American Federal System and British Political System
bald eagle is a symbol of supreme power
American Federal System
/>Arrows meaning self-protection
Olive branches: the pursuit of peace
Three major principles federalism, the separation of powers, and respect for the constitution and the rule of law.
? Federalism means the division of the powers of government between the nation and the state. Each American is subject to two governments: ? 1) the government of his state and ? 2) the government of the Union. ? The states have the primary functions of providing law and order, education, public health and most of the things, which concern day-to-day life.
? The federal government at Washington is concerned with foreign affairs and with matters of general concern to the states, including commerce between the states.
Separation of powers: checks and balances
Separation of Powers
? It refers to the principle that the national government is split into 3 branches: legislative, executive and judicial. In the legislative branch, power is split further into 2 houses. the Senate and the House of Representatives.
US Federal Government
The Constitution of 1787 -the oldest written constitution in the world
The United States Constitution
? It was adopted in 1787 and came into effect in 1789, was the first comparatively complete written constitution. The 1787 Constitution consisted of seven articles and later twenty-six amendments were added. It outlines the structure of the federal government and is the law of the nation, mirroring the balance of classes within the country. It determines the basic principles, under which federal government is to perform their functions and the fundamental rights and obligationsof the people.
The Preamble of the Constitution:
We, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquility, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America.
? The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose Amendments to this Constitution and then ratified by three-fourths of the states——that is,thirty-eight of the fifty states.
In 1791, the first ten amendments were made. This is the well-known “Bill of Rights”, it contains such liberties as freedom of religion, freedom of speech, freedom of the press, freedom of peaceful assembly, freedom to bear arms, freedom against unreasonable search and seizure, etc.
British Political System
? Britain is both a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy. parliamentary democracy-- it is a country whose government is controlled by a parliament which has been elected by the people. constitutional monarchy-- it is a country governed by a king or queen who accepts the advice of a parliament.
? The Cameron Ministry is the first coalition government in the United Kingdom since the Second World War. ? a coalition between the Conservatives and the Liberal Democrats
Conservative – Liberal Democrat government
David Cameron (Con), Prime Minister. Senior coalition partner.
Nick Clegg (LibDem), Deputy Prime Minister. Junior coalition partner.
2.1 The Legislature
Basic Structure of UK Central Government
House of Commons (political)
House of Lords (semi-political)
Prime Minister & Cabinet (political)
House of Lords
Ministers & Civil service (non-political)
Court of Appeal
The Monarch 1) Official titles
The present Sovereign is Queen Elizabeth II, who came to the throne in 1952.
Queen Elizabeth II is precisely styled:
“Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her Other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of Faith”
4. The major roles of the Monarch in the British government
? ? (1)General role: Theoretically, the Queen is the source of all government powers. The Queen is the symbol of the whole nation. In law, she is head of the executive, and integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces of the Crown and the “supreme governor” of the established Church of England.
The Queen summons, prologues and dissolves Parliament. She makes the opening speech and outlines her government’s program in the new session. She concludes treaties and declares war. She gives her assent to Bills before they become law. She confers peerages and other honors. ＊ In fact, she has no longer any substantial power.
3)Various roles of the Queen
Her present role
Symbolic (belongs to everyone) Chief of state (head of the executive)
Her popular role
Representing the country at home and abroad Example of good citizenship and family life
BUCKINGHAM PALACE: HER MAJESTY'S RESIDENCE WINDSOR CASTLE: HER MAJESTY'S “SUMMER PALACE”