二 战 后 的 英 国 经 济
旅英二班 程潘 10080402049
二战后的英国经济 The British Economy After World War II
英国曾是世界发展的领头羊。但是 20 世纪后，英国却失去了昔日的光辉。 二战后， 英国的经济受到严重创伤。在那时，英国依赖美国的援助来恢复发展经济。在摆脱美国
控制 之后，英国经济又进入自我发展时期。 England was a leader during the process of the world’s development . But after the 20th century, Britain has lost its glory .After the second world war, the British economy suffered serious wounds.At that time, Britain restored its economic development by depending on America.After being out of America’s control ,British economy began to go into a period that it developed its economy by itself. （一）1945－1979 年的 30 多年是英国经济深受殖民帝国瓦解和“英国病”的长期困扰而 发展十分迟缓的时期 (I)The 30 years between 1945 to 1975 was a slow period that the British economy was troubled deeply by colonial empire dissolves and "British disease" 50-60 年代英国的经济发展平稳。其主要特点是经济缓慢而持续增长，失业率低，物质 丰富，人民消费水平不断增长。在 70 年代，英国在所有的发达资本主义国家中，始终保持 最低经济增长率，最高的通货膨胀率，和最高的贸易赤字纪录。二战后英国的工业发展开始 走向下坡路,工业结构也发生了较大的变化。英国的很多产业都出现了问题，比如煤矿业、 钢铁产业和纺织业等。为了调整工业结构,发展传统的工业部门和振兴新的工业部门,英国采 取了一些发展新工业部门的措施,和制定了一些相关工业立法,但效果微弱。至于农业方面, 一直以来就是英国的弱项,英国的农产品及食品等主要是依靠进口的,二战后英国的整体贸易 逆差严重,再加上战后许多英属殖民地国家纷纷获得独立,这对于长期以来农业粮食大都是从 殖民地国家进口的英国来说,无疑是一个沉重的打击,为了满足英国本土的粮食自给救济,政 府开始通过立法来鼓励和促进本国的农业。 The British economy in the 50s and 60s developed steadily. The characters were slow but steady growth,low unemployment and great prosperity with rising standards of consumption. In the 1970s among the developed countries. Britain kept the lowest growth rate , the highest inflation rate, and the high record of trade deficits. After the second World War, the progress of industry in U.K.began to fall into a decline, and its structure also changed relatively much. There were troubles with many British industries, for example ,the coal industry, iron and steel industry , and textile industry. In order to adjust the structure of industry, for example ,to develop traditional industry department and enhance the rising industry department,the government took a series of measures and constituted a series of relative laws.But its effect was weak.As for agriculture, it has always been British weaknesses.Britain's food and other agricultural products, are mainly relying on imports. After the second world war, Britain suffered serious trade deficit , and many British colony in the countries had won independence. It was no doubt a heavy blow for Britain which was a country that getting agricultural food mostly from the colonial countries import . In order to satisfy the native food self-sufficiency relief, the government began to pass legislation to
encourage and promote its agriculture. “英国病”的病因：首先，世界工厂和庞大的殖民帝国给英国留下了陈旧的生产部门。 其次，第三产业过分膨胀，传统产业长期不振，新兴产业缺乏竞争力。第三，固定资本投资 增长缓慢，劳动生产率较低。然后，重科学轻技术，重基础轻应用，科技成果得不到有效应 用。除此之外，墨守成规，守旧思想严重，企业管理较落后。英国的门第观念、等级制度根 深蒂固，对引进技术审慎、保守。他们不让工人参加管理，有的经理甚至将工人视为仇敌， 这导致劳资关系紧张。最后，英国过早实行高福利制度。两党轮流执政，经济政策缺乏必要 的连续性。就是这些原因导致英国经济长期停滞不前。 The reasons for “British disease”:Firstly, world factory and the huge colonial empire left Britain with old production department. Secondly, the third industry was full of inflation, and the traditional industry was not caused to prosper for a long time. New industry was lack of competition. Thirdly, fixed capital investment grew slowly,and labor productivity was low .What’s more, they paid more attention on science instead of technology, and they thought foundation was important but not application.The scientific application wasn’t used effectively. In addition ,they always obeyed the old rules, and their thoughts were seriously conservative. Their opinions about enterprise management had fallen behind.. And British traditional idea with the rating system was deeply rooted in their nationality. They were cautious about bring in foreign technology. The managers didn't make their workers to participate in the management. Some managers even treated their workers as their enemies. This made the relationships between the capital and workers become sensitive and tense. Last but not least, the Britain implemented the system of high welfare too early. The two parties took turns to hold power. This made the economic policy lack of necessary continuity. It was these reasons that made the British economy grow slowly for a long time. （二）80 年代经济复苏 （II）British economy recovered in the 80s 那时，经济复苏的一个显著特点是时间长，复苏持续了 7 年。另一个特点是国际收支大 大盈余，政府金融地位最高。在这时，英国开始摆脱美国的控制。撒切尔政府运用宏观经济 政策和微观经济政策，采取了许多措施提高经济效益。微观经济政策旨在通过鼓励实业，效 率和灵活性共同努力提高市场竞争力。 宏观经济政策直接针对降低通货膨胀率和维持物价稳 定。 An outstanding feature of the economic recovery at that time in the 80s was its length, lasting seven years. Another outstanding feature was the improved financial position of the government, with stronger current account of the balance of payments. At that time, the UK began to be out of the America’s control. Mrs. Thatcher's government took numerous measures to improve the efficiency of the economy during the past decade. Mrs. Thatcher’s used both macroeconomic and microeconomic policies. Macroeconomic measures were directed towards bringing down the rate of inflation and achieving price stability. Microeconomic policies were aimed at working with the grain of market forces by encouraging enterprise, efficiency and flexibility.
他高科技产业。英国的高科技产业主要集中在以下三个地区： （1）伦敦和南威尔士之间的地 区， （2）东英吉利的剑桥地区， （3）苏格兰格拉斯哥和爱丁堡之间的地区。其中最后一个地 区是最大的，如今有“硅谷”之称。到 1985 年底，英国有一半的微芯片都产自苏格兰。现 在，英国已经是世界第 3 大对外投资国，主要债权之一。英国还是世界上最大的无形贸易进 出口国之一。 In recent years, the British economy has continued to develop and it has a lot of new industries, including microprocessors and computers, biotechnology and other high-tech industries. There are three areas in Britain which have seen some high-tech industrial growth: the first area, the area between London and South Wales; the second area , the Cambridge area of East Anglia ;the third area, the area between Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland. The third area is the most spectacular of the three and is now often referred to as the "Silicon Glen". By the end of 1985 half of Britain's microchip output was estimated to have come from Scotland. Now, Britain has become the world's third largest foreign investor, one of the main creditor's rights. Britain are also one of the world's largest invisible trade countries of import and export.