)It is said that he has written a new book about workers. He is said to have written a new book about workers. (3)It is thought that he often helps the people in need. He is often thought to help the people in need.
2 If a friend gets an invitation to a wedding，you can go with him/her ， even if you don’t receive an invitation yourself. 如果一个朋友收到婚礼的请帖，即使你本人没有收 到请帖，也可以和他(她)一起去。
句型公式 ...even if...
(1)even if/though即使；尽管，引导让步状语从句，在从 句中常用一般现在时代替将来时。在主从句主语相同时 也可采用省略句结构。 (2)as if/though好像；似乎，引导方式状语从句或表语从 句，若从句描述的情形和实际相反，从句要用虚拟语气。 与现在事实相反，从句动词用过去时；与过去事实相反， 从句动词常用过去完成时。 (3)even so即使如此；尽管这样
He won’t join us even if invited. 即使被邀请，他也不会加入我们。 A young couple in a boat were eating ， talking and laughing loudly as if they were the only people in the world.
好像他们是世上唯一的人。 (福建· 书面表达)
①I’ll go there even if the weather is (be) bad tomorrow.
② Even though the forest park is far away ， a lot of tourists visit it every year. (2)He won’t come to our party even if invited. He won’t come to our party even if he is invited. (补全句 子中的省略成分)
3 After lunch，the adults slept on the sofas in front of the Queen’s speech on television while we all played cards.午饭后，大人们听着电视中女王的演讲在沙发 上睡着了，而我们却在玩扑克。
(2)表示“只要”，引导条件状语从句； (3)表示“虽然；尽管”，引导让步状语从句； (4)表示“而；却”，是并列连词，构成并列句； (5)用作名词，表示“一会儿；一段时间”，如after a while过了一会儿；once in a while偶尔，间或。
You like sports，while I’d rather read. 你喜欢运动，而我却喜欢读书。
Never get on or off a bus while it is moving.
夯实基础 语法填空 (1) While I always felt I would pass the exam, I never thought I would get an A. (2)Mary made coffee while her guests were finishing their meal. (3)Baseball requires teamwork while tennis is an
(4)She fell asleep while watching (watch) TV.
(1)In some parts of the world，tea is served (serve) with milk and sugar. (2)The boy whom you lent money to was hit (hit) by a car. (3)I should have been there，but I could (can) not catch the bus. (4)Jack described his father，who must have been (must be) a brave boy many years ago，as a strong-willed man. (5)He ought to have done (ought to do) his work yesterday， but he went to the cinema with his friends.
Ⅰ.语法填空 (2014· 新课标全国Ⅰ)
Are you facing a situation that looks impossible to fix? In 1969，the pollution was terrible along the Cuyahoga River near Cleveland，Ohio.It 61. was (be) unimaginable that it could ever be cleaned up.The river was so polluted that it 62. actually (actual) caught fire and burned.
Now ， years later ， this river is one of 63. the outstanding examples of environmental cleanup.
But the river wasn’t changed in a few days 64. or even a few months.It took years of work 65. to reduce (reduce) the industrial pollution and clean the water.Finally，that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is 66. cleaner (clean) than ever.
Maybe you are facing an impossible situation.Maybe you
have a habit 67. that/which is driving your family crazy.
Possibly you drink too much or don’t know how to
control your credit card use.When you face such an
impossible situation ， don’t you want a quick fix and
something to change immediately?
While there are 68. amazing (amaze) stories of instant
transformation，for most of us the 69. changes (change)
are gradual and require a lot of effort and work，like cleaning up a polluted river.Just be 70. patient (patience).
(2013· 山东· 写作) Therefore，I couldn’t spare enough time to write back to you in time.
(2013· 江苏· 书面表达) People celebrate Earth Day differently.
3.9月10号下午，我们中的一些人用纸花和气球装饰教室。 (decorate) (2012· 陕西· 书面表达) On the afternoon of September 10，some of us decorated our classroom with paper flowers and balloons.
担任北极熊代言人。(apply) (2011· 重庆· 书面表达) So，in order to increase people’s awareness of protecting polar bears，I apply for the spokesman for polar bears sincerely.
5. 开始，大多数活都由我来做，而其他学生对班级活 动很不在乎。(while) (2011· 湖北· 短文写作)
At first，I did most of the duties myself while other students cared little about class activities.
1.Even though my hero has only one arm，she can do
everything that we can do.
2.The manager wants to see changes in the company，and
I am sure he will in time. 3.After school we went to the reading room to do some was being decorated reading，only to be told that it (decorate).
4.At school，some students are active while some are shy，
yet they can be good friends with one another. 5.It is reported (report) that Japan has overtaken
German in industrial production.
6.Now a lot of new technologies can be applied to solving (solve) problems in industry.
7.—Would you like to go to the cinema with us after work? —I’m afraid not ， for I have some urgent business to attend to . 8.He began to take politics seriously (serious) only when he left school. 9.—Are you confident of the match tomorrow? —You may depend on it that I will win it. 10.AIDS is said to have been (be) the biggest health challenge to both men and women in that area over the past few years.
Ⅱ.单句改错 1.On such occasion can you go there with her. such→no 2.I will surely do everything in power to help you. in后加上my 3.He at last decided to rent the house better decorating. decorating→decorated 4.General Secretary Xi Jinping paid a visit to the US by the by→at/on invitation of Obama. 5.This kind of book is designed for the growns-up. growns?up→grown?ups
6.Every morning after he gets up，he usually has a cup of boiling water. boiling→boiled 7.Exhausted but merrily，they went home，with everything merrily→merry done. 8.I’m ordering some extra office equipment, included some new desks and a word processor. included→including 9.I want to buy the box，which can serve for a desk. for→as 10.First of all you’d better apply some medicine on his wound.
Ⅲ.写作句式升级训练 1.As a member of the society，I realize that responsibility is the thing that it needs to make a better and more harmonious
(素材来源于2014· 湖北· 短文写作)
Being a member of the society，I am aware that being
responsible is what it takes to make a better and more
harmonious society. (用being...，aware及what从句改写句子)
2.Last but equally important，I’d also like to know the cost for the course and whether the cost includes the
accommodation. (素材来源于2014· 新课标全国Ⅰ· 书面表达)
Last but not least，I’d also like to know how much I
have to pay for the course and whether accommodation is
included.(用least，how much 及 include的被动形式改写句子)