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阅读猜测词义十种方法


阅读猜测词义十种方法 在阅读中,我们会经常遇到一些生词,需要根据上下 文猜测它们的词义。此类问题考查考生紧扣原文,根 据上下文语境判断单词、短语或短句意义的能力。 1. 根据定义或解释猜测词义 这类定义或解释通常由生词后的同位语(从句) 或定语从句引出。 例:The modern age of medicine began with the stethoscope, an ins

trument for listening to a patient’s heartbeat and breathing (1)Yet, shopkeepers may have to spend extra hours to deal with problems, such as shoplifter, who always take away things from the shop without paying for them. (2)The best football, basketball and tennis players can become professional that means they will have a career in sports and will get money when they play. (3)Kleptomania is an illness of the mind that gives a person the desire to steal. (4) The word “lefty” means a person who uses his or her left hand for writing, eating and other jobs. (5)Doctors recommended that everyone exercise every day, particular those who spend many hours doing sedentary activities like reading, typing or sewing. (6)A person who has the SARS (非典型肺炎)may have symptoms like coughing and a high temperature. 7. .Do you know what a “territory” is ? A territory is an area that an animal ,usually the male, claims (声称) as its own. 8. Here is The Pines ,whose cook has developed a special way of mixing foreign food such as caribou ,wild boar ,and reindeer with surprising sauces . (2004 年福建 According to the passage ,The Pines is a . A.place in which you can see many mobile homes. B. mountain where you can get a good view of the valley. C.town which happens to be near the Banff National Park. D. restaurant where you can ask for some special kinds of food. 9. Another habit which can slow your reading is called subvocalization. In this case your lips do not move, but
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you will “hear” each word in your head as you read silently. 2. 根据对比关系猜测词义; 当句中含有 but, however, yet, however, though, although, on the other hand, instead ,while, unlike, instead, rather than, on the contrary, in contrast with, despite, in spite of, 等表示转折意义的 词时,前后句含有对比意义,据此可以猜测生词词义。 1.Andrew is one of the most supercilious men I knew. His brother, in contrast, is quite modest. 2. Written language tends to be static, while spoken language constantly changes. 3. A child’s birthday party doesn’t have to be a hassle; it can be a basket of fun. What does the underlined word “hassle” (paragraph 1) probably mean?(2002 年 NMET) A.a party designed by specialists B.a plan requiring careful thought C.a situation causing difficulty or trouble D.a demand made by guests 4.One idea about business is that it can be treated as a game of perfect information. Quite the reverse, business polite, life itself is games which we must normally play with very imperfect information. A. Quite right. C. Most unlike. B. Time enough. D. Just the opposite.

5. Unlike the Unite States where many different nationalities make up the population, Japan’s population is quite homogeneous. 6. Thousands of people got stuck in lifts. But no one panicked, we passed the time telling stories. 7. Most of us agreed; however, Gary dissented. 8. He is homely, not at all as handsome as his brother. 9. In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil. 3.根据因果关系猜测词义 原因的表示法 A. 并列连词: for, so B. 从 属 连 词 : because, since, now (that), as, so / such…that C. 介词短语: because of, on account of, as a result of, as a consequence of, thanks to , owing to, due to, for this

reason, D. 动词短语 account for, result in+结果,result from + 原因, lead to, cause, bring in, bring about E. 副词: therefore, thus, consequently, accordingly F.介词:for (doing) sth 1. I found I was paying too much attention to the job and thus sacrificing my study time. 2. It rained, so the football match was postponed. 3. …feel that since you are my superior , it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do . A.full of respect B.too confident and rude C.lacking in experience D.too shy and quiet 4.Since I could not afford to purchase the original painting, I bought a replica. An inexperienced eye could not tell the difference. 5. Pruning is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots,or young leaves.(2005 年江西卷) 4.根据同等关系猜测词义 表示同等关系的信息词有:and, or, namely, that’s to say, in

9.Most women in China ---educated and illiterated, urban and rural, the young and old-----work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers. 10. It will be very hard but also very brittle―that is , it will break easily. 5.根据同义词、近义词猜测词义 这类同义词、 近义词或反义词往往有 and, or 等信息词 作暗示。 1. In our competitive world of today, examinations have a highly selecting or filtering role. 2. The new tax law supersedes, or replaces, the law that Was in effect last year. 3. Mother was tall, fat and middle-aged. The principal of the school was an older woman, almost as plump as mother, and much shorter.

in other words, to be called, to mean, refer to, that is (to say), 4. Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? or, like, similar, to put it another way, to be precise 等。 1.His secret for a living and healthy life has been well publicized---no alcohol, no cigarette and no anger. 2. Pantomime refers to a short play in which no words are spoken. 3. Mr. Smith loves to talk, and his wife is similarly loquacious. 4. Millions of animals die each year on Us roads, the Highway administration reports. In fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat exist in the Us today. The main reason? Roadkill. 5. Not every historic mansion, church, battle site, theatre and other public halls can be preserved. 6. We should, therefore, learn to choose our words carefully and use them accurately, or they will make our speech silly and vulgar. 7. Their friends laughed at them, and my sister felt wretched, very unhappy. 8. Before the main business of a conference begins the chairman usually makes a short preliminary(i. e. introductory)speech, or make a few preliminary remarks. In other words, he says a few things by way of introduction.
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6.根据经验或常识猜测词义 有时需要根据中学生应具备的基本知识或常识作出合 理的推测 1. The heat of sun warms some ocean water. The surface of the water evaporates, forming a cloud of warm, wet air that moves upward. 2. Mrs. Kreamer, a victim of smoke, was unconscious (失 去知觉 3. When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an aesthetic to make him unconscious, because he does not want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him. 4. .Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold. 7. 根据上下文猜测词义 俗话说,“词不离句,句不离文”。特定的上下文往往 是推测词义不可忽视的重要因素。 (1)A deaf and dump guy went into a hardware store to ask for some nails. (2)The climate of the west coast is the most moderate in Canada, summers are cool and fairly dry and winters

are mild, cloudy and wet. Even in mid-winter, the temperature is usually above freezing. (3)All the houses in the city collapsed during the earthquake. (4) For people who live within a stone’s throw from the office to be late to work is unforgivable. (5)The conflagration was so fierce that with just a few second one could see towering flames where the house had stood and the smoke which filled the sky could be seen for miles and miles. 6. The pupils assembled in front of the school hall. They came together to listen to the headmaster announce the result of the sports meeting. 7. If you are capable of working twelve hours a day without a rest, and if you can engage in physical exercise for hours without seeming to get tired, then you are indefatigable. 8. If he thinks he can invite me out, he is all wet. I don’t like to be with him. 9. (06 湖北卷 A) the users tell us no company produces a better product for language learners at all levels Ring for more information, or order at www. audiomagazine. com. We guarantee that you have nothing to lose if it's not for you; let us know within 6 weeks and we will completely reimburse you. 59. What does the underlined part reimburse you probably mean? A. Return the money you paid. B. Change the product you bought. C. Offer you a free repair. D. Guarantee you the quality. 8. 根据举例猜测词义 这类信息词有 such as, for example, for instance, like especially, include, consist of, specially 等短语。 1. Today young couples who are just starting their household often spend lots of their money on appliances, for instance, washing-machine, fridge and colour TV sets. 2. Most of us learn very young in life to control basic drives such as thirst and hunger. 3. Some ships carried cargo such as coal, oil and military supplies(军用物资),while others carried only passengers.
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4. Many United Nations emloyees are polyglots: Mr.Simpson, for example, speaks five languages fluently. 5. The largest player---Shanghai Bashi Tourism Car Rental Center offers a wide variety of choices---Deluxe Sedans, Minivans, Station Wagons, Coaches, Santana Sedans are the big favorite. 6. When writing an article, we often use similes, such as “brave as a lion” and “quick like lightning”. 7. The course gives you chances to know great power polities between nation states. It will provide more space to study particular issues such as relationship among countries in the European Union, third world debt, local and international disagreement, and the work of such international bodies as the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, and the World Bank. 9. 根据标点符号猜测词义 这类标点符号通常为括号、冒号、破折号、逗号等。 例:You can take any of the periodicals: The World of English, Foreign Language Teaching in School, or English Learning. 10.构词法 在猜测词义过程中,我们还可以依靠构词法方面的知 识,从生词本身猜测词义。 1. Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? 2. It's a quiet, comfortable hotel overlooking (俯瞰) the bay in an uncommercialized Cornish fishing village on England's most southerly point. 3. Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well – designed tools and equipment will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward(别扭的)hand positions.(2005 年北京卷) 4. We live in a technological society where most goods are mass-produced by unskilled labor. Because of this, most people that craft (手艺) no longer exists. (2004 年 浙江卷) 5. The other teams, disappointed, were on the bus heading home. (2004 年山东卷) 6. I had first known she was wrong, that her anxiety had clouded her judgment. (2004 全国卷

8. Semantics, the study of the meaning of words, is 练习 1..…Students who perform poorly on the exam are left feeling that it is all over. The low test score, they think, will make it impossible for them to get into a good college. And without a degree from a prestigious university, they fear that many of life’s doors will remain forever closed.… 66.“A prestigious university”is most probably A.a famous university C.a traditional university break easily. 3. The herdsman , who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year。 4. James Oliver, psychologist, has created his own “time management matrix (模式)”. He writes a list of things to do and then organises them into categories: things that have to be done straight away, other things that it would be good to do today, things that are important but haven’t got to be done immediately and things that are less urgent but that he doesn’t want to forget. 74.The word “categories” in paragraph 2 most probably has the same meaning as“ ”. A. groups B. portions C. items D. areas 5. Dear all, Please read Professor Hume's email about his next lecture on Rosa Parks. Susan Miller Secretary Dear Susan, Please forward this message to students of my history class. 64.What does the underlined word “forward” mean? A. Explain . B. Send. C. Take. D. Read. 6. A mosquito is a small flying pest that thrust the skin and then drink blood. 7. A person who is skilled at making or repairing wooden objects is called a carpenter. B.a technical universtiy D.an expensive university necessary if you are to speak and read intelligently. 9.His uncle is a zoologist, an expert who does research on animals. zoologist 10. Some organizations of United Nations prefer to take on Polyglots as their workers—those who can understand as well as speak many languages. 11.A calendar is a timetable of the days, weeks, months of a certain year. 12.She had a lesion on her arm that would not stop bleeding. A.a piece of skin C.a bone B. an injury D.a piece of cloth

2. It will be very hard but also very brittle―that is , it will

13.In summer the weather is very hotsometimes it causes a dry period ,in other words, drought. 14.He knows a famous cardiologist. A cardiologist is a doctor who specializes in heart diseases. 15.The penguin is a kind of sea bird living in the south pole. It is fat and walks in a funny way. Although it cannot fly, it can swim in the icy water to catch the fish. 16.Down from the sky came a dark funnel-like(漏斗状 的)cloud. This dark cloud reached the ground all of a sudden. This terrible tornado—a wind which went round and round as fast as 500 miles an hour and picked up everything in its path, such as large trees, cars and even houses. 18.According to a report published on the British medical magazine, The Lancet, a study of 10 German mobile phone users found that when they turned on their phones, their blood pressure goes up. This word “The lancet” is most probably___ A. the name of a magazine C. the name of the hospital D. the title of a medical report 19. Though Tom's face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. 20.John usually wastes a lot of money on such useless things;his wife, however, is very thrifty. 21.In the world, some are well off while others are poor. B. the name of a person

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22. Although people in many countries consider raw meat a delicacy(美味), we Chinese people seldom eat any meat that is uncooked. 23. Unlike his sister, who is a warm, interested person, John is apathetic to everyone and everything. 24.In the northern regions the winters are generally cold and humid, and the summers hot and dry. 25. The big farms are getting bigger while the small ones are slowly dwindling. 26. At forty-two he was in his prime and always full of energy. 27.Are people born intelligent or stupid? 28.Not every car, bus, jeep or other kinds of vehicle can be made in this factory. 30.The proprietor or the owner of the store is a big man. 31. She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 32.The river is so turbid that it is impossible to see the bottom even when it is shallow. 33. John asked the bank for a small loan so that he could repair his house. 34.That old man was so decrepit that he could hardly walk. 35.She felt miserable, for her parents both died weeks ago. 36.The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken . Sometimes the weakness was permanent. So the player could never play the sport again. A going on for a long time B that may be permitted C not very strong D in a bad condition 37.That museum is so immense that it will be impossible to see all the exhibits in one day. A .very large B. crowed C. noisy D. good 38. Birds fly with their wings, and they pick up their foods, and then eat them with their beaks and they use their claws for tearing, seizing, pulling or holding objects. 39.The flowers in the vase withered because they had no water.
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40.It’s really cold out tonight. My hands are practically numb. 41. The snake slithered through the grass. 42.The door was so low that I hit my head on the lintel. 43.Metal contrasts as it becomes cool. 44.One of symptoms caused by the peculiar illness is a high fever. 45.Fishes live in water and have fins which help them to swim. Most fishes have slimy skins covered with scales, so it is difficult to get firm hold of them. 46. Tom can’t play tennis now because he can’t find his white sneakers. A.Money B. bowls C. shoes 47. Jane is usually prompt for all her classes,but she arrived in the middle of her first class A.late got near. A.a bird B.an animal C.the sun 49. Archaeology is the study of the buried remains of ancient times, such as houses, pots, tools and weapons. A. 地理学 unanimous. A. 无效的 B. 一致通过的 C. 匿名的 D.有价值的 51. Though Mr. Smith has been general manager for just 3 months, he has already made much greater achievements than his predecessors. A. 上级 B. 前任 C. 同事 D. 下级 52.The football game was getting more and more exciting, however, the old lady was still as dozy as she usually was. A. 昏昏欲睡的 B. 亢奋的 C. 欣喜若狂的 D. 麻木的 53. All his attempts to unlock the door was futile, because he was using the wrong key. A. 成功的 B. 徒劳的 C. 有效的 D. 匆促的 54. She did not hear what you said because she was completely engrossed in her reading. A. 心不在焉的 B. 紧张的 C. 全神贯注的 D. 睡意浓的 B. 生态学 C. 心理学 D. 考古学 50.When everyone agrees on a decision, the decision is B.on time C.pleased 48 . Tom saw an owl last night but it flew away when he

55. The farmer is the most important person in the movie.He is the hero. A.英雄 B.主角 C.偶像 D.象征 56. John smoked one of his father’s cigars and now he is sick. He made his bed, now let him lie in it. A.自作自受 B. 卧病在床 C. 祸不单行 D.不省人事 57. As soon as a boy reaches the age of twenty-one, he ought to be able to stand on his own legs. A.自爱 up easily. A. frighten clothing. A.very tall B.very poor C.very rich 60. Just for fun, they decided to try a very circuitous country road instead of the more direct highway. A.Direct B.indirect C.straight 61.Since he rejected the advice his teacher gave him,he failed in the exam. A.took B.refused C.made 62..The fresh trout is very cheap, but I don’t know how to cook it. A.fish B.fruit C.apple 63.When you throw a little stone into a still pond, you will see a ripple spread in rings on the surface of water. 64. It rained heavily. That’s why the football match was postponed. 65. Tom is lazy while his brother is industrious. 66.On the farm they mainly raise poultry, such as chickens, ducks and geese, both for their eggs and their meat. 67.Some armed policemen have to wear bullet-proof Vests, a piece of clothing that can protect their chests and that are used to stop bullets or a vest which cannot be passed through by bullets. 68.A magnet is a piece of iron or steel which can pull other pieces of iron to itself, and a magnet is sometimes used by some people to find their lost bits of iron from the places where it’s difficult for them to find them without a magnet.
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69.The Olympic Oath is repeated by all the contestants during the beginning exercises. “We swear that we will take part in the Olympic games in loyal competition, respecting the regulations which govern them and desirous of participating in them in the true spirit of sportsmanship for the honor of our country and for the glory of sport.” This oath is taken when ___________. A. the contests begin B. the contests are over C. he players prove their sportsmanship D. there is glory in the sport 70.Analyzing the law of the talion---an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth---William Ian Miller presents an original thinking over the concept of “pay back.” The word “talion” in introducing the book Eye for an Eye is probably a concept of______. A. medicine B. trade C. avenging D. striving 6. Some children are natural-born bosses. They have a strong need to make decisions, manage their environment, and lead rather than follow. … “Examine the extended family, and you’ll probably find a bossy grandparent, aunt, uncle or cousin in every generation. It’s an inheritable trait,” said Russell Barkley, a professor… 44. The underlined phrase “inheritable trait” in Paragraph 2 means ____. A. inborn nature C. accepted theory B. developed character D. particular environment

B.自尊

C.自立

D.自强

58.I'm a resolute man. Once I set up a goal, I won't give it B. brave and careless C. firm D. angry

59.One who is destitute has a great need for food and

7.…When she was still in her early 30s, publishing essays in such important magazines as partisan Review, she appeared as the symbol of American cultural life, trying hard to follow every new development, Sontag walked at the latest edges of world culture. 71. The underlined sentence in Paragragh 1 means Sontag __. A. was a symbol of American cultural life B. developed world literature, film and art C. published many essays about world culture D. kept pace with the newest development of world culture


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