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Design of a control system for a flexible manufacturing cell


Monitoring System for Improving Cleaning Efficiency of Cleaning-in-Place Processes in Dairy Environments Original Research Article Food and Bioproducts Processing

Rotating machiner

y prognostics: State of the art, challenges and opportunities Review Article Mechanical Systems and Signal Processing
Machinery prognosis is the forecast of the remaining operational life, future condition, or probability of reliable operation of an equipment based on the acquired condition monitoring data. This approach to modern maintenance practice promises to reduce downtime, spares inventory, maintenance costs, and safety hazards. Given the significance of prognostics capabilities and the maturity of condition monitoring technology, there have been an increasing number of publications on rotating machinery prognostics in the past few years. These publications covered a wide spectrum of prognostics techniques. This review article first synthesises and places these individual pieces of information in context, while identifying their merits and weaknesses. It then discusses the identified challenges, and in doing so, alerts researchers to opportunities for conducting advanced research in the field. Current methods for predicting rotating machinery failures are summarised and classified as conventional reliability models, condition-based prognostics models and models integrating reliability and prognostics. Areas in need of development or improvement include the integration of condition monitoring and reliability, utilisation of incomplete trending data, consideration of effects from maintenance actions and variable operating conditions, derivation of the non-linear relationship between measured data and actual asset health, consideration of failure interactions, practicability of requirements and assumptions, as well as development of performance evaluation frameworks.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Methods for predicting rotating machinery failures 2.1. Prognostics approaches—condition-based prediction 2.1.1. Physics-based prognostics models 2.1.2. Data-driven prognostics models

2.2. Integrated approaches—prediction based on both reliability and condition data 3. Challenges and opportunities 3.1. Integration of reliability and prognostics 3.2. Use of censored event data and censored CM data 3.3. Effects of maintenance actions 3.4. Effects of operating conditions 3.5. Non-linear relationship between CM indices and actual asset health 3.6. Effects of failure interactions 3.7. Accuracy of assumptions and practicability of requirements 3.8. Performance evaluation 4. Concluding remarks Acknowledgements References 检测、 旋转工作装备与机械 检测、维护与使用

Production planning and inventory control with remanufacturing and disposal Original Research Article European Journal of Operational Research
In this paper we consider a stochastic inventory system with production, remanufacturing, and disposal operations. Customer demands must either be fulfilled from the production of new products or by the remanufacturing of used products. Used products are either remanufactured or disposed of. To coordinate production, remanufacturing and disposal operations efficiently, we extend the PUSH and PULL strategies that Van der Laan et al. developed to control a system in which all returned products are remanufactured and no planned disposals occur. The other contributions of this paper are to indicate when and why planned disposals are economically beneficial, and to compare the PUSH-disposal strategy to the PULL-disposal strategy. In addition, we investigate the robustness of the control parameters of the PUSH- and PULL-disposal strategy over the different stages of a product life-cycle.

A buffer storage resource allocation model for cellular manufacturing systems Original Research Article Applied Mathematical Modelling

新品推出与库存管理 手机、掌上电脑等新兴行业的策略

Predictive modelling of dairy manufacturing processes Review Article International Dairy Journal

The use of reverse osmosis as a 35,600m3/day concentrator in the waste water management scheme at 4640 MW Bayswater/Liddell Power Station complex Australia Original Research Article Desalination
Water is an essential resource for power generation. It is used for steam generation, transportation, cooling, washdown, domestic services and in miscellaneous process water systems. The water distribution system and storages extend throughout a power station and interface with virtually all of the plant. The quality of water required for.each application varies from demineralised water with a conductivity of less than 10?S/m, used as boiler make-up, to brackish or saltwater used for ash transportation or cooling. The quality of water used for each application must be carefully controlled to ensure safety of personnel and prevent damage to equipment by scaling or corrosion while minimising water treatment cost.

In recent years it has also become necessary to design power station water management systems to minimise water consumption as well as satisfy more stringent environmental requirements. This has resulted in a significant increase in water treatment requirements including water recycle and reuse via water recovery system.

The Electricity Commission of New South Wales' (ECNSW) coal fired Bayswater/Liddell Power Station complex, which has a combined generating capacity of 4640 MW, includes one of the world's largest power station water treatment and water management systems. The water systems associated with both Bayswater and the adjacent Liddell Power Station will achieve “Zero Discharge” of all aqueous streams from the combined power station sites. To achieve “Zero Discharge” without deterioration of the water quality of the associated water storages, approximately 24,000 tonnes per year (66 tpd) of dissolved salts must be removed from the power stations water systems. The water treatment plant included in the water management scheme for Bayswater will have the capacity to remove 36,000 tpa (100 tpd) of dissolved salts from the power stations water systems. The capacity to remove additional salts will enable the

Commission to improve the quality of water in the Liddell Power Station cooling dam (Lake Liddell) which has deteriorated since the commissioning of Liddell Power Station in 1971.

The water treatment technologies that form part of the Bayswater/Liddell water management scheme include 160,000 m /day of lime softening, a 149,000 m /day carboxylic cation exchange resin alkalinity reduction system, a 35,600 m /day reverse osmosis (R.O.) facility incorporating extensive pretreatment, and a 6,600 m /day brine concentrator system (vapour compression evaporators operating with seed recycle).
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This paper presents an overview of the conceptual design of the Bayswater/Liddell Power Station water management system with focus on the detailed design and initial operation of the R.O. osmosis plants which have been installed as part of the cooling water sidestream treatment plant.

The R.O. plants are installed to concentrate cooling tower blowdown at high recovery to minimise subsequent treatment of the R.O. reject using brine concentrators. The R.O. system is the world's largest installation of its type treating cooling tower blowdown with a designed salinity of 2500 mg/l operating at a design recovery rate of 82.5%.

The paper will also discuss the impact of potential scalents (such as CaSO4, BaSO4, and CaF2) on the operation of the R.O. concentrator at the high recovery rates. Results of pilot plant efforts to determine upper limits of concentration using R.O. will be presented along with recommendations of the role of R.O. in similar projects.

Development of a resource planning system for compound semiconductor wafer manufacturing Original Research Article Journal of Materials Processing Technology
Most existing commercial packages, such as Product Data Management (PDM), Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP), and Commerce at the Light Speed (CALS), are likely to have some problems; the cost of each package can be rather high and sometimes it can be hard to apply general packages to the specific tasks of companies. This paper presents a resource planning system (RPS) for small- and medium-sized companies that produce compound semiconductor wafers. The RPS adopts a concurrent paradigm to

provide customers with credible delivery information in the ordering stage, as well as addresses lots of issues arising from a shop floor. The system is composed of five modules including Order Management, Production Scheduling, Work-in-process Management, Warehouse Management, and Product Inventory Management. These modules are implemented by web applications using Active Server Pages coded in Visual Basic Script. They are managed by an SQL database server on a Windows NT environment.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Work procedure for compound wafer manufacturing 2.1. Production of compound semiconductor wafers 2.2. Existing work procedure 2.3. Limitation of the existing work procedure 2.4. Work procedure improvement 3. Web-based RPS 3.1. System modules 3.2. System structure and computing environment 3.3. Database schema 3.4. Order management and production scheduling 4. A case study 4.1. Order management 4.2. Production schedule management 4.3. Work-in-process management 4.4. Warehouse management 5. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

Modelling and simulation of a flexible manufacturing system with variable production ratios Original Research Article Applied Mathematical Modelling
A flexible manufacturing system (FMS) is an integrated, computer-controlled configuration of automated material handling devices and numerically controlled machine tools that can simultaneously process medium-sized volumes of a variety of part types. This paper addresses the loading problem in an FMS with variable production ratios. A simulation model is developed for investigating the system performance while minimizing the workload unbalance. It is shown that the developed approach is quite efficient and yields reliable results.

Designing a mathematical model for dynamic cellular manufacturing systems considering production planning and worker assignment Original Research Article Computers & Mathematics with Applications
Since workers have an important role in doing jobs on machines, assignment of workers to cells becomes a crucial factor for full utilization of cellular manufacturing systems. This paper presents an integer mathematical programming model for the design of cellular manufacturing systems in a dynamic environment. The advantages of the proposed model are as follows: considering multi-period production planning, dynamic system reconfiguration, duplicate machines, machine capacity, available time of workers, and worker assignment. The aim of the proposed model is to minimize holding and backorder costs, inter-cell material handling cost, machine and reconfiguration costs and hiring, firing and salary costs. Computational results are presented by solving some examples.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Problem formulation 2.1. Notations 2.1.1. Subscripts 2.1.2. Input parameters 2.1.3. Decision variables 2.2. Mathematical model 2.3. Linearization of the proposed model 3. Numerical illustration

4. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

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Batching in production planning for flexible manufacturing systems Original Research Article International Journal of Production Economics
Generally, production planning in flexible manufacturing systems is hierarchically grouped into two subproblems: batching and loading. These two subproblems can be solved either sequentially or simultaneously to generate a feasible production plan. This paper focuses on the batching problem which partitions the given production order of part types into batches that can be processed with the limited production resources such as the capacity of the tool magazines, pallets, fixtures and available machine time. A 0–1 integer program is formulated to address the batching problem and a simulated annealing algorithm is proposed for solving it. A systematic computational test is conducted to test the performance of the proposed algorithm. The results show that the simulated annealing algorithm can provide high-quality solutions in a reasonable amount of time for practical size problems.

Supporting offshoring and nearshoring decisions for mass customization manufacturing processes Original Research Article European Journal of Operational Research
Offshore countries attract companies for a possible relocation of production processes through extremely low worker wages. Particularly, mass production processes seem to be highly appropriate for a relocation. However, while the impact of wage reductions can be directly estimated, an appropriate determination of additional cost consequences proves to be a complex task. For instance, on account of lower education standards and higher fluctuation rates, the average worker skills in offshore countries are often significantly lower than in high-wage countries like the United States. In order to appropriately analyze and evaluate the resulting tradeoff between wages and worker skills for mass customization manufacturing systems, this paper introduces a new approach that comprises a detailed mixed-model assembly line balancing. This approach provides a direct comparison of the estimated variable manufacturing costs by generating a country-dependent line layout for all competing locations. In order to validate the efficiency of the balancing approach and, in particular, derive general implications for management, several test series with various country configurations were executed. First, by attaining improvement rates of up to 40%, the capability of a generated Tabu Search procedure for finding appropriate line layouts was proven. Second, as the main result, the complexity of the variant program was identified as a crucial factor for offshoring decisions since it substantially affects variable manufacturing costs. This was particularly proven for countries with low worker skills, which attract

offshoring/nearshoring through exceptionally low labor costs. Hence, companies that consider outsourcing production systems to those countries are strongly hold to examine these decisive effects thoroughly. Regarding this, offshoring becomes very promising for manufacturing processes characterized by a moderate variant complexity level.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Literature review 3. Mathematical definition of the balancing model 3.1. Parameters 3.2. Variables 3.3. Complexity measures 3.4. Personnel skills 3.5. Restrictions 3.6. Assembly line control issues 3.7. Objective function 4. Balancing solution approaches 4.1. The applied neighborhood 4.2. Evaluation of a solution found 5. Computational results 5.1. Test environment and simulated configurations 5.2. Evaluation of the planning procedure 5.3. Analysis of offshoring decisions 6. Summary and conclusions References
沿海临港产业发展规划与扩展方式选择

Selecting a durable pump for chemical cleaning World Pumps
When a paper plant in Alabama, USA found that the pump equipment it used for cleaning the machinery involved in paper processing was not robust enough for the task, a change was needed. Following advice

from a chemical feed equipment manufacturer, the plant installed a pump that could not only handle the high pressures and the corrosive materials involved, but could be carried over into other systems.

Article Outline

Tough pump needed The Hydra-Cell pump

传统产业的维护、发展与升级 产量递增趋势

The role of industrial maintenance in the maquiladora industry: An empirical analysis Original Research Article International Journal of Production Economics
This study explored the role of industrial maintenance in the maquiladora industry. The maquiladora industry is a manufacturing system that utilizes the Mexican workforce and foreign investment and technology on the border region between the United States and Mexico. The issues related to industrial maintenance were studied through a survey instrument and 11 in-depth and extensive field interviews with experts of eight maquiladora industries in El Paso, TX and Juarez, Mexico. Based on an 86% response rate (with 131 usable questionnaires) and four major survey questions, statistical analyses were performed. The survey questions included: collaboration between the maintenance and other functional areas, likely sources of maintenance problems (equipment, personnel, and management), major common losses of maintenance problems, and the role of ISO certification in maintenance. Finally, additional insights and assessment of the results were provided.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 1.1. Review of literature 2. Evolution of and various approaches to maintenance 3. Historical, operational characteristics and the importance of the maquiladora industry 4. Research design 4.1. Data collection

4.2. The interviews with maquiladora managers 5. Analyses of results 5.1. Statistical analysis for question 1 5.2. Statistical analysis for question 2 5.3. Statistical analysis for question 3 5.4. Statistical Analysis for question 4 6. Conclusions and assessment References

Life cycle assessment of spray dried soluble coffee and comparison with alternatives (drip filter and capsule espresso) Original Research Article Journal of Cleaner Production
This paper aims to evaluate the environmental burdens associated with spray dried soluble coffee over its entire life cycle and compare it with drip filter coffee and capsule espresso coffee. It particularly aims to identify critical environmental issues and responsibilities along the whole life cycle chain of spray dried coffee. This life cycle assessment (LCA) specifically uses foreground data obtained directly from coffee manufacturers and suppliers. Aside from energy consumption and greenhouse gases emissions, water footprint is also studied in detail, including regionalization of water impacts based on the ecological scarcity method 2006. Other impact categories are screened using the IMPACT 2002+ impact assessment method.

The overall LCA results for a 1 dl cup of spray dried soluble coffee amounts approximately to 1 MJ of primary non-renewable energy consumption, to emissions of 0.07 kg of CO2-eq, and between 3 and 10 l of non-turbined water use, depending on whether or not the coffee cultivation is irrigated and wet treated. When considering turbined water, use can be up to 400 l of water per cup. Pouch – and to a lesser extent metal can packaging alternatives – show lower environmental burdens than glass or sticks.

On average, about one half of the environmental footprint occurs at a life cycle stage under the control of the coffee producer or its suppliers (i.e., during cultivation, treatment, processing, packaging up to distribution, along with advertising) and the other half at a stage controlled by the user (shopping, appliances manufacturing, use and waste disposal). Key environmental parameters of spray dried

soluble coffee are the amount of extra water boiled and the efficiency of cup cleaning during use phase, whether the coffee is irrigated or not, as well as the type and amount of fertilizer used in the coffee field. The packaging contributes to 10% of the overall life cycle impacts.

Compared to other coffee alternatives, spray dried soluble coffee uses less energy and has a lower environmental footprint than capsule espresso coffee or drip filter coffee, the latter having the highest environmental impacts on a per cup basis. This study shows that a broad LCA approach is needed to help industry to minimize the environmental burdens directly related to their products. Including all processes of the entire system is necessary i) to get a comprehensive environmental footprint of the product system with respect to sustainable production and consumption, ii) to share stakeholders responsibility along the entire product life cycle, and iii) to avoid problem shifting between different life cycle stages.

Article Outline

1. Introduction and objectives 2. Methodology 2.1. Goal and scope 2.2. Life cycle inventory 2.2.1. Energy mix 2.2.2. Manufacturing 2.2.3. Packaging 2.2.4. Transport 2.2.5. Use 2.2.6. End-of-life 2.3. Life cycle impact assessment 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Life cycle inventory 3.2. Life cycle impact assessment 3.2.1. LCA of spray dried soluble coffee 3.2.2. Spray dried soluble coffee compared withthe other alternative

3.2.3. Energy 3.2.4. Global warming score 3.2.5. Water 3.2.6. Comparison between the different impact categories 3.3. Sensitivity analysis 3.3.1. Coffee cultivation 3.3.2. Use phase 3.4. Limitations 4. Recommendations for improvement of spray dried soluble coffee system 5. Conclusions 5.1. Spray dried soluble coffee 5.2. Spray dried soluble coffee compared to drip filter coffeeand capsule espresso coffee 5.3. Learning Acknowledgements Appendix 1. Supplementary data References

Inventory models for defective items incorporating marketing decisions with variable production cost Original Research Article Applied Mathematical Modelling
This paper investigates the finite replenishment inventory models of a single product with imperfect production process. In this process, a certain fraction or a random number of produced items are defective. These non-conforming items are rejected or reworked or if they reached to the customer, refunded. Here, a generalised unit cost function is formulated incorporating the several factors like raw material, labour, replenishment rate and others factors of the manufacturing system. The rate of replenishment is considered to be a variable. The selling price of an unit is determined by a mark-up over the production cost. Optimum production of the product is suggested to have maximum profit using a gradient based mathematical programming technique for optimization. Finally, numerical examples are given to illustrate the results and the significant features of the production system. As a particular case, the result of the perfect system (without defective items) are obtained. Also, the effect of changes in the

selling rate, defectiveness, production cost and other parameters on the optimal average profit are graphically presented. Some interesting decisions regarding production policy are established.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Assumptions and notations 3. Mathematical formulation 3.1. Scenario – I 3.2. Scenario – II 3.3. Scenario – I(a) and I(b) 3.4. Scenario – II 4. Model – I: defective items are a certain fraction of the produced quantity 4.1. Scenario – I(a) 4.2. Scenario – I(b) 4.3. Scenario – II 4.4. Model – 2 number of defective items is random 5. Model – 3: inventory model free from defective items 6. Numerical example 7. Discussion 8. Th. production rates for minimum unit cost and maximum profit 9. Sensitivity analysis 10. Conclusion Acknowledgements Appendix 1. Appendix References

Assessment of the performance of municipal solid wastes composting facilities under Egyptian conditions Original Research Article Resources, Conservation and Recycling

Over the last decade, composting has been considered a viable option for the treatment of municipal solid wastes under Egyptian conditions to produce a soil conditioner for use on land. A number of windrow composting plants at an intermediate-level technology have been recently established. Further, mechanised composting is also being proposed as a possible alternative approach.

This paper is concerned with the technical assessment of the performance of a commercial windrow composting facility, as well as a pilot mechanises facility under local conditions. Further, some economic indicators of both systems are presented.

For both facilities, key operational and process parameters have been field tested and analysed over adequate time periods. These parameters include operating system capacity, component equipment performance, sorting efficiency and compost recovery together with temperature, moisture content, pH values, and carbon to nitrogen ratio variations throughout the production phases. Based on the results of extensive appraisals, it has been concluded that the adopted technology for windrow composting is technically appropriate under Egyptian conditions. In contrast, there have been problems with the pilot mechanised facility that mandate many development efforts to mitigate. Nevertheless, this is valid only for this particular system, at thet development stage and, therefore, cannot be generalized. However, previous experience with a mechanized-type plant which has been in operation in Cairo since the early 1950's, has also shown that it would be more appropriate to use intermediate-level types of technologies.

PPP: A hybrid system for integrating process and production planning in batch part manufacturing Original Research Article Journal of Materials Processing Technology

Analysis of the production variability in multi-stage manufacturing systems Original Research Article CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology
The evaluation of the average performance of manufacturing systems has been widely investigated in the manufacturing system engineering literature. However, there is industrial evidence that production variability due to random disturbances cause the observed production rate to be different from its

average value. This paper presents a theory and a methodology to analyze the production rate variability in unreliable manufacturing systems. The dependency of the variance on the system parameters is investigated. The industrial benefits are shown through application of the method to real manufacturing contexts. This analysis paves the way to improved system designs that meet desired service levels.

Article Outline

1. Introduction and problem statement 2. Manufacturing system model 3. Description of the methodology 4. Analysis of the system behavior 5. Application to a real case 6. Conclusions References

A hierarchic approach to production planning and scheduling of a flexible manufacturing system Original Research Article Robotics and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
The paper deals with the problem of improving the machine utilization of a flexible manufacturing cell. Limited tool magazine space of the machines turns out to be a relevant bottleneck. A hierarchic approach for this problem is proposed. At the upper level, sets of parts that can be concurrently processed (batches) are determined. At the lower levels, batches are sequenced, linked, and scheduled. Methods taken from the literature are used for the solution of the latter subproblems, and an original mixed integer programming model is formulated to determine batches. The proposed methods are discussed on the basis of computational experience carried out on real instances.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 1.1. Recent literature 1.1.1. Approaches to part-type selection, machine loading and scheduling problems 1.1.2. Hierarchical approaches to the whole production planning problem

1.1.3. Simultaneous approaches 1.2. The proposed hierarchical approach 2. The machine utilization level of the FMS 3. Improving the machine utilization of the system 3.1. Problem formulation 3.2. A hierarchical approach 4. Batching model 4.1. Problem data 4.2. Decision variables 4.3. Model formulation 4.4. An improved model 4.5. Computational experience 5. Batch sequencing and linking 6. Detailed scheduling within batches 7. Overall results 8. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

Direct write lithography: the global solution for R&D and manufacturing Comptes Rendus Physique
The electron beam lithography is a well known and mature solution, widely installed in research laboratories and Universities, to provide advanced patterning for research and development programs for a large field of applications. However, limited by its low throughput capabilities, the direct write solution never appeared as a credible option for manufacturing purposes. Nevertheless, semiconductor business starts to be affected by the increasing cost of the optical lithography requesting more and more complex masks and projection systems. This trend opens opportunities for high throughput mask less equipments to address ASIC manufacturing. A review of the Maskless Lithography (ML2) technology is presented in this article, including process integration capability, application fields and perspective for high throughput ML2 solution. To cite this article: L. Pain et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

Résumé

La lithographie par faisceau d'électrons est une solution technologique bien connue, mature et très utilisée dans les laboratoires de recherche et universités qui permet de réaliser des structures avancées pour des programmes de recherche et développement, couvrant un large champ d'applications. Cependant, du fait de sa lenteur d'écriture, la lithographie à écriture directe n'est jamais apparue comme une solution crédible pour la production. Néanmoins, l'accroissement des co?ts de la lithographie optique liés à l'utilisation de masques et de systèmes d'exposition de plus en plus complexes, commence à toucher le marché des semi-conducteurs. Cette tendance ouvre des perspectives pour des machines de lithographie sans masque à fort débit pour la production de circuits spécifiques (ASIC). Une revue de la lithographie sans masque (ML2) est présentée dans cette publication, incluant la capacité d'intégration de cette solution, ses domaines d'application ainsi que les perspectives concernant des solutions ML2 à fort débit. Pour citer cet article : L. Pain et al., C. R. Physique 7 (2006).

Cleaner production option in a food (Kimchi) industry Original Research Article Journal of Cleaner Production
In the Kimchi (a salt-pickled and fermented food) manufacturing industry, the process of brining and rinsing the raw vegetable produces a vast amount of wastewater of high salinity. Instead of the expensive and low-efficient conventional treatment system, a brining wastewater reuse system was developed using hybrid chemical precipitation/microfiltration. In the microfiltration of chemically treated brining wastewater, a comparison of flux, backwashing frequency and energy consumption was made between dead-end and crossflow filtration modes. The optimum location of the neutralization step in this system was also discussed in connection with the microfiltration performance. The quality test of Kimchi prepared by the reuse system confirmed the new approach to the cleaner production option was successful in terms of water/raw material (salt) savings and wastewater reduction.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 1.1. Brining wastewater recycle through hybrid chemical precipitation/microfiltration system

2. Materials and methods 2.1. Characteristics of brining wastewater 2.2. Chemical precipitation 2.3. Operation of microfiltration 2.4. Analysis 3. Results and discussion 3.1. Chemical precipitation of brining wastewater 3.2. Microfiltration of brining wastewater after chemical precipitation 3.3. Particle size distributions in various MF feeds 3.4. Comparison of energy consumption 3.5. Quality test of Bak-Kimchi prepared with recycled brining wastewater 4. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

A hybrid system of manufacturing resource planning and just-in-time manufacturing Original Research Article Computers in Industry
The need to solve production management problems in Chinese manufacturing enterprises results in developing and implementing a hybrid system of manufacturing resource planning (MRP II) and just-in-time manufacturing (JIT). This article gives an overview of some basic concepts in this area, including a classification of manufacturing modes and three kinds of hybrid systems. The authors analyze the feature of these hybrid systems and discuss a practical example in a machine tool manufacturing enterprise.

Water management of production systems optimised by environmentally oriented integral chain management:: case study of leather manufacturing in developing countries Original Research Article Technovation

In developing countries adequate water management related to technical production systems can reduce major health and environmental problems.

This paper describes a general model of industrial water metabolism, using a leather factory as a case study. Here, integral chain management is the most important tool. Methods showing how mass balances can be constructed when insufficient data are available, are the main focus. The model is useful for mapping industrial activities and comparing them with corresponding systems in industrialised countries. The figures presented in this paper serve as a frame of reference.

The main reason for realising clean and sustainable production systems in industrialised countries is the very strict environmental legislation and control systems. Nevertheless, the desired results are not always obtained. Moving activities to countries with weaker environmental legislation can aggravate problems.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. The leather chain 2.1. Chain approach 2.1.1. Environmentally directed approach 2.1.2. Matter directed approach 2.1.3. Production directed approach 2.1.4. Product directed approach 2.1.5. Functional directed approach 2.2. Leather chain 3. Preparatory descriptions 4. Methods of processing 4.1. Preservation 4.2. Process water 4.3. Tannery 4.4. Post-tannage processing

4.5. Wastewater purification 4.6. Sludge processing 4.7. Chromium recovery 4.8. Air treatment 4.9. Energy needs 5. Data/calculations 5.1. Preservation 5.2. Composition of hide and leather 5.3. Chemistry of tanning processes 5.4. Water pollution expressed in IE 5.5. Water use and water pollution 5.6. By-products/waste production 5.7. Converting IE into kilograms and vice versa 5.8. Mass balance from tannery and post-tannage processing 6. Process water and wastewater purification 6.1. Process water 6.2. Wastewater 6.3. Purification 6.4. Chromium sludge 6.5. Bio-sludge 7. State of the art 7.1. The Netherlands 7.1.1. Beamhouse 7.1.2. Post-tannage 7.1.3. Sustainable production 7.2. European Union 7.3. Developing countries 7.4. Sustainable leather manufacturing 8. Conclusions concerning leather manufacturing 9. General conclusions

10. Remarks and suggestions Appendix A. Enclosure A.1 Methods of wastewater purification Appendix B References Vitae

Process engineering design of pathological waste incinerator with an integrated combustion gases treatment unit Original Research Article Journal of Hazardous Materials
Management of medical wastes generated at different hospitals in Egypt is considered a highly serious problem. The sources and quantities of regulated medical wastes have been thoroughly surveyed and estimated (75 t/day from governmental hospitals in Cairo). From the collected data it was concluded that the most appropriate incinerator capacity is 150 kg/h.

The objective of this work is to develop the process engineering design of an integrated unit, which is technically and economically capable for incinerating medical wastes and treatment of combustion gases. Such unit consists of (i) an incineration unit (INC-1) having an operating temperature of 1100 ° at 30 0% C excess air, (ii) combustion-gases cooler (HE-1) generating 35 m /h hot water at 75 ° (iii) dust filter C, (DF-1) capable of reducing particulates to 10–20 mg/Nm , (iv) gas scrubbers (GS-1,2) for removing acidic gases, (v) a multi-tube fixed bed catalytic converter (CC-1) to maintain the level of dioxins and furans below 0.1 ng/Nm , and (vi) an induced-draft suction fan system (SF-1) that can handle 6500 Nm /h at 250 ° The residence time of combustion gase s in the ignition, mixing and combustion C. chambers was found to be 2 s, 0.25 s and 0.75 s, respectively. This will ensure both thorough homogenization of combustion gases and complete destruction of harmful constituents of the refuse.
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The adequate engineering design of individual process equipment results in competitive fixed and operating investments. The incineration unit has proved its high operating efficiency through the measurements of different pollutant-levels vented to the open atmosphere, which was found to be in conformity with the maximum allowable limits as specified in the law number 4/1994 issued by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency (EEAA) and the European standards.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Engineering design of the proposed incineration and treatment unit 2.1. Incineration unit (INC-1) 2.1.1. Ignition chamber 2.1.2. Secondary combustion zone 2.1.3. Burners 2.2. Combustion-gases cooler (HE-1) 2.3. Dust filter (DF-1) 2.4. Gas scrubbers (GS-1,2) 2.5. A multiple-tube fixed bed catalytic converter (CC-1) 2.6. An induced-draft suction fan system (SF-1) 3. Process description 4. Overall incinerator material and energy balance calculations 4.1. Incineration of pathological wastes 4.2. Incineration of paper and cellulosic fibers 4.3. Incineration of plastics 5. Measurement methodologies and results 6. Conclusions and recommendations Acknowledgements References

Biofilms in Food Processing Environments Original Research Article Journal of Dairy Science
Biofilms are a constant concern in food processing environments. Our overall research focus has been to understand the interaction of factors affecting bacterial attachment and biofilm formation with the ultimate goal of devising strategies to control this problem. This paper briefly describes three areas of biofilm research in which we have been involved. Listeria monocytogenes, a foodborne pathogen, survived for prolonged periods on stainless steel and buna-n rubber, materials commonly used in food-processing equipment. Survival was affected by temperature, relative humidity, attachment surface, and soil. Some components in the rubber inhibited growth of the organism on buna-n, which also affected the efficacy of

sanitizers on biofilm inactivation. In cheese manufacture, biofilms of Lactobacillus curvatus could lead to a defect caused by the formation of calcium lactate crystals in Cheddar cheese. This hardy organism persisted in low numbers on equipment surfaces and was difficult to eradicate. We investigated the relative contributions and interactions of mechanical, thermal, and chemical processes in an air-injected clean-in-place method for milking systems. Overall, it is important to study the interactions between bacteria and the surfaces in a specific food processing environment to provide more effective measures for prevention of biofilm formation and for its removal. 生物薄膜包装用料用材与食品加工和环境协调 人与社会、自然的和谐关系的处理与实现

Random Manufacturing System: a New Concept of Manufacturing Systems for Production to Order Original Research Article CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology

制造业发展的新概念:全球共同探讨
Manufacturing systems are now required to have a capability to cope with the changes of manufacturing conditions and to carry out efficient production continuously. The concept of Random Manufacturing System (RMS) is proposed in order to realize flexible and adaptive production for dynamically-changing orders. RMS consists of machine agents each of which can decides its own schedule. The operation of RMS is carried out according to the tender-based decision making. In this paper, the basic concept, architecture, and operation procedure of RMS are introduced, and methods for improving RMS performance and two simulation systems are explained.

Manufacturing strategies and financial performance—The effect of advanced information technology: CAD/CAM systems Original Research Article Omega

产业与财政
Nowadays, the business environment is characterized by great uncertainty and variability. In this environment, information technology (IT) has proved to be an important strategic ingredient for the creation of competitive advantage. This role of IT has been widely accepted during the past few years [Feeny D. Creating and sustaining competitive advantage with IT. In: Earl M, editor. Information management the strategic direction. Oxford, 1990; Ives B. Wingtip Courriers, Southern Methodist University Case Study #SMY/MIS/90-01, Edwin L. Cox School of Business, Dallas, TX, January 1990].

In the new era of production, strategic priorities rather than a cost contained focus have proved to be important for competition, namely: quality, dependability, flexibility, customer service, after sale service, supply chain management, etc. IT proved to be vital for successful competition as it can facilitate the attainment of these strategic targets.

In this paper, the impact of IT on financial performance for the different types and levels of business strategy is examined. After the clustering of firms according to their strategic priorities, the effect of IT on financial performance is estimated. To do this a cross-sectional study was held in the field of Greek manufacturing firms that apply advanced IT, in order to explore which, how and in what level manufacturing priorities have been adopted. For that purpose, cluster analysis and VACOR algorithm were used, to distinguish clusters of firms and estimate the effect of IT on financial performance, for each type and level of strategic choice. Return on invested capital (ROIC) has been used as a criterion of performance in order to incorporate the effect of cost, revenues and profits. It was found that the effect of IT on financial performance was observed to be greater for firms which emphasize the higher level of flexibility strategy and the middle level of cost strategy. On the contrary, the effect of IT on performance was observed to be greater for firms which emphasize a lower level of quality and innovation strategy. Further discussion of these results and conclusions were drawn.

Article Outline

1. Introduction—literature review: manufacturing strategies 2. The research model 3. The sample: questionnaire and methodology 4. Explanation of the clustering (AHC) algorithm and the VACOR results 5. Separation in strategic clusters: VACOR results 5.1. Cost strategy 5.2. Quality strategy 5.3. Flexibility strategy 5.4. Innovation strategy 6. The information technology effect on financial performance for each strategic cluster 7. Conclusions References

Simulation-based benchmarking of production control schemes for complex manufacturing systems Original Research Article Control Engineering Practice

工业与社会均衡发展 在政府和民众的实践中协调
In this paper, benchmarking efforts for production control approaches applied to complex manufacturing systems are described. Complex manufacturing systems are characterized by a large number of products, an over time changing product mix, sequence-dependent set-up times, unrelated parallel machines, a mix of different process types, and internal and external disturbances. In order to ensure comparison possibilities among different production control approaches, the usage of a simulation test-bed and a software architecture that allows for plug in of different production control software are suggested. Different application areas, the advantages, and also the limitations of the suggested approach are discussed.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Literature review 3. Requirement analysis for benchmarking 3.1. Modeling Issues 3.2. Architecture issues 4. Benchmark scheme for production control approaches 4.1. Overall methodology 4.2. Performance measures 5. Application scenarios 5.1. Benchmarking of a dispatching rule applied to a wafer fab 5.2. Benchmarking of a distributed scheduling approach 6. Discussion of advantages and limitations of the benchmark approach 6.1. Advantages of the approach 6.2. Limitations of the suggested approach 7. Conclusions and future research Acknowledgements References

Foundations for equipment and machinery, publication SP-78: Published by the American Concrete Institute, 22400 West Seven Mile Road, PO Box 19150, Redford Station, Detroit, Michigan 48219, USA, 1982. Library of Congress Catalog Card Number 82-83638. Price $26.95 (Members), $35.95 (Non-members), vi + 282 pp International Journal of Cement Composites and Lightweight Concrete

A mathematical model for optimal and phased implementation of flexible manufacturing systems Original Research Article Applied Mathematics and Computation

A knowledge-based decision support system for cost estimation and pricing decisions in versatile manufacturing companies Original Research Article International Journal of Production Economics

询价决策支持系统 专家系统和成本估值模型 公司销售采购部门的帮手
Versatile manufacturing companies make mainly customised products, competing for each order with other supplier companies on the basis of price, technical expertise, delivery time and reliability in meeting due dates. They include engineer-to-order and make-to-order companies. Versatility is required in continually having to design and configure how to manufacture new or modified products, having continually to deal with varying production loads and having to deal with each customer order individually, even if it is for a very similar product to one sold earlier. A major problem is determining the cost of producing the order and then the price to be quoted. The standard textbook approach of first making a cost estimate, using activity-based costing for example, and then adding some pre-determined profit margin is not how companies do, and have to, operate in practice. Estimation on the basis of the times required for the various production processes needed plus the costs of the materials is only a starting point. Research into a number of such companies have shown that cost estimation and pricing has to be regarded as a single process, it cannot be separated into two distinct activities. It is a complex process, not only requiring the manipulation of known information, but also requiring extensive use of managerial experience and judgement. A model of the cost estimation and pricing process is presented, focusing on the factors influencing the process at the different decision stages in the treatment of a customer enquiry and the rules the cost estimators and bid managers apply when using their judgement to decide about these factors. The main sources of bias and errors that cost estimators make are also discussed. Almost 200 heuristic ‘expert’ rules have been identified. A prototype decision support system incorporating the process model and the rules has been developed. The general types of rules and the form of the DSS are reviewed in the paper.

WEEE recovery strategies and the WEEE treatment status in China Review Article Journal of Hazardous Materials

Production and work force planning in manufacturing systems for long-cycle products: A survey : E. Tunc, J. Haddock, pp. 238–245 Journal of Manufacturing Systems

Declared noise emission values of machinery and equipment based on determination of the combined standard deviation Original Research Article Applied Acoustics

Holonic Manufacturing Execution Systems Original Research Article CIRP Annals - Manufacturing Technology

The acceptation of the production orders for the realisation in the manufacturing assembly systems Original Research Article Journal of Materials Processing Technology

The recycling and disposal of electrical and electronic waste in China—legislative and market responses Original Research Article Environmental Impact Assessment Review

The EC machinery directive and food-processing equipment Trends in Food Science & Technology

Aligning manufacturing strategy and levels of automation: A case study Original Research Article Journal of Engineering and Technology Management
Research has shown that alignment between manufacturing strategy and decisions regarding automation are often of an ad hoc nature, i.e. the support for automation decisions is poor. Support tools to find an appropriate level of automation are thus needed in order to achieve more efficient and robust production systems. The methodology presented in this paper contains five sub-processes where the chosen level of automation is aligned with the manufacturing strategy. Together they form an automation

strategy, which secures a desired direction of the firm and also supports robustness and reliability of the manufacturing system due to the holistic approach chosen.

Article Outline

1. Introduction and background 2. Theoretical framework 2.1. Automation 2.2. Automation strategy 2.3. Manufacturing strategy 3. Research objectives and procedure 3.1. Phase 1: developing the methodology for measuring and assessing levels of automation 3.2. Phase 2: validating the measurement methodology 3.3. Phase 3: reviewing and evaluating manufacturing strategy formulation processes 3.4. Phase 4: embedding the measurement methodology in the process of manufacturing strategy formulation 4. Research methodology 4.1. Phase 1: developing the Dynamo methodology for measuring and assessing levels of automation 4.2. Phase 2: validating the Dynamo methodology 4.3. Phase 3: reviewing and evaluating manufacturing strategy formulation processes 4.4. Phase 4: embedding the Dynamo methodology in the process of manufacturing strategy formulation 5.Conclusion References

协同供应链与全球伙伴关系 策略级的自动运作模式

Optimal allocation of distribution maintenance resources with limited information Original Research Article Electric Power Systems Research

Solid waste management in municipalities in Mexico: goals and perspectives Original Research Article Resources, Conservation and Recycling

The ITER remote maintenance system Original Research Article Fusion Engineering and Design
The aim of this paper is to summarize the ITER approach to machine components maintenance. A major objective of the ITER project is to demonstrate that a future power producing fusion device can be maintained effectively and offer practical levels of plant availability. During its operational lifetime, many systems of the ITER machine will require maintenance and modification; this can be achieved using remote handling methods. The need for timely, safe and effective remote operations on a machine as complex as ITER and within one of the world's most hostile remote handling environments represents a major challenge at every level of the ITER Project organization, engineering and technology. The basic principles of fusion reactor maintenance are presented. An updated description of the ITER remote maintenance system is provided. This includes the maintenance equipment used inside the vacuum vessel, inside the hot cell and the hot cell itself. The correlation between the functions of the remote handling equipment, of the hot cell and of the radwaste processing system is also described. The paper concludes that ITER has equipped itself with a good platform to tackle the challenges presented by its own maintenance and upgrade needs.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. ITER remote handling and the remote handling management plan 3. ITER maintenance system 3.1. Blanket handling equipment 3.2. Divertor handling equipment 3.3. Port systems handling equipment 3.4. Neutral beam line components handling equipment 3.5. In-vessel viewing system equipment 3.6. Hot cell remote handling equipment 4. ITER machine operations and maintenance operations

5. Conclusions Acknowledgements References

Development of a justification tool for advanced manufacturing technologies: system-wide benefits value analysis Original Research Article Journal of Engineering and Technology Management
Growing competition and increasing demands from customers are forcing small manufacturers to consider investments in advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs). For many reasons, such investments are often difficult to justify by means of a traditional economic analysis alone. As a result, it is often necessary to consider the system wide benefits associated with AMTs in order to justify their adoption. A process known as system wide benefits value analysis (SWBVA) has been developed to assist decision makers with their advanced technology decisions. Users of the tool first perform an economic analysis to see if the investment is economically justified. If it is not yet justified, the gap between the minimum desired economic return and the actual return amount is calculated. Users can follow a series of procedures to determine if the value of the system wide benefits associated with the advanced technology is sufficient enough to justify this gap. These procedures involve customizing a formal model of system wide benefits to suit the technology decision being evaluated, setting desired goals for each benefit being considered, and answering a series of input questions about the level of those benefits they feel can be obtained from such a technology. A fuzzy expert system is the internal mechanism used to manipulate user inputs into crisp output values for each benefit category. If the determined output values for each system wide benefit are greater than or equal to the user-defined benefit goals, then the gap amount is believed to be justified. Users are provided with a summary report on the calculated results and are allowed to readjust their benefit goals and repeat the analysis if necessary.

Article Outline

1. Introduction 2. Literature review

2.1. Problem identification 2.2. Analysis of evaluation techniques 3. Research design 3.1. Introduction to the SWBVA 3.2. The system wide benefits model 3.3. The SWBVA process 4. Data collection modes 5. Results 5.1. Fuzzy modeling procedures 6. Case study and discussion: an example 6.1. Economic analysis procedures 6.2. Calibration procedures 6.3. Fuzzy input procedures 6.4. Decision criteria 6.5. Example summary 7. Implications and directions for future research Acknowledgements References

Frame-based architectures for manufacturing planning and control Original Research Article Artificial Intelligence in Engineering
Effective manufacturing planning and control (MPC) necessitates coordination and integration of various aspects of demand, production and logistics management. A holistic approach is therefore the key to success in this field. A frame-based architecture should be ideally suited to constructing knowledge-based systems for MPC, as frames can represent entities in the planning process, rules can express interrelationships between these entities, and the planning strategy is paralleled by the inference procedure. Four applications are described in detail by means of four frame-based paradigms: design of an operations regime; project planning of a new product launch; configuration of a process cell; and an analysis of the operation of an integrated manufacturing system. These architectures, and others

presented in a previous article, are categorized as examples of generic tasks, a methodology proposed by Chandrasekaran
12

which defines underlying structures in terms of system goals, input/output

characteristics, knowledge representation and inference strategy. The generic task approach appears to be useful in determining an appropriate architecture for a given MPC task, and also for designing and implementing the resultant knowledge-based system.

Macrosonics in industry: 3. Ultrasonic cleaning Original Research Article Ultrasonics
Ultrasonic energy performs a physical function in the process of cleaning which can be obtained by no other industrial tool. Its ultimate success depends on the selection of proper equipment and material, a knowledge of cavitation, chemical cleaning techniques and process control. This paper, the third in the series on the industrial applications of macrosonics, reviews those factors which are important in production ultrasonic cleaning systems.

Decision support system for multicriteria machine selection for flexible manufacturing systems Original Research Article Computers in Industry
This paper proposes an approach to the design and development of an intelligent Decision Support System (DSS) that is intended to help the selection process of alternative machines for Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS). The process consists of a series of steps starting with an analysis of the information and culminating in a conclusion —a selection from several available alternatives and verification of the selected alternative to solve the problem. In real decision situations, more than one criterion is present, and the problem becomes multicriteria decision making. The approach presented combines the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) technique for multicriteria decision making with the rule-based technique for creating Expert Systems (ES). Such an approach allows the past experience, expressed as heuristics in ES, to be used. Moreover, this approach determines the architecture of the computer-based environment necessary for the decision support software system to be created. It includes the AHP software package (Expert Choice), Dbase III + DBMS, Expert System shell (EXSYS) and Turbo Pascal compiler (for the external procedural programs). As a result, a prototype decision support system for a fixed domain, namely a CNC turning center that is required to process a family of rotational parts, is developed. It helps the user to find the most “satisfactory” machine on the basis of several objective as well as subjective attributes

Collection of domestic waste. Review of occupational health problems and their possible causes Review Article Science of The Total Environment
During the last decade, a growing interest in recycling of domestic waste has emerged, and action plans to increase the recycling of domestic waste have been agreed by many governments. A common feature of these plans is the implementation of new systems and equipment for the collection of domestic waste

which has been separated at source. However, only limited information exists on possible occupational health problems related to such new systems. Occupational accidents are very frequent among waste collectors. Based on current knowledge, it appears that the risk factors should be considered as an integrated entity, i.e. technical factors (poor accessibility to the waste, design of equipment) may act in concert with high working rate, visual fatigue due to poor illumination and perhaps muscle fatigue due to high work load. Musculoskeletal problems are also common among waste collectors. A good deal of knowledge has accumulated on mechanical load on the spine and energetic load on the cardio-pulmonary system in relation to the handling of waste bags, bins, domestic containers and large containers. However, epidemiologic studies with exposure classification based on field measurement are needed, both to further identify high risk work conditions and to provide a detailed basis for the establishment of occupational exposure limits for mechanical and energetic load particularly in relation to pulling, pushing and tilting of containers. In 1975, an excess risk for chronic bronchitis was reported for waste collectors in Geneva (Rufèner-Press et al., 1975) and data from the Danish Registry of Occupational Accidents and Diseases also indicate an excess risk for pulmonary problems among waste collectors compared with the total work force. Surprisingly few measurements of potentially hazardous airborne exposures have been performed, and the causality of work-related pulmonary problems among waste collectors is unknown. Recent studies have indicated that implementation of some new waste collection systems may result in an increased risk of occupational health problems. High incidence rates of gastrointestinal problems, irritation of the eye and skin, and perhaps symptoms of organic dust toxic syndrome (influenza-like symptoms, cough, muscle pains, fever, fatigue, headache) have been reported among workers collecting the biodegradable fraction of domestic waste. The few data available on exposure to bio-acrosols and volatile compounds have indicated that these waste collectors may be simultaneously exposed to multiple agents such as dust containing bacteria, endotoxin, mould spores, glucans, volatile organic compounds, and diesel exhaust. Several studies have reported similar health problems as well as high incidence rates of pulmonary diseases among workers at plants recycling domestic waste. Large scale research activities including surveys and analytical epidemiologic studies are needed to identify the actual causes of these occupational diseases aiming at the prevention of occupational health problems when new waste collection systems are implemented.

The facility layout problem: Recent and emerging trends and perspectives Original Research Article Journal of Manufacturing Systems
Recent and emerging trends in the facility layout problem, covering the last 10 years of research, are presented, including new methodologies, objectives, algorithms, and extensions to this well-studied combinatorial optimization problem. The state of the art in facility layout software is compared to the state of the art in facility layout research. New developments in emerging layout research provide a perspective on what the future of the field will be like. A trend toward concurrent engineering approaches to layout and production system design is observed.

Performance analysis of make-to-order manufacturing systems under different workload control regimes Original Research Article International Journal of Production Economics

This paper firstly discusses the make-to-order (MTO) manufacturing sector to show the different types of queuing network that may exist and need to be covered. The workload control (WLC) production planning method is modelled as a queuing network with limited buffer capacities in front of each workstation. Exact solutions for a general network with more than 3 or 4 workstations are not possible. An approximation algorithm, as an extension of earlier work on simple tandem queuing networks, has been developed to cope with any number of workstations and to allow flows forwards and backwards between the workstations. The essentials of the model and solution algorithm are briefly described. The second half of the paper presents the results of using the model and algorithm to analyse four issues in WLC in MTO. The first set of experiments examines the relative value of two WLC mechanisms for controlling manufacturing lead times, job release and order acceptance. The second set of experiments is to gain insight into how increased complexity in production layouts and the product variety impact on manufacturing performance measures. The third set of experiments examines the differential effects of extra buffer capacity at earlier or later workstations in the main path flow; whilst the final set of experiments examines the impact of having groups of high- and low-priority jobs.

Article Outline

1. Introduction–the produce-to-order manufacturing environment 2. Aims of this paper 3. Queuing networks, modelling manufacturing systems and workload control 4. Decomposition method and formulation of the system 4.1. Description of original system 4.2. Description of decomposition method and characteristics of sub-systems 4.3. Formulation of the sub-systems 4.4. Rate balance equations 5. Experiments and results5.1. Control at order acceptance versus at job release stage 5.1.1. Results for tandem system (fs8) 5.1.2. Results for simple job shop, fb(1) 5.2. Effects of layout ‘complexity’ 5.3. Varying the job release constraints

5.3.1. Results for tandem system (fs8) 5.3.2. Results for simple job shop, fb(1) 5.4. Priority regimes 6. Conclusions References

A methodology to select optimal system components for computer integrated manufacturing by evaluating synergy Original Research Article Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems
The enormous growth in manufacturing automation has produced a plethora of advanced manufacturing technologies (AMTs) with diverse features. These AMTs could consist of semi- and fully automated systems or equipment. Manufacturing companies are seeking ways to gain a competitive edge over their competitors by investing in AMTs, where the ability to make rational choices among these AMTs is important for success. Integration of AMTs in an enterprise brings many islands of automation into a single database-shared entity. Effective integration by efficient communication links among these AMTs will generate significant benefits across many traditional functional units, eliminate many functional barriers, and provide opportunities to achieve the competitive goals. The effect of synergy caused by the integration of AMTs will have an impact on various functional units of the enterprise. This paper provides a methodology, firstly to identify appropriate technologies for a company based on their strategic focus, and secondly to estimate the functional interrelationships within the framework of a unified approach for the justification of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM). These derived functional interrelationships are utilised to assess the effect of synergy in an integrated enterprise and identify the optimal capital investments in AMTs as system components of CIM. 计算机集成制造的应用与经济增长目标的实现

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