高一英语高一英语-----语法 Grammar:定语从句(Attributive Clauses)
Handsome boys=the boys who are handsome Beautiful flowers=the flowers which are beautiful 定义： 定语从句(Attributive Clauses)：由关系词（关系代词或关系副词）引
导的从句，其作用是作 定语修饰主句的某个名词和代词，相当于形容词，所以又称为形容词性从句，一般紧跟在它所修饰 的先行词后面。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词，引导定语从句的词叫关系词。关系词可分为关系代 词（who, whom, whose, which, that)和关系副词(when, where, why) 关系词都充当从句的某个成分， 它所替代的相应成分应省去。在定语从句中，当 who, which, that 作主语时，谓语的单复数应与先行 词保持一致。关系词常有 3 个作用：①引导定语从句。②代替先行词。③在定语从句中担当一个成 分。 定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。非限制性定语从句与先行词的关系不如限 制性定语从句与先行词的关系紧密，没有它，主句的意思也清楚，因此用逗号隔开。关系词在非限 制性定语从句中的用法与在限制性定语从句中的用法基本一样。 一．关系代词以及基本用法 关系代词 That 指示对 象 人.物 主.（宾） The student that answered the question was John.回答问题 的学生是约翰。 The book （that） you lent me was interesting.你借给我的 那本书很有趣。 Which 物 主.（宾） Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大 多数男孩都喜欢的游戏. This is the pen (which) he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天刚 买的钢笔. Who Whom 人 人 主.（宾） A doctor is a person who looks after people's health. The man（who）you met just now is my friend. （宾） The man（whom）you met just now is my friend. 你刚刚见 到的那个人就是我的朋友. Mr. Ling is just the boy（whom）I want to see. 凌先生恰巧 就是我想见的那个男孩. Whose 注意一： 1）介词后面的关系词不能省略。 和 why 互换。where = in/at + which when=in/on/at/during + which why = for which whose=of which/whom+the+物/人=the+物/人+of which/whom 例如： 1. This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。 =This is the house where I lived two years ago. 2. Do you remember the day on which you joined our club？ 还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗？ =Do you remember the day when you joined our club？ 3. The tourists, of whom the eldest is 70 (the eldest of whom is 70), are from Singapore.
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He has a friend whose father is a doctor. Please pass me the book whose (of which) cover is green. 2）that 前不能有介词。 where
I saw three films this month, two of which were very interesting. The reason (which/that) he’s absent from the meeting for is not clear. =The reason for which /why he’s absent from the meeting is not clear. 4） whom 在定语从句中只指人， 做宾语， 可用 who 或 that 代替， 也可以省略但后边的介词提前时， 只用 whom 例如： Do you know the man (whom/who/that) the teacher is talking to? = Do you know the man to whom the teacher is talking? She is the person (whom/who/that) you should turn to for help. = She is the person to whom you should turn for help 5) Whose 用来指人或物，(只用作定语) (1) They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了，大家都跑过去帮忙。 (2) Please pass me the book whose cover (=of which the cover) is green. +as。 You can buy as many books as you want in this bookstore. (as 作 want 的宾语) Such computers as are used in our office are made in South Korea.(as 作定语从句的主语) This jewel is the same one as I showed you the other day. (as 作 showed 的直接宾语) This jewel is the same one that I showed you the other day.(that 作 showed 的直接宾语） 请注意“the same + 名词 + as”与“the same + 名词 + that”的区别。 (1) She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在 MARY 婚礼上穿过的一条裙子。 (2) She wore the same dress as her young sister wore. 她穿着和她妹妹所穿的一样的裙子。 注意：定语从句 such?as ?与结果状语从句 such? that?的区别：as 在所引导的定语从句中作主 语，宾语；that 在结果状语从句中不做成分 (3)He has such a good laptop as I want to buy. (4)He has such a good laptop that I want to buy one. 7). 先行词有比较级修饰时用 than；先行词有否定词修饰时用 but，表示双重否定，此时的 but = who/which/that...not... My mother always gives me more money than is needed.(than 作定语从句主语) This year, the farmers have harvested more grain than was expected. (than 作定语从句主语) There is not a student but wants to go to university. =There is not a student who/that doesn’t want to go to university.(but 作定语从句主语) 练习 选择正确的关系代词填入题目中的空白处。(that which who whose whom ) 1..Do you see the bridge----------was built last year 2... The nurse _________ we talked about can speak English well. 3... The old gentleman __________ you met just now is a famous writer. 4... The girl to ______ I lent my bike works in a hospital. 5... She was the brave girl __________ name is known to everybody. 注意二：that 和 which 虽然都能指物，但是在某些情况下，只能用 that 指物而不用 which 1） 先行词被形容词最高级修饰时，例如： This is the most interesting movie that I have ever seen.（作宾语可省略） This is the most beautiful park that we have visited. 2）先行词被 the very，the only the same, the last 等修饰时，例如： This is the very book that I'm looking for.（作宾语，可省略）
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6).先行词有下列词修饰时只能用 as 引导定语从句, 如：as...as；so...as；such...as；the same+ 名词
The only thing that she could do was to wait patiently.（作宾语，可省略） 3）先行词被序数词修饰时，例如： The first thing that we do in the morning is to clean the classroom.（作宾语，可省略） This is the third largest city that was founded in the 1980s.（作主语） 4）当先行词是 anything, everything, nothing (something 除外), few, all, none, little, some 等代词时，或者是由 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much，each 等修饰时. Have you taken down everything (that) Mr. Li has said? There seems to be nothing (that) seems impossible for him in the world. All that can be done has been done. There is little (that) I can do for you. 5）当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时 Who is the man that is standing there? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 6)、当先行词既有人，也有动物或者物体时 Can you remember the scientist and his theory that we have learned? 7）先行词是主句的表语或关系代词在从句中作表语，例如： He is not the boy that he used to be. China is no longer the country that it used to be. 8).当在 there be 句型中，通常情况下用 that，不用 which、 注意三： 宜用 which 而不用 that 的情况 1. 在非限制性定语从句中。 2. 在关系词前有介词时。 3. 当先行词本身是 that 时。 二．关系副词： 关系副词 When Where 指示对象 时间 地点 作用 状语 状语 例句 I'll never forget the days when I worked together with you The time when we got together finally came. This is the mountain village where I stayed last year. The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down Shanghai is the city where I was born. Why 原因 状语 (1) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. (2) I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 关系副词（在句中作状语） 关系副词=介词+关系代词 why=for which（先行词一般是 reason） Where=in/ at/ on/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配) When=during/ on/ in/ ... which (介词同先行词搭配) 某些在从句中充当时间，地点或原因状语的"介词+关系词"结构可以同关系副词 when ,where 和 why 互换。where = in/at + which when=in/on/at/during + which 例如： 1. This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。 =This is the house where I lived two years ago. why = for which whose=of which/whom+the+物/人=the+物/人+of which/whom Bamboo is hollow, which makes it light. This is the room in which Chairman Mao once lived. The clock is that which can tell us the time.
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2. Do you remember the day on which you joined our club？ 还记得你加入我们俱乐部的那一天吗？ =Do you remember the day when you joined our club？ 3.. This is the reason why he came late. =This is the reason for which he came late. 注意： 1. 含有介词的动词短语一般不拆开使用，如：look for, look after, take care of 等 T This is the watch which/that I am looking for. (T＝正确) F This is the watch for which I am looking. (F＝错误) 2. 若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时用 whom，不可用 who 或者 that；指物时用 which，不能用 that； 关系代词是所有格时用 whose (1) The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T) The man with that you talked is my friend. (F) (2) The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T) The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F) 3. “介词+关系代词”前可有 some, any, none, both, all, neither, most, each, few 等代词或者数词 (1) He loved his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. (2) In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. (3) There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 4. the way 为先行词的定语从句通常由 in which, that 引导，而且通常可以省略。 The way in which/ that/省略 he answered the question was surprising. 判断改错 This is the mountain village where I visited last year. I will never forget the days when I spent in the countryside. This is the mountain village (which) I visited last year. I'll never forget the days (which) I spent in the countryside. 习惯上总把表地点或时间的名词与关系副词 where, when 联系在一起。此两题错在关系词的误用上。 方法二： 准确判断先行词在定语从句中的成分(主、谓、宾、定、状)，也能正确选择出关系代词/ 关系副词。例 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days ago? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 例 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 答案： 例 1 D，例 2 A 例 1 变为肯定句： This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago.例 2 变为肯定句： This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 二、非限定性定语从句：非限定性定语从句的作用是对所修饰的成分作进一步说明，通常和 1.主句间用逗号隔开，将从句拿掉后其他部分仍可成立 Her house, which was built a hundred years ago, stood still in the earthquake. (那座房子在地震中依然耸立， 它是一百 多年前建造的。) 2.在非限定性定语从句中， 不能用 that， 而用 who, whom 代表人， 用 which 代表事物,when where why 分别代表时间 ,地点,原因(做状语) 3. as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句，有相同之处也有不同之处。具体情况是： 1)、As 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或者宾语，代表前面整个句子。Which 还可指代主句中 的某个词或短语。 (1) He married her, as/which was natural. (2) He was honest, as/which we can see.
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2)、as 引导非限制性定语从句，可放在主句之前，或者主句之后，甚至可以切割一个主句； which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能放在主句之后，意为“这，这一点” 。as 有“正如??，正像??” 的意思 (1) As is known to all, China is a developing country. (2) He is from the south, as we can see from his accent. (3) John, as you know, is a famous writer. (4) He has been to Paris more than several times, which I don’t believe. 难点透析 定语从句是高中阶段的重点语法项目之一。因此，有必要全面弄清其用法。定语从句从句型上讲，它与六种句 式相似，十分容易混淆。为了分清定语从句与这六种句型的差异，现将其分类例析如下。 【难点一】定语从句与并列句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整、正确 ① Mr Li has three daughters，none of _____ is an engineer． ② Mr Li has three daughters，but none of ______ is a dancer． ③ Mr Li has three daughters；______ are doctors． 解析：定语从句与并列句的主要区别在于：并列句有像 and，but，so 等并列连词或两个句子用分号连接，这 时就不能再用引导定语从句的关系词了。从结构上看:① 小题是定语从句，故填 whom；② 小题有并列连词 but，是并列 句，故填代词 them；③ 小题是两个并列分句，无需连接词，缺少主语，故填 none 或 they。 【难点二】定语从句与地点状语从句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整、正确。 ① Rice doesn’t grow well ______ there is not enough water． ② I still remember the farm ______ my parents worked ten years ago． 解析：定语从句与地点状语从句的主要区别在于：定语从句有表示地点的先行词，而地点状语从句则没有；定 语从句的关系词根据需要可用“介词＋which”来代替 where，而地点状语从句则通常只能由 where 引导。因此，从结构 上看:① 小题无表示地点的先行词，故为表示地点的状语从句，填 where；② 小题中 the farm 是先行词，是定语从句，故 填 where，此处的 where 可用 on which 替换。 【难点三】定语从句与强调句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整、正确 ① It is on the morning of May 1st _______I met Liang Wei at the airport． ② It is the factory _______ Mr Wang works． 解析：定语从句与强调句的主要区别在于：强调句的结构为“It is／was＋被强调部分＋that 从句”。被强调部 分可以是除谓语以外的任何成分，当被强调部分是人时，还可用 who 代替 that。这一句型中，一定不能因为被强调部 分是表时间或地点的词就用 when 或 where 代 替 that。从结构上看，① 小题是强调句，故填 that。此种情况检测的标 准是：先把强调句中的 It is／was...that 去掉，再把被强调部分还原，在不增加或减少任何单词的情况下，如句子仍然 成立则为强调句，否则为定语从句。可将第① 小题改为：I met Liang Wei on the morning of May 1st at the airport．显 然， 这句话是正确的， 故为强调句。 ② 小题则是定语从句， 用上述方法转换便知 the factory 前缺少个介词 in， 故填 where。 【难点四】定语从句与结果状语从句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整、正确 ① I have the same computer _______ you have． ② She is such a kind and funny girl ______ all of us like to make friends with her． 解析：定语从句与结果状语从句的主要区别在于（这里只讨论 the same...as／that 和 such...as/that 两种情况） ： 在这两种情况下，如果 as／that 既引导从句，同时又在从句中充当一定的成分，则 as／that 引导的是定语从句。在 the same． ． ．as／that 结构中，用 as 指一样的，但不是同一个事物；用 that 指同一物品，故① 小题填 as；如果 as／that 在 从句中不作任何成分，只起连接作用，则 as／that 引导的是结果状语从句，故② 小题填 that。 【难点五】定语从句与单句
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用一个恰当的词完成下列句子，使之完整、正确 ① The mother told the lazy boy to work，______ didn’t help． ② The mother told the lazy boy to work．______ didn’t help． 解析：含有定语从句的复合句与两个单句的主要区别在于：前者有主句，有从句，必须有关系词；而后者则是 两个单独的句子，不需要任何关联词。① 小题两个句子用逗号连接且没有并列连词，显然应是主从句关系，因此需用关 系词 which，前面整个句子作先行词；② 小题则填 It，代替前面的整个句子。解题时，注意标点符号的运用。 高中英语定语从句句型总结 一、疑问句中考查定语从句 1. Is this the farm ________ you visited last week？ A. where B. the one C. on which D. / 【解析】答案是 D。命题人经常利用疑问句的特殊结构来干扰学生的正确选择。遇到这类定语从句 时，最好的办法是先把疑问句还原成陈述句，然后判断谁是先行词，再看关系词在定语从句中所充 当的成分，最后确定正确答案。
二、倒装句中考查定语从句 2. We came to a place， ________ stood a big tower. A. which B. that C. / D. where 【解析】正确答案是 D。为了保持句子平衡，句子用了倒装语序。倒装的使用使定语从句的结构变 得较为特殊，因此对于使用倒装语序的定语从句，应先把倒装语序还原成正常语序，这样句子结构 就比较清晰了。 三、 拆分词组和固定搭配 3. The second is connected with the use ________ the body makes of food. A. of which A. which B. where B. on which C. to do C. when D. that D. where 4. Why can’t you realize the part ________ they have played in our life？ 【解析】正确答案分别是 D 和 A。一些词组和搭配被拆开后，句子的含义就变得难以理解。首先把 拆开的词组复原是理解此类定语从句的关键。上述句子中包含以下词组：make use of， play a part （in）。 四、添加插入语或状语 5. The scientist has made another discovery， _______ I believe is of great importance. A. that B. / C. which D. why 【解析】应选择 C。这类句子主要利用插入语或状语的添加来增加试题的难度。常见的插入语有：I think （suppose， expect， believe， imagine）， in my opinion， to tell you the truth 等。做这类题 目时，最佳的办法是先删去插入语或状语，这样句子的主干部分就一目了然了。 五、插入非谓语动词 6. Is this the man ________ you want to have ________ the radio for me？ A. who；repaired B. that；repaired C. whom；repairing D. that；repair 【解析】D 项正确。非谓语动词是英语中难度较大的语法项目之一，因而在定语从句中加入非谓语 动词就成了学生最易失分的题目。对付这类题目最有效的办法就是将句子还原。如：我们可以把几 个句子中的定语从句进行还原，还原后的句子应是：You want to have the man repair the radio for me.
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