Prospect of microbiology A, microbiology in solving the role of the five crisis facing humanity Well known, the current human is facing multiple crises, such as the shortage of the food crisi
s, lack of energy, resources, ecological degradation and population explosion, etc. After entering the 21st century, mankind from use of limited mineral resources will meet era transition to the use of unlimited biological resources and produce a series of new problems. Due to the microbial cells is not only a larger than the face value (specificsurface), biochemical conversion capability is strong, able to quickly replicate the life of the system, and they also has the diversity of species, genetic, metabolism and ecological types, makes them to solve the various crisis that human beings are facing play its unique role irreplaceable. Now the points mentioned below. (a) microorganism and food Grain production is of vital importance to the mankind survival of the event. Microorganisms in improving soil fertility and crop characteristics (such as build nitrogen-fixing plants), promote grain production, plant diseases and insect pests prevention and control of food crops, prevent grain mildew rot metamorphism and the excess food is converted into sugar, single cell protein, a variety of beverages and condiments, etc., are available. (2) microorganisms and energy Currently, the problem of fossil energy depletion increasingly are seriously affects the world. Microbes in the production of energy has its unique advantages: (1) the nature reserves is extremely rich in cellulose into ethanol. It is estimated that up to 5 ~ 600 million tons of annual plant straw, such as the 10% of hydrolysis and fermentation, can produce fuel alcohol is 700 ~ 8 million tons, the rest of the trash can still be as feed and fertilizer, to ensure the normal supply of potassium and phosphorus in the soil. Has been found to have high temperature anaerobic bacteria such as Closiridiumthermocellum (such as thermal fiber clostridium) can directly decompose cellulose to produce ethanol. (2) the use of methanogens nature reserves is the most abundant renewable resources - "biomass" (biomass) converted to methane. This is a reasonably and beneficial, the ecology, has important strategic significance of the measures. (3) by using photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria or anaerobic shuttle fungi such as microbial production of "clean energy" - hydrogen. (4) by microbial fermentation to produce gas or their metabolites to improve oil recovery factor. Microbial cell (5) research and practical application. (3) the microbial and resources Microorganisms on earth will never dried up of cellulose and other renewable resources into all kinds of pharmaceutical and chemical industry, light industry and other industrial raw materials. These products in addition to the traditional ethanol, acetone, butanol, acetic acid, glycerin, isopropyl alcohol, methyl ethyl ketone, citric acid, lactic acid, malic acid, fumaric acid and methylene succinic acid thereof, but also production of salicylic acid, aconitic acid, acrylic acid, adipic acid, acrylamide, sebacic acid, long chain fatty acids, long chain dibasic alcohol, 2, 3 butanediol, gamma linolenic acid oil, and poly hydroxybutyric acid ester (PHB), and so on. Because the fermentation engineering has metabolic product variety, wide raw material sources, low energy consumption, high economic benefit and less environmental pollution, so it will gradually replace the current need to high temperature and high pressure, energy consumption and serious chemical industrial "three wastes". Microbes in the metal mineral resources on the development and utilization of also has a unique role. Has been described in chapter 9 of the bacterial leaching technology, you can take a long
time of abandoned low-grade ore, tailings, slag contains copper, nickel, uranium, etc more than ten kinds of metal melting and extracted, become the new important resources. (4) microorganisms and environmental protection In microbial where there were so many environmental protection available: 1) using microbial fertilizer, microbial pesticides or agricultural antibiotics to replace the cause of environmental degradation of chemical fertilizer, or chemical pesticides; (2) using microorganism to produce PHB made easy degradation of medical plastic products in order to reduce environmental pollution; (3) using microorganisms to purify sewage and toxic industrial wastewater; (4) use of microbial technology to monitor the environment pollution, for example with liam's method of "three to" material testing environment, using the EMB medium to detect the intestinal pathogenic bacteria in drinking water, etc. (5) microorganisms and human health Has the close relationship between microorganism and human health. First, because all sorts of infectious disease constitutes the major diseases of mankind, and the principal means of prevention and treatment of these diseases is a variety of microbial drugs, especially antibiotics. Since genetic engineering since its inception, to further expand the scope of microbial metabolites and variety, has only from animals to produce insulin, interferon and interleukins efficient drugs have turned to production by "engineering bacteria". Closely related to human reproduction and contraception steroid hormone drugs already from chemical production mode to microbial biotransformation (biotransformation or bioconver - sion) mode of production. In addition, a large number of biological products related to human health, longevity, such as a vaccine, vaccine and other toxoid is microbial products. It is no wonder that by some estimates, since the invention of vaccination, human life expectancy increased 10 years old, and since the found of antibiotics, the average life expectancy is up by more than 10 years old. Of course, want to stop excessive population growth is not just within the scope of microbiology. Second, the characteristics and development trend of modern microbiology At present, due to the molecular biology research gradually thorough, all kinds of new methods, new technologies are widely used in microbiological research, interdisciplinary penetration and cross actively, and in production practice, a large number of relevant issues argues that provides great impetus to the development of microbiology. Overall, the characteristics and development trend of modern microbiology has the following six aspects. (a) research work toward further development direction and the molecular level Due to the rapid development of molecular biology, the whole life science advances into the molecular level. Microbiology is no exception. At present, almost all problems in the field of microbiology makes a deep research into the molecular level, such as cellular structure and function of microorganisms on the absorption mechanism of nutrients, growth, reproduction and differentiation, metabolic type, pathway and regulation, heredity, variation and evolution, infection and immunity, as well as the classification and identification, and so on. (2) on the basis of basic theory research, a new group of subjects (or latent subject) is emerging Such as mycotoxins (learning), bacterial plasmid (learning), microbial molecular breeding (learning), recombinant microbial physiology, genetics, protoplast fusion, the extreme environmental microbiology, preservation (learning), mixed bacterium fermentation physiology, methane bacteria biology, biological anaerobic bacteria, archaea (learning), the virus (learning), microbial enzyme, nitrogen fixation, biochemistry nitrogen-fixing genetics, microbial molecular
genetics, microbial ecological genetics, microbial biotransformation (learning), and so on. (3) the microbiology and the penetration of other disciplines, cross and integration, formed a new edge discipline In the development of science, interdisciplinary mutual penetration, cross and fusion, often growing point and take the lead role, the result is not only produced a series of new concepts, new theories and new technology, and can form a series of new edge discipline has strong vitality. This may be the subject of "complementary", "symbiosis", or "heterosis" effect of a kind of embodiment. This kind of many examples, such as analysis of microbiology, microbial numerical taxonomy, chemical taxonomy and microbial geochemistry, and so on. (4) new technologies, new methods are widely used in microbiology In modern number, reason, and in many engineering disciplines, for the development of microbiology has created an unprecedented favorable conditions, it is mainly embodied in the new methods, new technology, new equipment, new equipment and new reagents. Isotope labeling techniques, for example, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) technology, computer technology, super centrifugal technology, electrophoresis and chromatography technology, ion exchange technology, mass spectrometry, spectrophotometer technique, cell crushing technology, immunology technique, amino acid automatic analysis technology, automatic nucleic acid synthesis, protein or nucleic acid sequence determination technology, low temperature technology, new microbial cultivation technology, microbial counting technology, microbial rapid identification technique, immobilized biological catalyst technology, separation, purification and determination of trace material technology, and so on. These technologies are widely used, which greatly promoted the research on the structure and function of microbial cells, the original is given priority to with static, description, qualitative research gradually increase to the dynamic, quantitative, sequencing and positioning of the new research level. (5) towards compound ecological system and macro scope widened In the biosphere, scope of the survival of microorganisms is the most widely and three-dimensional. When people on the side of the common microorganisms after a certain amount of research, the interest will gradually turn to a broader, more difficult to hit a space and a variety of compound ecosystem, is to come and the birth of a batch of new disciplines and development. Resources such as the extreme environmental microbiology, microbiology, tropical mycology, underground ecology, soil microbial ecology, terrestrial microbial ecology, Marine microbial ecology, atmospheric microbial ecology and space microbial ecology, and so on. (6) a large number of applied microbiology branch is inoculation and formation of high and new technology Microbiology is a highly rooted in production practice discipline. Contemporary included the branch of applied microbiology, more and more, they have to its strong, high degree of consciousness and vast: (1) its multi-discipline. Such as bacteria fermentation engineering, metallurgy (learning), water treatment, microbiology, fungi genetic engineering, microbiology, microbial ecology engineering, agriculture and biotechnology industry. (2) the consciousness degree is high. At present, the theory and practice of molecular biology, a lot of applied biological sciences in the purposeful, consciously degree is high, strong controllability and high efficiency in the direction of development. A batch of label for names of "engineering" discipline is one of the representatives, such as genetic engineering, cell engineering, biochemical engineering, enzyme engineering, protein engineering, and the latest metabolic pathway engineering
(pathwayengineering), etc. (3) coverage. In big ways, the application scope of microbes mainly linked to the industry, agriculture, medicine, environmental protection and national defense and other fields; Thin side, each big areas and gives off a number of branches, such as bacterial metallurgy (learning), sewage treatment microbiology, biogas fermentation microbiology, application of soil microbiology, microbial biological control (learning), agricultural antibiotics, edible mushroom fungus science, medical mycology, medical microbiology, and zoonotic microbiology, and so on. Third, the role of microorganisms in century "biology" At present, many visionary scientists agree that "the 21st century will be biological century" point of view, the main reason there are four aspects: (1) determined by the law of development of physical exercise. General material movement by the mechanical movement and physical chemical movement - life movement direction, complex motion must be established on the basis of simple motion. Currently, mechanical movement of the human, physical and chemical movement of objective laws have the profound understanding, therefore, to further understanding human life motion law provides a good foundation and puts forward the urgent task. (2) by the biological diversity and the understanding of the long-term decision. Biological diversity which is different from the one of the main characteristics of biology, human understanding of biological diversity is still in low-level phase, and the biological diversity is the main material foundation to the survival of humans. (3) is solved by the five crisis of contemporary human faces and the urgency of the decision. (4) by other subjects of life science and life science in promoting the "feedback" or "return" the law of the decision. In "century" in biology, microbiology will play an especially important role. In natural science, if life science or a "sunrise science", the microbiology can only be considered a "morning glory science"; If the microbiology is a "diamond", now it is still a "just a layer of topsoil stripping of rich ore". This is because there is a high degree of species in microbes, genetic, metabolism and the diversity of ecological type. The diversity of microbial constitutes the richness of microbial resources, while the richness of microbial resources determines the research, development and utilization of it in the long-term. Human development work to rich microbial resources, also can only say that they just opened a head. No matter how to estimate, microbial world (including virus) of the total number of species should be dynamic, considerably more than the sum of the total plant community species (currently about know there are 1.5 million species), but until now, there is only 1/10 of the former is up to. And the scientific estimates, real existence in nature plant and animal species at least several times larger than today know the number. From the following facts can be fully proved how rich microbial resources will be: the new species of microorganism is growing rapidly, every year only form huge fungi that each year there are 1500 species new record; (2) in the soil can't at about 90% of the microorganisms in the laboratory to develop, many of which are referred to as "living culture state of bacteria" (viablebutuncultur - ablestatebacteria); (3) because in almost all animals and plants and microorganisms are found in the corresponding virus, so you can imagine, in microbiology, only virus species that may be close to or even more than the sum total of other animals and plants and microbial species and some a host can also have a variety of viruses parasitic? (for example the human virus currently found only 300 many!) ; (4) human really study the history of microbiology was only 130 years or so, as you can imagine, the future of the microorganism resources which
can be found and what use! In the microbial described, by a human species is not more than about 1%. For example, in about 10000 kinds of large mushroomlike bacteria, there are about 30 genera and 2000 species are edible, but so far only 80 over cultivation experiment in the laboratory, about 20 kinds of the commercial culture, and the common on the market only 5, and 6. As for microbial metabolism of special type, such as microorganisms under extreme environment development, still stay at the starting line! Fourth, to develop our country microbiology research At present, due to historical reasons, such as microbiology from the international advanced level there is a big gap. As the descendants of the Chinese nation, has the obligation to make our country science and technology to catch up with the international level, microbiology workers natural responsibility. To develop our country's microbiology, must proceed from China's specific national conditions, under the condition of limited, focus on human resources, to capture some characteristics in our country, and have certain basis, in academic and economic and social benefits is obvious a few projects as a breakthrough. Do breakthrough, drive a piece, then gradually expand. So the current research focus should be on the applied theory research. (a) resource investigation and classified identification Our country land is vast, complex terrain, across cold, warm, hot three zones, the ecological environment variety, is a rare microbial resources power. But, at present the resources survey and appraisal team is weak, technology is relatively backward, less published results. According to statistics, China now has studied on the number of bacteria and fungi are only 5 to 10% of the world's known number. In this field, we try to investigate with our characteristics, recently, the application prospect of species resources, and to drive the morphology, classification and identification (especially new appraisal methods) work. The investigation of the nitrogen-fixing microbes, for example, the classification and identification of rhizobia; Screening of new type of antagonistic actinomycetes and chemical taxonomy study; Mycorrhizal resources survey; Edible and medicinal fungi resources investigation and fungal classification system research; Microorganism and insect baculovirus resources survey; Main crop virus pathogen separation, detection and disease control research; Single cell protein (SCP) resources development; Extremophiles (especially halophilic, basophilic and thermophilic bacteria) resources taxonomic identification of strains of the investigation and research; And so on. (2) physiological metabolism and fermentation engineering Physiological research results can promote the fermentation engineering, agriculture and the development of medical microbiology, and other application fields. Should be carried out in this aspect research projects, such as recombinant microbial physiology, immobilized microbial physiology, mixed bacteria cultivation of microbial physiology, extreme microbial physiology, physiology of photosynthetic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria physiology; Nitrogen fixation of biochemistry, secondary metabolites (e.g., antibiotics) synthesis pathway and metabolic regulation; Multistage continuous training dynamics; Mechanism of extracellular enzyme secretion, enzyme inhibitors and activator; High density of bacteria growth rule; Non-food raw materials fermentation research; Fermentation production of improve product concentration, conversion and productivity (g/L h), and other parameters of research; Liquid oxygen carrier in fermentation
research; Microbial decomposition mechanism of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose, microorganisms producing hydrogen mechanism; Biosensor (biosensor), computer online control fermentation research; Chinese herbal medicine effective components on inhibition of virus; Industrial products mildew corrosion mechanism; Anaerobic bacteria metabolites of survey and use; And so on. (3) the genetic variation and including breeding Microbial research of germplasm resources and its improvement of microbiology is a indispensable work for a long time. Since the advent of genetic engineering, microbial genetics and breeding work on a new step. In the field of genetic variation and including breeding, it is worth further research problems are as follows: Principle and technology of microbial molecular breeding, protoplasm sports kind of principle and technology; The genetic stability of recombinant bacteria; Actinomycetes genetics; Various new receptors and fermentation engineering - the establishment of the carrier system (such as bacillus, rod bacteria, yeast and actinomyces, filamentous fungi, some extremophiles); Rhizobia genetics, nitrogen-fixing genes into non leguminous plants; Decomposition of cellulose, lignin and hemicellulose engineering bacteria to form; Pathogenic bacteria resistance genetics principle; And breakthrough traditional strains filtration technology, and so on. (4) ecology theory and environmental practice In in the research field of microbial ecology, further work is relatively rare, there are a lot of work waiting for people to study. New taxa of microorganisms in a soil survey, for example, soil microbial community structure and function; Symbiosis and pathogenic microorganism and host the molecular basis of mutual recognition; With microbial theoretical basis for prevention and control of plant diseases and insect pests; The microbial ecological problems in our traditional brewing; Micro ecology research; The types of microorganisms causing mold, mildew corrosion mechanism and prevention methods; Important to the survival state of the pathogenic bacteria in nature; Rumen cockroach, cecum (horse), intestinal microflora and its decomposition mechanism of cellulose; Anaerobic degradation of ecology, refractory organic matter degradation bacterium, the comprehensive utilization of "three wastes"; Marine microbial ecology; And toxin-producing fungi and mycotoxins; And so on. (4) ecology theory and environmental practice In in the research field of microbial ecology, further work is relatively rare, there are a lot of work waiting for people to study. New taxa of microorganisms in a soil survey, for example, soil microbial community structure and function; Symbiosis and pathogenic microorganism and host the molecular basis of mutual recognition; With microbial theoretical basis for prevention and control of plant diseases and insect pests; The microbial ecological problems in our traditional brewing; Micro ecology research; The types of microorganisms causing mold, mildew corrosion mechanism and prevention methods; Important to the survival state of the pathogenic bacteria in nature; Rumen cockroach, cecum (horse), intestinal microflora and its decomposition mechanism of cellulose; Anaerobic degradation of ecology, refractory organic matter degradation bacterium, the comprehensive utilization of "three wastes"; Marine microbial ecology; And toxin-producing fungi and mycotoxins; And so on. (5) infection and the immune mechanism and the practice The main research contents in this regard are: pathogen pathogenic molecular mechanism; Pathogen isolation, identification and pathogenicity of anaerobic bacteria; Against biological
warfare; New pathogen isolation and identification; New vaccines, new types of biological products, gene engineering and the vaccine, the vaccine production, multivalent genetic engineering vaccine; Monoclonal antibody research; And so on. (6) other Microbiology method research; Modern preservation technology; The establishment of the microbial database; The standardization of laboratory reagent; Commercialization of bacteria is simple, rapid identification of box; And so on.
From what has been discussed above, we can know, microorganism is a very large number of team in biology. The size of their role, beneficial or harmful to people, mainly depends on the understanding and grasp the movement rule of the degree. Countless facts dynamic4 proof, since the microbes and gradually master the law of human knowledge, can make the original no microbes into advantage, little change in Italy, harmful is less pollution and harmless or even beneficial, thus greatly promote the progress of human beings. This is what we learn the fundamental aim of microbiology.