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ASTM E140-05e1《金属标准硬度换算表》


Designation: E 140 – 05e1

Standard Hardness Conversion Tables for Metals Relationship Among Brinell Hardness, Vickers Hardness, Rockwell Hardness, Supercial Hardness, Knoop Hardnes

s, and Scleroscope Hardness1
This standard is issued under the xed designation E 140; the number immediately following the designation indicates the year of original adoption or, in the case of revision, the year of last revision. A number in parentheses indicates the year of last reapproval. A superscript epsilon (e) indicates an editorial change since the last revision or reapproval. This standard has been approved for use by agencies of the Department of Defense.

e1 NOTE—The layout of Table 2 was editorially corrected in August 2005.

1. Scope* 1.1 Conversion Table 1 presents data in the Rockwell C hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell supercial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of nonaustenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.2 Conversion Table 2 presents data in the Rockwell B hardness range on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell supercial hardness, Knoop hardness, and Scleroscope hardness of nonaustenitic steels including carbon, alloy, and tool steels in the as-forged, annealed, normalized, and quenched and tempered conditions provided that they are homogeneous. 1.3 Conversion Table 3 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell supercial hardness, and Knoop hardness of nickel and high-nickel alloys (nickel content over 50 %). These hardness conversion relationships are intended to apply particularly to the following: nickel-aluminum-silicon specimens nished to commercial mill standards for hardness testing, covering the entire range of these alloys from their annealed to their heavily cold-worked or age-hardened conditions, including their intermediate conditions. 1.4 Conversion Table 4 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, and Rockwell supercial hardness of cartridge brass. 1.5 Conversion Table 5 presents data on the relationship between Brinell hardness and Rockwell B hardness of austenitic stainless steel plate in the annealed condition.
1 These conversion tables are under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E28 on Mechanical Testing and are the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E28.06 on Indentation Hardness Testing. Current edition approved April 1, 2005. Published April 2005. Originally approved in 1958. Last previous edition approved in 2002 as E 140 – 02e1.

1.6 Conversion Table 6 presents data on the relationship between Rockwell hardness and Rockwell supercial hardness of austenitic stainless steel sheet. 1.7 Conversion Table 7 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, Rockwell supercial hardness, and Knoop hardness of copper. 1.8 Conversion Table 8 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Rockwell hardness, and Vickers hardness of alloyed white iron. 1.9 Conversion Table 9 presents data on the relationship among Brinell hardness, Vickers hardness, Rockwell hardness, and Rockwell supercial hardness of wrought aluminum products. 1.10 Many of the conversion values presented herein were obtained from computer-generated curves of actual test data. Most Rockwell hardness numbers are presented to the nearest 0.1 or 0.5 hardness number to permit accurate reproduction of these curves. Since all converted hardness values must be considered approximate, however, all converted Rockwell hardness numbers shall be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29. 1.11 Appendix X1-Appendix X9 contain equations developed from the data in Tables 1-9, respectively, to convert from one hardness scale to another. Since all converted hardness values must be considered approximate, however, all converted hardness numbers shall be rounded in accordance with Practice E 29. 1.12 Conversion of hardness values should be used only when it is impossible to test the material under the conditions specied, and when conversion is made it should be done with discretion and under controlled conditions. Each type of hardness test is subject to certain errors, but if precautions are carefully observed, the reliability of hardness readings made on instruments of the indentation type will be found comparable. Differences in sensitivity within the range of a given hardness scale (for example, Rockwell B) may be greater than between two different scales or types of instruments. The conversion

*A Summary of Changes section appears at the end of this standard.
Copyright ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States.

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E 140 – 05e1
values, whether from the tables or calculated from the equations, are only approximate and may be inaccurate for specic application. 2. Referenced Documents 2.1 ASTM Standards: 2 E 10 Test Method for Brinell Hardness of Metallic Materials E 18 Test Method for Rockwell Hardness and Rockwell Supercial Hardness of Metallic Materials E 29 Practice for Using Signicant Digits in Test Data to Determine Conformance with Specications E 92 Test Method for Vickers Hardness of Metallic Materials E 384 Test Method for Microhardness of Materials E 448 Practice for Scleroscope Hardness Testing of Metallic Materials 3. Methods for Hardness Determinations 3.1 The hardness readings used with these conversion tables shall be determined in accordance with one of the following ASTM test methods: 3.1.1 Vickers Hardness—Test Method E 92. 3.1.2 Brinell Hardness—Test Method E 10. 3.1.3 Rockwell Hardness—Test Method E 18 Scales A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, 15-N, 30-N, 45-N, 15-T, 30-T, 45-T, 15-W. 3.1.4 Knoop Hardness—Test Method E 384. 3.1.5 Scleroscope 3 Hardness—Practice E 448. 4. Apparatus and Reference Standards 4.1 The apparatus and reference standards shall conform to the description in Test Methods E 92, E 10, E 18, E 384, and Practice E 448. 5. Principle of Method of Conversion 5.1 Tests have proved that even the most reliable data cannot be tted to a single conversion relationship for all metals. Indentation hardness is not a single fundamental property but a combination of properties, and the contribution of each to the hardness number varies with the type of test. The modulus of elasticity has been shown to inuence conversions at high hardness levels; and at low hardness levels conversions between hardness scales measuring depth and those measuring diameter are likewise inuenced by differences in the modulus of elasticity. Therefore separate conversion tables are necessary for different materials.
NOTE 1—Hardness conversion values for other metals based on comparative test on similar materials having similar mechanical properties will be added to this standard as the need arises.

6. Signicance and Use 6.1 The conversion values given in the tables, or calculated by the equations given in the appendixes, should only be considered valid for the specic materials indicated. This is because conversions can be affected by several factors, including the material alloy, grain structure, heat treatment, etc. 6.2 Since the various types of hardness tests do not all measure the same combination of material properties, conversion from one hardness scale to another is only an approximate process. Because of the wide range of variation among different materials, it is not possible to state condence limits for the errors in using a conversion chart. Even in the case of a table established for a single material, such as the table for cartridge brass, some error is involved depending on composition and methods of processing (see Appendix X1). 6.3 Because of their approximate nature, conversion tables must be regarded as only an estimate of comparative values. It is recommended that hardness conversions be applied primarily to values such as specication limits, which are established by agreement or mandate, and that the conversion of test data be avoided whenever possible. 7. Reporting of Hardness Numbers 7.1 When reporting converted hardness numbers the measured hardness and test scale shall be indicated in parentheses as in the following example:
353 HBW ~38 HRC! (1)

For referenced ASTM standards, visit the ASTM website, www.astm.org, or contact ASTM Customer Service at service@astm.org. For Annual Book of ASTM Standards volume information, refer to the standard's Document Summary page on the ASTM website. 3 Registered trademark of the Shore Instrument and Manufacturing Co., Inc.

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8. Keywords 8.1 conversion; hardness scale; metallic

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E 140 – 05e1

TABLE 1 Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers for Non-Austenitic Steels (Rockwell C Hardness Range)A,
Rockwell C Vickers Hardness Hardness Number Number 150 kgf (HV) (HRC) 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20
A B

B

Brinell Hardness Number 10-mm Standard Ball, 3000-kgf (HBS) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (500) (487) (475) (464) 451 442 432 421 409 400 390 381 371 362 353 344 336 327 319 311 301 294 286 279 271 264 258 253 247 243 237 231 226

C

10-mm Carbide Ball, 3000-kgf (HBW) ... ... ... (739) (722) (705) (688) (670) (654) 634 615 595 577 560 543 525 512 496 481 469 455 443 432 421 409 400 390 381 371 362 353 344 336 327 319 311 301 294 286 279 271 264 258 253 247 243 237 231 226

Knoop Hardness, Number 500-gf and Over (HK) 920 895 870 846 822 799 776 754 732 710 690 670 650 630 612 594 576 558 542 526 510 495 480 466 452 438 426 414 402 391 380 370 360 351 342 334 326 318 311 304 297 290 284 278 272 266 261 256 251

Rockwell Hardness Number A Scale, 60-kgf (HRA) 85.6 85.0 84.5 83.9 83.4 82.8 82.3 81.8 81.2 80.7 80.1 79.6 79.0 78.5 78.0 77.4 76.8 76.3 75.9 75.2 74.7 74.1 73.6 73.1 72.5 72.0 71.5 70.9 70.4 69.9 69.4 68.9 68.4 67.9 67.4 66.8 66.3 65.8 65.3 64.8 64.3 63.8 63.3 62.8 62.4 62.0 61.5 61.0 60.5 D Scale, 100-kgf (HRD) 76.9 76.1 75.4 74.5 73.8 73.0 72.2 71.5 70.7 69.9 69.2 68.5 67.7 66.9 66.1 65.4 64.6 63.8 63.1 62.1 61.4 60.8 60.0 59.2 58.5 57.7 56.9 56.2 55.4 54.6 53.8 53.1 52.3 51.5 50.8 50.0 49.2 48.4 47.7 47.0 46.1 45.2 44.6 43.8 43.1 42.1 41.6 40.9 40.1

Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number 15-N Scale, 15-kgf (HR 15-N) 93.2 92.9 92.5 92.2 91.8 91.4 91.1 90.7 90.2 89.8 89.3 88.9 88.3 87.9 87.4 86.9 86.4 85.9 85.5 85.0 84.5 83.9 83.5 83.0 82.5 82.0 81.5 80.9 80.4 79.9 79.4 78.8 78.3 77.7 77.2 76.6 76.1 75.6 75.0 74.5 73.9 73.3 72.8 72.2 71.6 71.0 70.5 69.9 69.4 30-N Scale, 30-kgf (HR 30-N) 84.4 83.6 82.8 81.9 81.1 80.1 79.3 78.4 77.5 76.6 75.7 74.8 73.9 73.0 72.0 71.2 70.2 69.4 68.5 67.6 66.7 65.8 64.8 64.0 63.1 62.2 61.3 60.4 59.5 58.6 57.7 56.8 55.9 55.0 54.2 53.3 52.1 51.3 50.4 49.5 48.6 47.7 46.8 45.9 45.0 44.0 43.2 42.3 41.5 45-N Scale, 45-kgf (HR 45-N) 75.4 74.2 73.3 72.0 71.0 69.9 68.8 67.7 66.6 65.5 64.3 63.2 62.0 60.9 59.8 58.6 57.4 56.1 55.0 53.8 52.5 51.4 50.3 49.0 47.8 46.7 45.5 44.3 43.1 41.9 40.8 39.6 38.4 37.2 36.1 34.9 33.7 32.5 31.3 30.1 28.9 27.8 26.7 25.5 24.3 23.1 22.0 20.7 19.6 Scleroscope Hardness NumberD 97.3 95.0 92.7 90.6 88.5 86.5 84.5 82.6 80.8 79.0 77.3 75.6 74.0 72.4 70.9 69.4 67.9 66.5 65.1 63.7 62.4 61.1 59.8 58.5 57.3 56.1 54.9 53.7 52.6 51.5 50.4 49.3 48.2 47.1 46.1 45.1 44.1 43.1 42.2 41.3 40.4 39.5 38.7 37.8 37.0 36.3 35.5 34.8 34.2

Rockwell C Hardness Number 150 kgf (HRC) 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20

940 900 865 832 800 772 746 720 697 674 653 633 613 595 577 560 544 528 513 498 484 471 458 446 434 423 412 402 392 382 372 363 354 345 336 327 318 310 302 294 286 279 272 266 260 254 248 243 238

In the table headings, force refers to total test forces. Appendix X1 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Rockwell C hardness numbers for non-austenitic steels. Refer to 1.11 before using conversion equations. C The Brinell hardness numbers in parentheses are outside the range recommended for Brinell hardness testing in 8.1 of Test Method E 10. D These Scleroscope hardness conversions are based on Vickers—Scleroscope hardness relationships developed from Vickers hardness data provided by the National Bureau of Standards for 13 steel reference blocks, Scleroscope hardness values obtained on these blocks by the Shore Instrument and Mfg. Co., Inc., the Roll Manufacturers Institute, and members of this institute, and also on hardness conversions previously published by the American Society for Metals and the Roll Manufacturers Institute.

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E 140 – 05e1
TABLE 2 Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers for Non-Austenitic Steels (Rockwell B Hardness Range)A,
Rockwell B Hardness Number, 100-kgf (HRB) 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 Vickers Hardness Number (HV) 240 234 228 222 216 210 205 200 195 190 185 180 176 172 169 165 162 159 156 153 150 147 144 141 139 137 135 132 130 127 125 123 121 119 117 116 114 112 110 108 107 Brinell Hardness Number, 3000-kgf, (HBS) 240 234 228 222 216 210 205 200 195 190 185 180 176 172 169 165 162 159 156 153 150 147 144 141 139 137 135 132 130 127 125 123 121 119 117 116 114 112 110 108 107 Knoop Hardness Number, 500-gf, and Over (HK) 251 246 241 236 231 226 221 216 211 206 201 196 192 188 184 180 176 173 170 167 164 161 158 155 152 150 147 145 143 141 139 137 135 133 131 129 127 125 124 122 120 Rockwell A Hardness Number, 60-kgf, (HRA) 61.5 60.9 60.2 59.5 58.9 58.3 57.6 57.0 56.4 55.8 55.2 54.6 54.0 53.4 52.8 52.3 51.7 51.1 50.6 50.0 49.5 48.9 48.4 47.9 47.3 46.8 46.3 45.8 45.3 44.8 44.3 43.8 43.3 42.8 42.3 41.8 41.4 40.9 40.4 40.0 39.5 Rockwell F Hardness Number, 60-kgf, (HRF) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 99.6 99.1 98.5 98.0 97.4 96.8 96.2 95.6 95.1 94.5 93.9 93.4 92.8 92.2 91.7 91.1 Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number 15-T Scale, 15-kgf, (HR 15-T) 93.1 92.8 92.5 92.1 91.8 91.5 91.2 90.8 90.5 90.2 89.9 89.5 89.2 88.9 88.6 88.2 87.9 87.6 87.3 86.9 86.6 86.3 86.0 85.6 85.3 85.0 84.7 84.3 84.0 83.7 83.4 83.0 82.7 82.4 82.1 81.8 81.4 81.1 80.8 80.5 80.1 30-T Scale, 30-kgf, (HR 30-T) 83.1 82.5 81.8 81.1 80.4 79.8 79.1 78.4 77.8 77.1 76.4 75.8 75.1 74.4 73.8 73.1 72.4 71.8 71.1 70.4 69.7 69.1 68.4 67.7 67.1 66.4 65.7 65.1 64.4 63.7 63.1 62.4 61.7 61.0 60.4 59.7 59.0 58.4 57.7 57.0 56.4 45-T Scale, 45-kgf, (HR 45-T) 72.9 71.9 70.9 69.9 68.9 67.9 66.9 65.9 64.8 63.8 62.8 61.8 60.8 59.8 58.8 57.8 56.8 55.8 54.8 53.8 52.8 51.8 50.8 49.8 48.8 47.8 46.8 45.8 44.8 43.8 42.8 41.8 40.8 39.8 38.7 37.7 36.7 35.7 34.7 33.7 32.7
B

Rockwell B Hardness Number, 100-kgf, (HRB) 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60

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TABLE 2
Rockwell B Hardness Number, 100-kgf, (HRB) 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30
A B

Continued
Rockwell F Hardness Number, 60-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball 90.5 90.0 89.4 88.8 88.2 87.7 87.1 86.5 86.0 85.4 84.8 84.3 83.7 83.1 82.6 82.0 81.4 80.8 80.3 79.7 79.1 78.6 78.0 77.4 76.9 76.3 75.7 75.2 74.6 74.0 Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number 15-T Scale, 15-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball 79.8 79.5 79.2 78.8 78.5 78.2 77.9 77.5 77.2 76.9 76.6 76.2 75.9 75.6 75.3 74.9 74.6 74.3 74.0 73.6 73.3 73.0 72.7 72.3 72.0 71.7 71.4 71.0 70.7 70.4 30-T Scale, 30-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball 55.7 55.0 54.4 53.7 53.0 52.4 51.7 51.0 50.3 49.7 49.0 48.3 47.7 47.0 46.3 45.7 45.0 44.3 43.7 43.0 42.3 41.6 41.0 40.3 39.6 39.0 38.3 37.6 37.0 36.3 45-T Scale, 45-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball 31.7 30.7 29.7 28.7 27.7 26.7 25.7 24.7 23.7 22.7 21.7 20.7 19.7 18.7 17.7 16.7 15.7 14.7 13.6 12.6 11.6 10.6 9.6 8.6 7.6 6.6 5.6 4.6 3.6 2.6 Rockwell B Hardness Number, 100-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30

Vickers Hardness Number (HV)

Brinell Hardness Number, 3000-kgf, 10-mm Ball 106 104 103 101 100 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

Knoop Hardness Number, 500-gf and Over 118 117 115 114 112 111 110 109 108 107 106 105 104 103 102 101 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87

Rockwell A Hardness Number, 60-kgf, Diamond Penetrator 39.0 38.6 38.1 37.7 37.2 36.8 36.3 35.9 35.5 35.0 34.6 34.1 33.7 33.3 32.9 32.4 32.0 31.6 31.2 30.7 30.3 29.9 29.5 29.1 28.7 28.2 27.8 27.4 27.0 26.6

106 104 103 101 100 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

In table headings, kgf refers to total test force. Appendix X2 contains equations converting determined hardness numbers to Rockwell B hardness numbers for non-austenitic steels. Refer to 1.11 before using conversion equations.

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TABLE 3 Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers for Nickel and High-Nickel AlloysA,

B, C

NOTE 1—See Supplement to Table 3. NOTE 2—The use of hardness scales for hardness values shown in parentheses is not recommended since they are beyond the ranges recommended for accuracy. Such values are shown for comparative purposes only, where comparisons may be desired and the recommended machine and scale are not available.

Vickers Hardness Number Rockwell Hardness Number Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number B Scale C Scale D Scale E Scale F Scale G Scale K Scale 15-N Scale 15-kgf Supercial Diamond Penetrator (HR 15-N) 30-kgf Supercial Diamond Penetrator (HR 30-N) 45-kgf Supercial Diamond Penetrator (HR 45-N) 15-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HR 15-T) 30-N Scale 45-N Scale 15-T Scale 30-T Scale 30-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HR 30-T)

Brinell Hardness Number

A Scale

Vickers Indenter 1, 5, 10, 30kgf (HV) 100-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HRB) 100-kgf 18-in. (3.175mm) Ball (HRE) 60-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HRF) 150-kgf 18-in. (3.175mm) Ball (HRK) 150-kgf Diamond Penetrator (HRC) 100-kgf Diamond Penetrator (HRD) 150-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HRG)

10-mm Standard Ball, 3000kgf (HBS)

45-T Scale 45-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HR 45-T)

60-kgf Diamond Penetrator (HRA)

E 140 – 05e1

6

513 481 452 427 404 382 362 344 326 309 285 266 248 234 220 209 198 188 179 171 164 157 151 145 140 135 130 126 122 119 115 112 108 106 103 100 98 95 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

(479) 450 425 403 382 363 346 329 313 298 275 258 241 228 215 204 194 184 176 168 161 155 149 144 139 134 129 125 121 118 114 111 108 106 103 100 98 95

75.5 74.5 73.5 72.5 71.5 70.5 69.5 68.5 67.5 66.5 64.5 63.0 61.5 60.5 59.0 57.5 56.5 55.0 53.5 52.5 51.5 50.0 49.0 47.5 46.5 45.5 44.0 43.0 42.0 41.0 40.0 39.0 ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (106) (104) (102) 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 52 50

50.0 48.0 46.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 38.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 28.5 25.5 22.5 20.0 (17.0) (14.5) (12.0) (9.0) (6.5) (4.0) (2.0) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

63.0 61.5 60.0 58.5 57.0 55.5 54.0 52.5 50.5 49.5 46.5 44.5 42.0 40.0 38.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 26.5 24.5 22.5 21.0 (19.0) (17.5) (16.0) (14.5) (13.0) (11.5) (10.0) (8.0) ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (108.5) (107.0) (106.0) (104.5) (103.0) (102.0) (100.5) 99.5 98.0 97.0 95.5 94.5 93.0 91.5 90.5 89.0 88.0 86.5 85.5 84.0 83.0

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... (116.5) (115.5) (114.5) (113.0) (112.0) (111.0) (110.0) (108.5) (107.5) (106.5) (105.0) (104.0) (103.0) (101.5) (100.5) 99.5 98.5 97.0 96.0 95.0 93.5 92.5 91.5 90.0 89.0 88.0 87.0 85.5 84.5

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 94.0 91.0 87.5 84.5 81.5 78.5 75.5 72.0 69.0 65.5 62.5 59.5 56.5 53.0 50.0 47.0 43.5 40.5 37.5 34.5 31.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 100.0 98.0 96.5 94.5 93.0 91.0 89.0 87.5 85.5 83.5 82.0 80.0 78.0 76.5 74.5 72.5 71.0 69.0 67.5 65.5 63.5 62.0 60.0 58.0

85.5 84.5 83.5 82.5 81.5 80.5 79.5 78.5 77.5 76.5 75.0 73.5 72.0 70.5 69.0 68.0 66.5 65.0 64.0 62.5 61.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

68.0 66.5 64.5 63.0 61.0 59.5 58.0 56.0 54.5 52.5 49.5 47.0 44.5 42.0 39.5 37.5 35.5 32.5 30.5 28.5 26.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

54.5 52.5 50.0 47.5 45.5 43.0 41.0 38.5 36.0 34.0 30.0 26.5 23.0 20.0 17.0 14.0 11.0 7.5 5.0 2.0 (0.5) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 94.5 94.0 93.0 92.5 92.0 91.0 90.5 89.5 89.0 88.0 87.5 87.0 86.0 85.5 84.5 84.0 83.0 82.5 82.0 81.0 80.5 79.5 79.0 78.5 77.5 77.0 76.0 75.5 74.5

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 85.5 84.5 83.0 81.5 80.5 79.0 77.5 76.0 75.0 73.5 72.0 70.5 69.5 68.0 66.5 65.5 64.0 62.5 61.0 60.0 58.5 57.0 56.0 54.5 53.0 51.5 50.5 49.0 47.5

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 77.0 75.0 73.0 71.0 69.0 67.0 65.0 63.0 61.0 59.5 57.5 55.5 53.5 51.5 49.5 47.5 45.5 43.5 41.5 39.5 37.5 35.5 33.5 31.5 29.5 27.5 25.5 23.5 21.5

TABLE 3

Continued

Vickers Hardness Number Rockwell Hardness Number B Scale C Scale D Scale E Scale F Scale G Scale K Scale 15-N Scale 30-N Scale 45-N Scale

Brinell Hardness Number

Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number

A Scale

15-T Scale

30-T Scale

45-T Scale

E 140 – 05e1

7
48 46 44 42 40 38 36 34 32 30 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 81.5 80.5 79.0 78.0 76.5 75.0 74.0 72.5 71.5 70.0 83.5 82.0 81.0 80.0 79.0 77.5 76.5 75.5 74.0 73.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 56.5 54.5 52.5 51.0 49.0 47.0 45.5 43.5 42.0 40.0

Vickers Indenter 1, 5, 10, 30kgf (HV) 100-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HRB) 100-kgf 18-in. (3.175mm) Ball (HRE) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 60-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HRF) 150-kgf 18-in. (3.175mm) Ball (HRK) 150-kgf Diamond Penetrator (HRC) 100-kgf Diamond Penetrator (HRD) 150-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HRG) 15-kgf Supercial Diamond Penetrator (HR 15-N)

10-mm Standard Ball, 3000kgf (HBS)

60-kgf Diamond Penetrator (HRA)

30-kgf Supercial Diamond Penetrator (HR 30-N) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

45-kgf Supercial Diamond Penetrator (HR 45-N) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

15-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HR 15-T) 74.0 73.5 72.5 72.0 71.0 70.5 70.0 69.0 68.5 67.5

30-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HR 30-T) 46.5 45.0 43.5 42.0 41.0 39.5 38.0 36.5 35.5 34.0

45-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HR 45-T) 19.5 17.0 14.5 12.5 10.0 7.5 5.5 3.0 1.0 (1.5)

93 91 89 87 85 83 81 79 78 77

93 91 89 87 85 83 81 79 78 77

... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

TABLE 3
Vickers Hardness Number Vickers Indenter 1,5,10,30-kgf (HV) Knoop Indenter 500 and 1000-gf (HK) Knoop Hardness Number

Continued

E 140 – 05e1

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382 362 344 326 309 285 266 248 234 220 209 198 188 179 171 164 157 151 145 140 135 130 126 122 119

436 413 392 372 352 325 304 283 267 251 239 226 215 204 195 187 179 173 166 160 154 149 144 140 136

A

B

In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force. Appendix X3 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Vickers hardness numbers for nickel and high-nickel alloys. Refer to 1.11 before using conversion equations. Note that in Table 5 of Test Method E 10 (appears in the Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol 03.01), the use of a 3000-kgf force is recommended (but not mandatory) for material in the hardness range from 96 to 600 HV, and a 1500-kgf force is recommended (but not mandatory) for material in the hardness range from 48 to 300 HV. These recommendations are designed to limit impression diameters to the range from 2.50 to 6.0 mm. The Brinell hardness numbers in this conversion table are based on tests using a 3000-kgf force. When the 1500-kgf force is used for the softer nickel and high-nickel alloys, these conversion relationships do not apply.

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TABLE 4 Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers for Cartridge Brass (70 % Copper 30 % Zinc Alloy)A,B
Rockwell Hardness Number Vickers Hardness Number (HV) B Scale, 100kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HRB) 93.5 ... 93.0 92.5 92.0 91.5 91.0 90.5 90.0 89.0 88.5 88.0 87.5 87.0 86.0 85.5 85.0 84.0 83.5 83.0 82.0 81.5 80.5 80.0 79.0 78.0 77.5 77.0 76.0 75.0 74.5 73.5 73.0 72.0 71.0 70.0 69.0 68.0 67.0 66.0 65.0 64.0 63.0 62.0 61.0 59.5 58.0 57.0 56.0 54.0 53.0 51.0 49.5 47.5 46.0 44.0 42.0 40.0 37.5 35.0 32.5 30.0 27.5 24.5 21.5 18.5 15.5 12.5 F Scale, 60-kgf 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HRF) 110.0 109.5 ... 109.0 ... 108.5 ... 108.0 107.5 ... 107.0 ... 106.5 ... 106.0 ... 105.5 105.0 ... 104.5 104.0 103.5 103.0 ... 102.5 102.0 101.5 101.0 100.5 100.0 99.5 99.0 98.5 98.0 97.5 97.0 96.5 96.0 95.5 95.0 94.5 94.0 93.0 92.6 92.0 91.2 90.5 89.8 89.0 88.0 87.2 86.3 85.4 84.4 83.5 82.3 81.2 80.0 78.6 77.4 76.0 74.8 73.2 71.8 70.0 68.5 66.8 65.0 Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number 15-T Scale, 15-kgf,116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HR 15-T) 90.0 ... ... ... 89.5 ... ... 89.0 ... ... ... 88.5 ... ... 88.0 ... ... 87.5 ... ... 87.0 ... ... 86.5 ... ... 86.0 ... 85.5 ... 85.0 ... 84.5 84.0 ... 83.5 ... 83.0 ... 82.5 82.0 81.5 81.0 80.5 ... 80.0 79.5 79.0 78.5 78.0 77.5 77.0 76.5 75.5 75.0 74.5 73.5 73.0 72.0 71.5 70.5 70.0 69.0 68.0 67.0 66.0 65.0 63.5 30-T Scale, 30kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 30-T) 77.5 ... 77.0 76.5 ... 76.0 75.5 ... 75.0 74.5 ... 74.0 73.5 ... 73.0 72.5 72.0 ... 71.5 71.0 70.5 70.0 ... 69.5 69.0 68.5 68.0 67.5 67.0 66.5 66.0 65.5 65.0 64.5 63.5 63.0 62.5 62.0 61.0 60.5 60.0 59.5 58.5 58.0 57.0 56.0 55.0 54.5 53.5 52.5 51.5 50.5 49.0 48.0 47.0 45.5 44.0 43.0 41.0 39.5 38.0 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 25.5 23.0 45-T Scale, 45kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 45-T) 66.0 65.5 65.0 64.5 64.0 63.5 63.0 62.5 62.0 61.5 61.0 60.5 60.0 59.5 59.0 58.5 58.0 57.5 56.5 56.0 55.5 54.5 54.0 53.5 53.0 52.5 51.5 51.0 50.0 49.0 48.0 47.5 46.5 45.5 45.0 44.0 43.0 42.0 41.0 40.0 39.0 38.0 37.0 35.5 34.5 33.0 32.0 30.5 29.5 28.0 26.5 24.5 23.0 21.0 19.0 17.0 14.5 12.5 10.0 7.5 4.5 1.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... Brinell Hardness Number 500-kgf, 10-mm Ball (HBS) 169 167 166 164 162 161 159 157 156 154 152 150 149 147 146 144 142 141 139 138 136 135 133 131 129 128 126 124 122 121 120 118 116 114 113 112 110 108 106 105 103 101 99 97 95 94 92 90 88 86 85 83 82 80 79 77 76 74 72 70 68 66 64 63 62 61 59 57

196 194 192 190 188 186 184 182 180 178 176 174 172 170 168 166 164 162 160 158 156 154 152 150 148 146 144 142 140 138 136 134 132 130 128 126 124 122 120 118 116 114 112 110 108 106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 68 66 64 62

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TABLE 4
Rockwell Hardness Number Vickers Hardness Number (HV) B Scale, 100kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HRB) 10.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... F Scale, 60-kgf 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HRF) 62.5 61.0 58.8 56.5 53.5 50.5 49.0 47.0 45.0 43.0 40.0

Continued
Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number Brinell Hardness Number 500-kgf, 10-mm Ball (HBS) 55 53 52 50 48 47 46 45 44 43 42

15-T Scale, 15-kgf,116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HR 15-T) 62.5 61.0 60.0 58.5 57.0 55.5 54.5 53.5 ... ... ...

30-T Scale, 30kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 30-T) ... 18.0 15.0 12.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

45-T Scale, 45kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 45-T) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

60 58 56 54 52 50 49 48 47 46 45
A B

In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force. Appendix X4 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Vickers hardness numbers for cartridge brass. Refer to 1.11 before using conversion equations.

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TABLE 5 Approximate Brinell-Rockwell B Hardness Conversion Numbers for Austenitic Stainless Steel Plate in Annealed ConditionA,B
Rockwell Hardness Number, B Scale (100-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) ball) (HRB) 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60
A B

Brinell Hardness Number (3000-kgf, 10-mm ball) (HBS) 256 248 240 233 226 219 213 207 202 197 192 187 183 178 174 170 167 163 160 156 153 150 147 144 142 139 137 135 132 130 128 126 124 122 120 118 116 114 113 111 110

In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force. Appendix X5 contains an equation converting determined Brinell hardness numbers to Rockwell B hardness numbers for austenitic steel plate in the annealed condition. Refer to 1.11 before using this conversion equation.

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TABLE 6 Approximate Rockwell Hardness Conversion Numbers for Austenitic Stainless Steel SheetA,B

NOTE 1—These conversions are based on interlaboratory tests conducted on the following grades: Types 201, 202, 301, 302, 304, 304L, 305, 316, 316L, 321, and 347. Tempers ranged from annealed to extra hard for Type 301, with a smaller range of tempers for the other types. Test coupon thicknesses ranged from approximately 0.1 in. (2.5 mm) to 0.050 in. (1.27 mm).
Rockwell Hardness Number C Scale, 150-kgf Diamond Penetrator (HRC) 48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 23 22 21 20 B Scale, 100-kgf, -in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HRB) 100 99 98 97 96 95 94 93 92 91 90 89 88 87 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 79 78 77 76 75 74 73 72 71 70 A Scale, 60-kgf, Diamond Penetrator (HRA) 74.4 73.9 73.4 72.9 72.4 71.9 71.4 70.9 70.4 69.9 69.3 68.8 68.3 67.8 67.3 66.8 66.3 65.8 65.3 64.8 64.3 63.8 63.3 62.8 62.3 61.8 61.3 60.8 60.3 A Scale, 60-kgf, Diamond Penetrator (HRA) 61.5 60.9 60.3 59.7 59.1 58.5 58.0 57.4 56.8 56.2 55.6 55.0 54.5 53.9 53.3 52.7 52.1 51.5 50.9 50.4 49.8 49.2 48.6 48.0 47.4 46.9 46.3 45.7 45.1 44.5 43.9 F Scale, 60-kgf, -in. (1.588-mm) BallC (HRF) (113.9) (113.2) (112.5) (111.8) (111.1) (110.5) (109.8) (109.1) (108.4) (107.8) (107.1) (106.4) (105.7) (105.0) (104.4) (103.7) (103.0) (102.3) (101.7) (101.0) (100.3) 99.6 99.0 98.3 97.6 96.9 96.2 95.6 94.9 94.2 93.5 15-N Scale, 15-kgf, Supercial Diamond Penetrator (HR 15-N) 84.1 83.6 83.1 82.6 82.1 81.6 81.0 80.5 80.0 79.5 79.0 78.5 78.0 77.5 77.0 76.5 75.9 75.4 74.9 74.4 73.9 73.4 72.9 72.4 71.9 71.3 70.8 70.3 69.8 15-T Scale, 15-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 15-T) 91.5 91.2 90.8 90.4 90.1 89.7 89.3 88.9 88.6 88.2 87.8 87.5 87.1 86.7 86.4 86.0 85.6 85.2 84.9 84.5 84.1 83.8 83.4 83.0 82.6 82.3 81.9 81.5 81.2 80.8 80.4 Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number 30-N Scale, 30-kgf, Supercial Diamond Penetrator (HR 30-N) 66.2 65.3 64.5 63.6 62.7 61.8 61.0 60.1 59.2 58.4 57.5 56.6 55.7 54.9 54.0 53.1 52.3 51.4 50.5 49.6 48.8 47.9 47.0 46.2 45.3 44.4 43.5 42.7 41.8 30-T Scale, 30-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 30-T) 80.4 79.7 79.0 78.3 77.7 77.0 76.3 75.6 74.9 74.2 73.5 72.8 72.1 71.4 70.7 70.0 69.3 68.6 67.9 67.2 66.5 65.8 65.1 64.4 63.7 63.0 62.4 61.7 61.0 60.3 59.6 45-N Scale, 45-kgf, Supercial Diamond Penetrator (HR 45-N) 52.1 50.9 49.8 48.7 47.5 46.4 45.2 44.1 43.0 41.8 40.7 39.6 38.4 37.3 36.1 35.0 33.9 32.7 31.6 30.4 29.3 28.2 27.0 25.9 24.8 23.6 22.5 21.3 20.2 45-T Scale, 45-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 45-T) 70.2 69.2 68.2 67.2 66.1 65.1 64.1 63.1 62.1 61.1 60.1 59.0 58.0 57.0 56.0 55.0 54.0 52.9 51.9 50.9 49.9 48.9 47.9 46.8 45.8 44.8 43.8 42.8 41.8 40.7 39.7

1 16

1 16

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TABLE 6
B Scale, 100-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HRB) 69 68 67 66 65 64 63 62 61 60 Standard deviationC
A B

Continued
15-T Scale, 15-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 15-T) 80.1 79.7 79.3 78.9 78.6 78.2 77.8 77.5 77.1 76.7 2.29 30-T Scale, 30-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 30-T) 58.9 58.2 57.5 56.8 56.1 55.4 54.7 54.0 53.3 52.6 1.67 45-T Scale, 45-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) Ball (HR 45-T) 38.7 37.7 36.7 35.7 34.7 33.6 32.6 31.6 30.6 29.6 1.57

A Scale, 60-kgf, Diamond Penetrator (HRA) 43.3 42.8 42.2 41.6 41.0 40.4 39.8 39.3 38.7 38.1 1.44

F Scale, 60-kgf, 116-in. (1.588-mm) BallC (HRF) 92.8 92.2 91.5 90.8 90.1 89.5 88.8 88.1 87.4 86.8 2.75

In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force. Appendix X6 contains equations converting determined hardness numbers to Rockwell C and Rockwell B hardness numbers for austenitic stainless steel sheet. Refer to 1.11 before using conversion equations. C Observed standard deviation of the interlaboratory test data about the indicated conversion line.

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TABLE 7 Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers for Copper, No. 102 to 142 InclusiveA,
Vickers Hardness Number Knoop Hardness Number Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number 15-T 15-T Scale, Scale, 15-kgf 15-kgf 116-in. 116-in. (1.588(1.588mm) mm) Ball Ball (HR 15-T) (HR 15-T) 0.010-in. (0.25-mm) Strip 130 128 126 124 122 120 118 116 114 112 110 108 106 104 102 100 98 96 94 92 90 88 86 84 82 80 78 76 74 72 70 68 66 64 62 60 58 56 54 52 50 48 46 44 42 40
A B

B

Rockwell Hardness Number B Scale, 100-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HRB) F Scale, 60-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HRF)

Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number 15-T 30-T 45-T Scale, Scale, Scale, 15-kgf 30-kgf 45-kgf 116-in. 116-in. 116-in. (1.588(1.588(1.588mm) mm) mm) Ball Ball Ball (HR 15-T) (HR 30-T) (HR 45-T)

Brinell Hardness Number

30-T Scale, 30-kgf 116-in. (1.588mm) Ball (HR 30-T)

1-kgf (HV)

100-gf (HV)

1-kgf (HK)

500-gf (HK)

500-kgf, 10-mm Diameter Ball (HBS)

20-kgf 2-mm Diameter Ball (HBS)

0.020-in. (0.51-mm) Strip 85.0 84.5 84.0 83.5 83.0 82.5 ... 82.0 81.5 81.0 ... 80.5 80.0 79.5 79.0 78.0 77.5 77.0 76.5 75.5 75.0 74.5 73.5 73.0 72.0 71.0 70.0 69.5 68.5 67.5 66.5 65.5 64.5 63.5 62.0 61.0 60.0 58.5 57.5 56.0 55.0 53.5 52.0 51.0 49.5 48.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 67.0 66.0 65.0 64.0 62.5 61.0 59.5 58.5 57.0 55.0 53.5 52.0 50.0 48.0 46.5 44.5 42.0 40.0 38.0 35.5 33.0 30.5 28.0 25.5 23.0 20.0 17.0 14.5 11.5 8.5 5.0 2.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

0.040-in. (1.02-mm) Strip and Greater 99.0 98.0 97.0 96.0 95.5 95.0 94.0 93.0 92.5 91.5 91.0 90.5 89.5 88.5 87.5 87.0 85.5 84.5 83.0 82.0 81.0 79.5 78.0 76.5 74.5 73.0 71.0 69.0 67.5 66.0 64.0 62.0 60.0 58.0 56.0 54.0 51.5 49.0 47.0 44.0 41.5 39.0 36.0 33.5 30.5 28.0 ... 87.0 ... 86.0 85.5 ... 85.0 ... 84.5 ... 84.0 83.5 ... 83.0 82.5 82.0 81.0 80.5 80.0 79.0 78.0 77.0 76.0 75.0 74.5 73.5 72.5 71.5 70.0 69.0 67.5 66.0 64.5 63.5 61.0 59.0 57.0 55.0 53.0 51.5 49.5 47.5 45.0 43.0 41.0 38.5 69.5 68.5 67.5 66.5 66.0 65.0 64.0 63.0 62.0 61.0 60.0 59.0 58.0 57.0 56.0 55.0 53.5 52.0 51.0 49.0 47.5 46.0 44.0 43.0 41.0 39.5 37.5 36.0 34.0 32.0 30.0 28.0 25.5 23.5 21.0 18.0 15.5 13.0 10.0 7.5 4.5 1.5 ... ... ... ... 49.0 48.0 46.5 45.0 44.0 42.5 41.0 40.0 38.5 37.0 36.0 34.5 33.0 32.0 30.0 28.5 26.5 25.5 23.0 21.0 19.0 16.5 14.0 12.0 9.5 7.0 5.0 2.0 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ...

0.080-in. 0.040-in. (2.03-mm) (1.02-mm) Strip Strip ... ... 120.0 117.5 115.0 112.0 110.0 107.0 105.0 102.0 99.5 97.0 94.5 92.0 89.5 87.0 84.5 82.0 79.5 77.0 74.5 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 119.0 117.5 115.0 113.0 111.0 109.0 107.5 105.5 103.5 102.0 100.0 98.0 96.0 94.0 92.0 90.0 88.0 86.5 85.0 83.0 81.0 79.0 77.0 75.0 73.0 71.5 69.5 67.5 66.0 64.0 62.0 60.5 58.5 57.0 55.0 53.0 51.5 49.5 48.0 46.5 44.5 42.0 41.0 ... ... ...

127.0 125.2 123.6 121.9 121.1 118.5 116.8 115.0 113.5 111.8 109.9 108.3 106.6 104.9 103.2 101.5 99.8 98.0 96.4 94.7 93.0 91.2 89.7 87.9 86.1 84.5 82.8 81.0 79.2 77.6 75.8 74.3 72.6 70.9 69.1 67.5 65.8 64.0 62.3 60.7 58.9 57.3 55.8 53.9 52.2 51.3

138.7 136.8 134.9 133.0 131.0 129.0 127.1 125.1 123.2 121.4 119.5 117.5 115.6 113.5 111.5 109.4 107.3 105.3 103.2 101.0 98.9 96.9 95.5 92.3 90.1 87.9 85.7 83.5 81.1 78.9 76.8 74.1 71.9 69.5 67.0 64.6 62.0 59.8 57.4 55.0 52.8 50.3 48.0 45.9 43.7 40.2

133.8 132.1 130.4 128.7 127.0 125.2 123.5 121.7 119.9 118.1 116.3 114.5 112.6 110.1 108.0 106.0 104.0 102.1 100.0 98.0 96.0 94.0 92.0 90.0 87.9 86.0 84.0 81.9 79.9 78.7 76.6 74.4 71.9 70.0 67.9 65.9 63.8 61.8 59.5 57.2 55.0 52.7 50.2 47.8 45.2 42.8

... 83.0 ... 82.5 ... 82.0 81.5 ... 81.0 80.5 80.0 ... 79.5 79.0 78.5 78.0 77.5 77.0 76.5 76.0 75.5 75.0 74.5 74.0 73.5 72.5 72.0 71.5 71.0 70.0 69.5 69.0 68.0 67.5 66.5 66.0 65.0 64.5 63.5 63.0 62.0 61.0 60.5 59.5 58.5 57.5

In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force. Appendix X7 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Vickers hardness numbers for copper, numbers 102 to 142 inclusive. Refer to 1.11 before using conversion equations.

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TABLE 8 Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers for Alloyed White Irons A,
Vickers Hardness, HV 50 1000 980 960 940 920 900 880 860 840 820 800 780 760 740 720 700 Brinell Hardness, HBW (903)E (886) (868) (850) (833) (815) (798) (780) (762) (745) (727) (710) (692) (674) (657) (639) Rockwell C Hardness, HRC 70 69 68 68 67 66 66 65 64 63 62 62 61 60 59 58 Vickers Hardness, HV 50 680 660 640 620 600 580 560 540 520 500 480 460 440 420 400 380
B, C

BrinellD Hardness, HBW 621 604 586 569 551 533 516 498 481 463 445 428 410 393 375 357

Rockwell C Hardness, HRC 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 48 47 45 44 42 40 38 35

A Data were generated in an interlaboratory comparison program conducted by American Foundrymen's Society Special Irons Subcommittee, 5-D. Supporting data available on loan from ASTM Headquarters. Request RR: E28-1003. B In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force. C Appendix X8 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Vickers hardness numbers for alloyed white irons. Refer to 1.11 before using conversion equations. D Ten-millimetre tungsten carbide ball. E Brinell hardness numbers in parentheses are above the maximum hardness recommended by Test Method E 10 and are presented for information only.

TABLE 9 Approximate Hardness Conversion Numbers for Wrought Aluminum ProductsA,
Brinell Hardness Number 500-kgf, (10-mm Ball) (HBS) 160 155 150 145 140 135 130 125 120 115 110 105 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 45 40 Vickers Hardness Number 15-kgf, (HV) 189 183 177 171 165 159 153 147 141 135 129 123 117 111 105 98 92 86 80 74 68 62 56 50 44 Rockwell Hardness Number B Scale 100-kgf, 116-in. Ball (HRB) 91 90 89 87 86 84 81 79 76 72 69 65 60 56 51 46 40 34 28 ... ... ... ... ... ... E Scale 100-kgf, 18-in. Ball (HRE) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 101 100 99 98 96 94 91 88 84 80 75 70 65 59 53 46 H Scale 60-kgf, 18-in. Ball (HRH) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 108 107 106 104 102 100 97 94 91 87 83 15-T Scale 15-kgf, 116-in. Ball (HR 15-T) 89 89 89 88 88 87 87 86 86 86 85 84 83 82 81 80 78 76 74 72 70 67 64 62 59

B, C

Rockwell Supercial Hardness Number 30-T Scale 30-kgf, 116-in. Ball (HR 30-T) 77 76 75 74 73 71 70 68 67 65 63 61 59 57 54 52 50 47 44 ... ... ... ... ... ... 15-W Scale 15-kgf, 18-in. Ball (HR 15-W) 95 95 94 94 94 93 93 92 92 91 91 91 90 90 89 89 88 87 86 85 83 82 80 79 77

A Data were generated in an interlaboratory test program conducted by ASTM Subcommittee E28.06. Supporting data available from ASTM Headquarters. Request RR: E28-1005. B In table headings, kgf or gf refers to total test force. C Appendix X9 contains equations converting determined hardness scale numbers to Brinell numbers for wrought aluminum products. Refer to 1.11 before using conversion equations.

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APPENDIXES
(Nonmandatory Information) X1. HARDNESS CONVERSION EQUATIONS FOR NON-AUSTENITIC STEELS (DETERMINED HARDNESS SCALE NUMBERS TO ROCKWELL C HARDNESS NUMBERS)

X1.1 The following equations were generated from the specic hardness numbers contained in Table 1 and should not be used for converting numbers outside of the dened hardness range. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29. X1.1.1 From Vickers hardness to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 1 3.14900E101 1 7.96683E202~HV! 2 3.55432E205~HV!2 2 6.72816E103~HV! 21 R2 5 0.9999

HRC 5 2 1.25501E102 1 2.76747E 1 00~HRA! 2 5.94178E203~HRA!2 R2 5 0.9999

(X1.5)

X1.1.6 From Rockwell D hardness to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 2 3.20806E101 1 1.30193E100~HRD! R2 5 1.0000 (X1.6)

X1.1.7 From Rockwell 15N hardness to Rockwell C hardness:
(X1.1) HRC 5 2 3.74666E 1 02 1 1.27582E 1 01~HR15N! 2 1.48317E2 01~HR15N!2 1 6.68816E204~HR15N! 3 R2 5 0.9999 (X1.7)

X1.1.2 From Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 3000-kgf force) to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 1 8.35260E101 2 8.68203E202~HBS! 1 1.44229E2 04~HBS!2 2 1.15905E104~HBS! 21 R2 5 0.9998 (X1.2)

X1.1.8 From Rockwell 30N hardness to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 2 2.60390E101 1 1.11079E100~HR30N! R2 5 1.0000 (X1.8)

X1.1.3 From Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter tungsten carbide ball, 3000-kgf force) to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 1 1.81673E101 1 1.20388E201~HBW! 2 6.94388E2 05~HBW!2 2 4.88327E103~HBW! 21 R2 5 0.9998 (X1.3)

X1.1.9 From Rockwell 45N hardness to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 1 3.18978E100 1 8.54135E201~HR45N! R2 5 0.9999 (X1.9)

X1.1.4 From Knoop hardness (500-gf force and greater) to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 1 6.43102E101 1 7.59497E203~HK 500–1000! 1 1.13729E2 05~HK500–1000!2 2 1.17515E 1 04~HK500–1000! 21 R2 5 1.0000 (X1.4)

X1.1.10 From Scleroscope hardness to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 1 1.14708E101 1 9.61667E201~HSc! 2 3.15195E2 03~HSc!2 2 6.97208E102~HSc! 21 R2 5 1.0000 (X1.10)

X1.1.5 From Rockwell A hardness to Rockwell C hardness:

X2. HARDNESS CONVERSION EQUATIONS FOR NON-AUSTENITIC STEELS (DETERMINED HARDNESS SCALE NUMBERS TO ROCKWELL B HARDNESS NUMBERS)

X2.1 The following equations were generated from the specic hardness numbers contained in Table 2 and should not be used for converting numbers outside of the dened hardness range. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29. X2.1.1 From Vickers hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 1 1.14665E102 1 8.82795E202~HV! 2 1.41855E204~HV!2 2 6.69528E103~HV! 21 R2 5 0.9998

X2.1.3 From Knoop hardness (500-gf force and greater) to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 1 1.75357E102 2 2.37706E201~HK 500–1000! 1 4.56743E2 04~HK500–1000!2 2 1.12480E104~HK 500–1000!21 R2 5 0.9996 (X2.3)

X2.1.4 From Rockwell A hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 2 4.82350E101 1 3.33354E100~HRA! 2 1.50107E202~HRA!2 R2 5 1.0000

(X2.1)

(X2.4)

X2.1.2 From Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 3000-kgf force) to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 1 1.14665E102 1 8.82795E202~HBS! 2 1.41855E204~HBS!2 2 6.69528E103~HBS! 21 R2 5 0.9998

X2.1.5 From Rockwell F hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 2 9.99816E101 1 1.75617E100~HRF! R2 5 1.0000 (X2.5)

(X2.2)

X2.1.6 From Rockwell 15T hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
16

E 140 – 05e1
HRB 5 2 1.86934E102 1 3.08173E100~HR15T! R2 5 1.0000 (X2.6)

X2.1.8 From Rockwell 45T hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 1 2.74135E101 1 9.95874E201~HR45T! R2 5 1.0000 (X2.8)

X2.1.7 From Rockwell 30T hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 2 2.42568E101 1 1.49484E100~HR30T! R2 5 1.0000 (X2.7)

X3. HARDNESS CONVERSION EQUATIONS FOR NICKEL AND HIGH-NICKEL ALLOYS (DETERMINED HARDNESS SCALE NUMBERS TO VICKERS HARDNESS NUMBERS)

X3.1 The following equations were generated from the specic hardness numbers contained in Table 3 and should not be used for converting numbers outside of the dened hardness range. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29. X3.1.1 From Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 3000-kgf force) to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
HV 1.5,10,30 5 1 8.52592E202 1 9.82889E201~HBS! 1 1.89707E204~HBS!2 R2 5 1.0000 (X3.1)

R2 = 0.9991 X3.1.8 From Rockwell G hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 1.10239E202 2 8.27628E205~HRG! R2 5 0.9999 (X3.8)

X3.1.9 From Rockwell K hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 1.87458E202 2 1.41851E204~HRK! R 2 5 0.9998

(X3.9)

X3.1.2 From Rockwell A hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5,10,30!21 5 1 2.13852E202 2 3.84341E204~HRA! 1 1.67455E206~HRA!2 R2 5 0.9998 (X3.2)

X3.1.10 From Rockwell 15N hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 2.59838E202 2 4.31479E204~HR15N! 1 1.75469E206~HR15N!2 R 2 5 0.9998 (X3.10)

X3.1.3 From Rockwell B hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 1.69552E202 2 1.29200E204~HRB! R2 5 0.9999

X3.1.11 From Rockwell 30N hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 9.85078E203 2 1.58346E204~HR30N! 1 6.16727E207~HR30N!2 R 2 5 0.9997 (X3.11)

(X3.3)

X3.1.4 From Rockwell C hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 6.24553E203 2 1.08014E204~HRC! 1 4.32021E207~HRC!2 R2 5 0.9995 (X3.4)

X3.1.12 From Rockwell 45N hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 6.03882E203 2 9.51201E205~HR45N! 1 3.63345E207~HR45N!2 R 2 5 0.9998 (X3.12)

X3.1.5 From Rockwell D hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 1.04408E202 2 1.86498E204~HRD! 1 8.16952E207~HRD!2 R2 5 0.9998 (X3.5)

X3.1.13 From Rockwell 15T hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 3.71482E202 2 3.49957E204~HR15T! 2 8.92693E208~HR15T!2 R 2 5 0.9996 (X3.13)

X3.1.6 From Rockwell E hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 2.72286E202 2 2.01993E204~HRE! R2 5 0.9994

X3.1.14 From Rockwell 30T hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 1.94133E202 2 1.85296E204~HR30T! 2 4.01798E208~HR30T!2 R2 5 0.9998 (X3.14)

(X3.6)

X3.1.7 From Rockwell F hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 2.94130E202 2.23861E04(HRF) (X3.7)

X3.1.15 From Rockwell 45T hardness to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):
~HV 1.5, 10, 30!21 5 1 1.29736E202 2 1.14693E204~HR45T! 2 1.61879E207~HR45T!2

17

E 140 – 05e1
R 2 5 0.9998 (X3.15)

X3.1.16 From Knoop hardness (500 and 1000-gf forces) to Vickers hardness (1.5, 10, and 30-kgf forces):

HV 1.5, 10, 30 5 2 5.08687E201 1 8.78046E201~HK500,1000! R2 5 1.0000

(X3.16)

X4. HARDNESS CONVERSION EQUATIONS FOR CARTRIDGE BRASS (DETERMINED HARDNESS SCALE NUMBERS TO VICKERS HARDNESS NUMBERS)

X4.1 The following equations were generated from the specic hardness numbers contained in Table 4 and should not be used for converting numbers outside of the dened hardness range. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29. X4.1.1 From Rockwell B hardness to Vickers hardness:
~HV!21 5 1 1.77793E202 2 1.31112E204~HRB! 2 3.77903E2 07~HRB!2 1 3.55271E209~HRB! 3 R2 5 0.9996 (X4.1)

~HV!21 5 1 7.65595E202 2 1.79133E203~HR15T! 1 1.84105E2 05~HR15T!2 2 8.14318E208~HR15T! 3 R2 5 0.9998 (X4.3)

X4.1.4 From Rockwell 30T hardness to Vickers hardness:
~HV!21 5 1 2.08924E202 2 2.03448E204~HR30T! 2 2.80441E2 08~HR30T!2 1 1.33185E210~HR30T! 3 R2 5 0.9998 (X4.4)

X4.1.5 From Rockwell 45T hardness to Vickers hardness:
~HV!21 5 1 1.36295E202 2 1.03553E204~HR45T! 2 9.70546E2 07~HR45T!2 1 8.77834E209~HR45T! 3 R2 5 0.9999 (X4.5)

X4.1.2 From Rockwell F hardness to Vickers hardness:
~HV!21 5 1 2.95966E202 2 1.03725E204~HRF! 2 2.31669E2 06~HRF!2 1 1.12203E208~HRF! 3 R2 5 0.9998 (X4.2)

X4.1.6 From Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 500-kgf force) to Vickers hardness:
HV 5 2 5.60725E100 1 1.19007E1 00~HBS 10/500/15! R2 5 0.9998

X4.1.3 From Rockwell 15T hardness to Vickers hardness:

(X4.6)

X5. HARDNESS CONVERSION EQUATION FOR ANNEALED AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL PLATE (DETERMINED BRINELL HARDNESS NUMBERS TO ROCKWELL B HARDNESS NUMBERS)

X5.1 The following equation was generated from the specic hardness numbers contained in Table 5 and should not be used for converting numbers outside of the dened hardness range. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29.

X5.1.1 From Brinell hardness (10-mm steel diameter ball, 3000-kgf force) to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 1 1.29998E102 2 7.66860E103~HBS!21 R2 5 0.9999 (X5.1)

X6. HARDNESS CONVERSION EQUATIONS FOR AUSTENITIC STAINLESS STEEL SHEET (DETERMINED HARDNESS SCALE NUMBERS TO ROCKWELL C OR ROCKWELL B HARDNESS NUMBERS

X6.1 The following equations were generated from the specic hardness numbers contained in Table 6 and should not be used for converting numbers outside of the dened hardness range. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29. X6.1.1 From Rockwell A hardness to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 2 9.94148E101 1 1.98137E100~HRA! R2 5 1.0000 (X6.1)

HRC 5 2 1.16608E102 1 1.95692E100~HR15N! R2 5 1.0000

(X6.2)

X6.1.3 From Rockwell 30N hardness to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 2 2.79663E101 1 1.14752E100~HR30N! R2 5 1.0000 (X6.3)

X6.1.4 From Rockwell 45N hardness to Rockwell C hardness:
HRC 5 1 2.25782E100 1 8.78362E201~HR45N! R2 5 1.0000 (X6.4)

X6.1.2 From Rockwell 15N hardness to Rockwell C hardness:

X6.1.5 From Rockwell A hardness to Rockwell B hardness:

18

E 140 – 05e1
HRB 5 2 5.16024E100 1 1.71080E100~HRA! R2 5 1.0000 (X6.5)

X6.1.8 From Rockwell 30T hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 2 1.56777E101 1 1.43818E100~HR30T! R2 5 1.0000 (X6.8)

X6.1.6 From Rockwell F hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 2 6.79918E101 1 1.47539E100~HRF! R2 5 0.9999 (X6.6)

X6.1.7 From Rockwell 15T hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 2 1.47089E102 1 2.69928E100~HR15T! R2 5 1.0000 (X6.7)

X6.1.9 From Rockwell 45T hardness to Rockwell B hardness:
HRB 5 1 3.08896E101 1 9.84321E201~HR45T! R2 5 1.0000 (X6.9)

X7. HARDNESS CONVERSION EQUATIONS FOR COPPER, NOS. 102 TO 142 INCLUSIVE (DETERMINED HARDNESS SCALE NUMBERS TO VICKERS HARDNESS NUMBERS)

X7.1 The following equations were generated from the specic hardness numbers contained in Table 7 and should not be used for converting numbers outside of the dened hardness range. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29. X7.1.1 From Vickers hardness (100-gf force) to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force):
HV 1 5 2 1.94066E101 1 1.17624E100~HV 100! R2 5 0.9999 (X7.1)

R2 5 0.9999

(X7.6)

X7.1.7 From Rockwell F hardness to Vickers hardness (1kgf force) for 0.040-in. (1.02-mm) and greater strip:
~HV 1!21 5 1 4.03378E202 2 7.12218E204~HRF! 1 6.46922E2 06~HRF!2 2 2.64942E208~HRF! 3 R2 5 0.9998 (X7.7)

X7.1.8 From Rockwell 15T hardness to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force) for 0.040-in. (1.02-mm) and greater strip:
~HV 1!21 5 1 6.91162E202 2 1.89938E203~HR15T! 1 2.43142E2 05~HR15T!2 2 1.21657E207~HR15T! 3 R2 5 0.9994 (X7.8)

X7.1.2 From Knoop hardness (1-kgf force) to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force):
HV 1 5 1 1.1858E101 1 6.42195E201~HK 1000! 1 1.50709E203~HK 1000!2 R2 5 0.9999

X7.1.9 From Rockwell 30T hardness to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force) for 0.040-in. (1.02-mm) and greater strip:
(X7.2) ~HV 1!21 5 1 2.12081E202 2 2.79029E204~HR30T! 1 1.85833E2 06~HR30T!2 2 9.41015E209~HR30T! 3 R2 5 0.9999 (X7.9)

X7.1.3 From Knoop hardness (500 gf force) to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force):
HV 1 5 1 4.04249E100 1 7.73167E201~HK 500! 1 1.22866E203~HK 500!2 R2 5 0.9998

(X7.3)

X7.1.10 From Rockwell 45T hardness to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force) for 0.040-in. (1.02-mm) and greater strip:
~HV 1!21 5 1 1.33602E202 2 1.16936E204~HR45T! 2 2.02801E2 07~HR45T!2 1 4.40268E209~HR45T! 3 R2 5 0.9995 (X7.10)

X7.1.4 From Rockwell 15T hardness to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force) for 0.010-in. (0.25-mm) strip:
~HV 1!21 5 1 3.37918E201 2 1.15500E202~HR15T! 1 1.40059E2 04~HR15T!2 2 5.88157E207~HR15T! 3 R2 5 0.9997 (X7.4)

X7.1.11 From Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 500-kgf force) to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force) for 0.080- in. (2.03-mm) strip:
HV 1 5 1 2.77693E 1 01 1 8.62358E201~HBS 10/500/15! 2 3.66858E204~HBS 10/500/15!2 R2 5 0.9999 (X7.11)

X7.1.5 From Rockwell 15T hardness to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force) for 0.020-in. (0.51-mm) strip:
~HV 1!21 5 1 1.25038E201 2 3.80747E203~HR15T! 1 4.54150E2 05~HR15T!2 2 1.98661E207~HR15T! 3 R2 5 0.9997 (X7.5)

X7.1.6 From Rockwell B hardness to Vickers hardness (1kgf force) for 0.040-in. (1.02-mm) and greater strip:
~HV 1!21 5 1 1.49881E202 2 1.39326E204~HRB! 1 8.82686E2 07~HRB!2 2 6.30498E209~HRB! 3

X7.1.12 From Brinell hardness (2-mm diameter steel ball, 20-kgf force) to Vickers hardness (1-kgf force) for 0.040 in. (1.02-mm) strip:
HV 1 5 2 1.01087E100 1 1.18352E100~HBS 2/20/15! 2 7.02625E204~HBS 2/20/15!2 R 2 5 0.9999 (X7.12)

19

E 140 – 05e1
X8. HARDNESS CONVERSION EQUATIONS FOR ALLOYED WHITE IRON (DETERMINED HARDNESS SCALE NUMBERS TO VICKERS HARDNESS NUMBERS)

X8.1 The following equations were generated from the specic hardness numbers contained in Table 8 and should not be used for converting numbers outside of the dened hardness range. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29. X8.1.1 From Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter tungsten carbide ball, 3000-kgf force) to Vickers hardness (50-kgf force):

HV 50 5 2 2.61008E101 1 1.13635E100~HBW! R2 5 1.0000

(X8.1)

X8.1.2 From Rockwell C hardness to Vickers hardness (50-kgf force):
HV 50 5 1 5.72753E102 2 1.71996E101~HRC! 1 3.33893E201~HRC!2 R2 5 0.9991

(X8.2)

X9. HARDNESS CONVERSION EQUATIONS FOR WROUGHT ALUMINUM PRODUCTS (DETERMINED HARDNESS SCALE NUMBERS TO BRINELL HARDNESS NUMBERS)

X9.1 The following equations were generated from the specic hardness numbers contained in Table 9 and should not be used for converting numbers outside of the dened hardness range. Due to inherent inaccuracies in the conversion process, the converted number should be rounded to the nearest whole number in accordance with Practice E 29. X9.1.1 From Vickers hardness (15-kgf force) to Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 500-kgf force):
HBS 10/500/15 5 1 3.76211E100 1 8.25368E2 01~HV 15! R2 5 1.0000

X9.1.4 From Rockwell H hardness to Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 500-kgf force):
~HBS 10/500/15!21 5 1 4.00460E201 2 1.06615E202~HRH! 1 1.02525E204~HRH!2 2 3.44242E207~HRH! 3 R2 5 0.9995 (X9.4)

X9.1.5 From Rockwell 15T hardness to Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 500-kgf force):
~HBS 10/500/15!21 5 1 3.35165E201 2 1.16197E202~HR15T! 1 1.44778E204~HR15T!2 2 6.26187E207~HR15T! 3 R2 5 0.9988 (X9.5)

(X9.1)

X9.1.2 From Rockwell B hardness to Brinell hardness (10mm diameter steel ball, 500-kgf force):
~HBS 10/500/15!21 5 1 2.09261E202 2 3.13747E204~HRB! 1 3.24720E206~HRB!2 2 1.71476E208~HRB! 3 R2 5 0.9995 (X9.2)

X9.1.6 From Rockwell 30T hardness to Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 500-kgf force):
~HBS 10/500/15!21 5 1 4.68610E202 2 1.24964E203~HR30T! 1 1.45528E205~HR30T!2 2 6.71417E208~HR30T! 3 R2 5 0.9994 (X9.6)

X9.1.3 From Rockwell E hardness to Brinell hardness (10mm diameter steel ball, 500-kgf force):
~HBS 10/500/15!21 5 1 6.91185E202 2 1.57873E203~HRE! 1 1.66991E205~HRE!2 2 6.90196E208~HRE! 3 R2 5 0.9994 (X9.3)

X9.1.7 From Rockwell 15W hardness to Brinell hardness (10-mm diameter steel ball, 500-kgf force):
~HBS 10/500/15! 5 2 7.10127E103 1 2.71267E102~HR15W! 2 3.46213E100~HR15W!2 1 1.48551E202~HR15W! 3 R2 5 0.9924 (X9.7)

X10. EFFECT OF STRAIN HARDENING ON HARDNESS CONVERSION RELATIONSHIPS

X10.1 For ferrous and nonferrous metals softer than 240 HB, a single set of hardness conversion relationships inevitably introduces large errors because of the wide difference that may exist in the amount of cold working before testing, as well as the amount that occurs during the test itself. This dependence on strain-hardening characteristics can be demonstrated by the Rockwell scales 15-T, 30-T, 45-T, F, and B, in which forces ranging from 15 to 100 kgf are applied on a 116-in. (1.588-mm) diameter ball indenter. As higher forces are used, the increased strain raises the hardness by an amount that depends on the pretest capacity of the metal for strain hardening. An annealed
20

metal of high capacity for strain hardening will harden much more in the test than will a cold-worked metal. For example, an annealed iron and a cold-rolled aluminum alloy may have hardnesses of 71 and 72 HR 15T, respectively. The hardnesses are 31 HRB for the soft annealed iron and 7 HRB for the cold-rolled aluminum alloy. X10.2 On the other hand, if materials have Brinell or Rockwell hardness values that are approximately equal in the annealed state as well as after heavy cold deformation, these materials will have similar hardness conversion relationships

E 140 – 05e1
for all degrees of strain hardening. This is true of yellow brasses and low-carbon steels and irons. The limiting conditions can usually be identied by the appearance of the hardness indentations themselves. Soft annealed metals have characteristic" sinking" type indentation contours when indenters of the ball type are used. On the other hand, heavily cold-worked metals have sharp "ridging" type indentations. While annealed metals are being progressively cold worked, the indentation contours pass through a "at" stage in which the lip of the indentation is neither round nor sharply ridged. It is necessary to base hardness conversions on comparative tests of similar materials that also have very similar mechanical properties.

SUMMARY OF CHANGES Committee E28 has identied the location of selected changes to this standard since the last issue E 104-02e1 that may impact the use of this standard. (Approved April 1, 2005) (1) Table 9 spacing was corrected. (2) Eq X9.3 was revised.

ASTM International takes no position respecting the validity of any patent rights asserted in connection with any item mentioned in this standard. Users of this standard are expressly advised that determination of the validity of any such patent rights, and the risk of infringement of such rights, are entirely their own responsibility. This standard is subject to revision at any time by the responsible technical committee and must be reviewed every ve years and if not revised, either reapproved or withdrawn. Your comments are invited either for revision of this standard or for additional standards and should be addressed to ASTM International Headquarters. Your comments will receive careful consideration at a meeting of the responsible technical committee, which you may attend. If you feel that your comments have not received a fair hearing you should make your views known to the ASTM Committee on Standards, at the address shown below. This standard is copyrighted by ASTM International, 100 Barr Harbor Drive, PO Box C700, West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959, United States. Individual reprints (single or multiple copies) of this standard may be obtained by contacting ASTM at the above address or at 610-832-9585 (phone), 610-832-9555 (fax), or service@astm.org (e-mail); or through the ASTM website (www.astm.org).

21

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