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2014高考英语一轮复习 语法梳理 特殊句式(8页Word文档)


特殊句式与交际用语 【考情分析】 特殊句式
1.对于感叹句、祈使句、反意疑问句和否定句的考查主要从以下几个方面进行: (1)感叹句的考查要点是 what 与 how 引导的感叹句作为宾语从句出现在试题中,其难点有两方面:一是复 数名词或不可数名词前面用 what 还是 how;二是感叹句的语序。 (2)祈使句的主要考点是:根据句式特点判断是祈使分句还是状语成分;祈使句+

and/or+结果分句。 (3)反意疑问句主要考查主从复合句和并列句后面的反意疑问句。 (4)否定句的考查主要是对于部分否定句的辨认。 2.对省略句的考查主要从以下几个方面进行: (1)省略主语、主语和谓语、主语和谓语的一部分;(2)不定式符号 to 的省略; (3)状语从句中主语和谓语动词部分的省略;(4)不定式中动词的省略; (5)not,so,neither,nor 的“替代性”省略。 3.对倒装句的考查主要从以下几个方面入手: (1)含有否定意味的词置于句首时,部分倒装;(2)only+状语位于句首时,部分倒装; (3)so/such...that 句型中,so/such 位于句首时,so/such 后的主句倒装,that 从句不倒装。 4.对主谓一致的考查重点是: (1)主语+as well as/together with+名词/代词; (2)not only...but(also)....,neither...nor...,either...or...连接两个主语; (3)means,works 等词汇作主语。 5.强调句型的考查重点是: (1)考查强调句式的基本结构 (2)考查含有“not?until?”句型的强调句式 (3)考查强调句式的疑问句 (4)考查强调句式的正确判断

交际用语
情景交际是高考必考内容,主要包括习惯应答类和语言结构类两种交际用语。前者要求考生掌握一 些常见的诸如打电话、问路、购物等交际话题的固定套语,以及表示感谢、道歉、请求等的应答用语。对 于这类题目,考生要遵循英美人的语言习惯进行选择。后者则要求考生依据对话情景和所掌握的正确的交 际用语作出选择。此类交际用语以习惯用法和变异句,如省略句居多,考生要注意积累和识记。
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【知识归纳】 特殊句式
考点一 倒装句 1.全部倒装 在全部倒装的句子中,要把整个谓语放在主语的前面去而构成倒装语序。 (1)当 there, here, then, now 等副词在句首,且谓语是 come, go, be 等动词时,句子一般要全部倒装。其意义 在于引起他人的注意。如果这类句子的主语是代词,则不用写成倒装句。如: Now, here goes the story. 这个故事是这样的。 Look, there comes the taxi. 瞧,出租车过来了。 Then came another question. 然后又一个问题提出来了。 (2)表示方向或位置的副词或介词短语放到句首,该句要用全部倒装。如: High up into the sky went the kite. 风筝高高地飞向天空。 2.部分倒装 在部分倒装的句子中,只把谓语的一部分(如情态动词、助动词、或是系动词 be)放到主语的前面去,构成 倒装语序。 (1)为了避免句子部分内容不必要的重复,常用“so + be 动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语”或“neither / nor + be 动词(助动词、情态动词)+主语”的倒装句式。其中第一个句式表示“与前面所述的肯定情况相同” , 第二个句式表示“与前面所述的否定情况相同” 。例如: His brother is a college student; so is mine. 他弟弟是大学生,我弟弟也是。 His brother is not a college student; nor is mine. 他弟弟不是大学生,我弟弟也不是。 (2)具有否定意义的词或短语置于句首时(除否定词修饰主语外),句子一般要写成部分倒装句。这类词或短 语常见的有: never, seldom, hardly, rarely, by no means, under no conditions[circumstances], in no way, at no not, time, no sooner... (than), hardly... (when), not only ...(but also), not until...,等等。如: Hardly had she sat down when she heard someone knocking at the door.
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她还没来得及坐下来,就听见有人敲门。 Not until twelve o’clock did he go to bed last night. 他昨晚直到十二点钟才睡觉。 (3)当 so...that, such...that 中的 so...和 such...放在句首时,句子一般要倒装。如: So serious was the situation that everybody faced a test.形势如此地严峻,每个人都面临着一场考验。 (4)only 修饰的状语放到句首,主句要形成部分倒装。如: Only in this way can you come up with a solution to the problem. 只有这样,你才有可能想出解决这个问题的办法。 考点二 强调句 一、强调句基本结构 1、陈述句的强调句型:It is/ was + 被强调部分(通常是主语、宾语或状语)+ that/ who(当强调主语 且主语指人)+ 其它部分。强调句可以强调除谓语以外的一切成分。下面我们针对 I met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday.句子进行强调。 强调主语:It was I that (who) met Li Ming at the railway station yesterday. 强调宾语:It was Li Ming that I met at the railway station yesterday. 强调地点状语:It was at the railway station that I met Li Ming yesterday. 强调时间状语:It was yesterday that I met Li Ming at the railway station. 2、一般疑问句的强调句型:同上,只是把 is/ was 提到 it 前面。 e.g. Was it yesterday that he met my old friend? 3、特殊疑问句的强调句型:被强调部分(通常是疑问代词或疑问副词)+ is/ was + it + that/ who + 其 它部分? e.g. When was it that you were born? 我们需要注意的是:第一、构成强调句的 it 本身没有词义;强调句中的连接词一般只用 that, who,即 使在强调时间状语和地点状语时也如此,that, who 不可省略。 第二、It's ....that/who....的强调句型只是为了强调某一成分,而不充当成分。所以它和 It 作形式主语,真正 的主语从句后置的情况有所不同。 我们一起看下面两个例句: 1.It's necessary that we should learn english.(主语从句) 2.It's not until he got off the bus that he realized his money was stolen.(强调句型) 解析:因为强调句型中的 It's....that/who....在句子中不充当任何成分。所以去掉后句子依然完整。 例子 2 去掉 It's....that/who....后就成了
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until he got off the bus he realized his money was stolen. 而例子 1 去掉后句子则不完整。 二、not … until … 句型的强调句 1、句型为:It is/ was not until + 被强调部分 + that + 其它部分 e.g. 普通句:He didn’t go to bed until/ till his son came back. 强调句:It was not until his son came back that he went to bed. 2、 注意: 此句型只用 until, 不用 till。 但如果不是强调句型, until 可通用; till, 因为句型中 It is/ was not … 已经是否定句了,that 后面的从句要用肯定句,切勿再用否定句了。 三、谓语动词的强调 1、It is/ was … that … 结构不能强调谓语,如果需要强调谓语时,用助动词 do/ does 或 did。 e.g. Do sit down. 务必请坐。 He did write to you last week. 上周他确实给你写了信。 Do be careful when you cross the street. 过马路时,务必(千万)要小心啊! 2、注意:此种强调只用 do/ does 和 did ,没有别的形式;过去时用 did ,后面的谓语动词用原形。 考点三 省略句 1.在 when,while,whenever,till,as soon as, if,unless,as if,though,as 等引导的状语从句中,若谓语 有 be 动词,而主语又与主句主语相同或主语是 it 时,从句的主语和 be 动词常被省略 Unless(I am) invited,I won’t go to the party. 除非被邀请,否则我是不会去参加那个派对的。 When (you are) working,you must pay attention. 上班时,你必须全神贯注。 Get up early tomorrow,if not (you don’t get up early),you will miss the first bus. 明天早点起床,如果不的话,你会错过早班车。 2.I’m afraid,I think,I believe,I hope,I guess 等作答句,后面跟 so 与 not 分别等于肯定或否定,宾语从 句可省去 —Do you think it will rain? “你认为会下雨吗?” —I hope not (that it will not rain). “我希望不下。 ” —Do you believe our team will win? “你相信我们队会赢吗?” —I guess so.
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“我猜会赢。 ” 3.不定式省略,单独使用不定式符号 to (1)用来代替动词不定式后被省略的动词,常在 be afraid,glad,happy,expect,forget,hope,intend,like, love,mean,prefer,refuse,seem,try,want,wish 等的后边。 I asked him to see the film,but he didn’t want to. 我请他去看电影,但他不想去。 —Will you join in the game? “你愿意加入做游戏吗?” —I’d be glad to. “我很高兴加入。 ”
[来源:Z.X.X.K]

(2)如果不定式中含有 be,have,have been,通常保留 be,have 和 have been。 —Are you a sailor? “你是海员吗?” —No,but I used to be. “不,但我过去是。 ” 4.What if 句式。这一结构用来表达“要是/即使??怎么办/怎么样” What if this plan of yours fails? 要是你的计划失败了怎么办? 考点四 主谓一致 一、就近一致原则 1.由 or,either...or...,neither...nor...,not only...but also...等连接的并列主语,谓语动词常与最邻近的主语在 单复数上保持一致。 Neither you nor I am fit for the work. 你和我都不适合这份工作。 Are neither you nor I fit for the work? 你和我都不适合这份工作吗? 【注意】 “with/along with/together with/including/but/except/like/as well as/no more than/besides/rather than +名词”置于主语后,谓语动词一般仍与前面的名词在单复数上保持一致。 Henry,rather than Jane and John,is responsible for the loss. 损失的责任应由亨利而不是由简和约翰来承担。 2.由 there,here 引起的主语不止一个时,谓语通常和最邻近的主语保持一致。
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There is a pencil and two pens in the pencilbox. 文具盒内有一支铅笔和两支钢笔。 二、意义一致原则 (一)谓语动词用单数的情况 1.由连词 and 连接的并列成分指的是同一概念,兼具身份或匹配出现。 The worker and writer is from Wuhan. 那个工人兼作家来自武汉。 2. “no/each/every/many a+单数名词+and+no/each/every/many a+单数名词”作主语。 Every man and every woman has a good reason to be proud of the work done by their fathers. 每一个人都很有理由为他们的父亲所从事的职业感到骄傲。 3.非谓语动词、名词性从句作主语。 Persuading him to join us seems really hard. 劝他加入我们看起来确实难。 To go to bed early and to rise early is a good habit. 早睡早起是一个好的习惯。 Whatever was left was taken away. 无论剩下了什么都被拿走了。 【提醒】 what 引导的主语从句,谓语动词一般用单数形式,若从句谓语或从句后的表语是复数形式,则 谓语动词用复数形式。 What they need are books. 他们需要的是书。 (二)谓语动词用复数的情况 1.由 and 连接的两个并列成分表示两个不同的概念。 Both bread and butter are sold out. 面包和黄油都卖完了。 2.people,police,cattle 等有生命的集体名词作主语。 People read for pleasure during their spare time. 人们闲暇之余的阅读是为了消遣。

高考真题 特殊句式(强调句、倒装句、祈使句等)
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强调句 (2013 全国卷 II)10. It was only after he had read the papers extremely difficult to complete. A. when B. that C. which D. what she mentioned her own plan. D. when Mr. Gross realized the task before him was

(2013 天津卷)11. It was not until near the end of the letter A. that B. where C. why

(2013 重庆卷)27. It was with the help of the local guide ________ the mountain climber was rescued. A. who 倒装句 (2013 全国卷 II)12. Only by increasing the number of doctors by 50 percent A. can be the patients B. can the patients be treated D. treated can be the patients properly in this hospital. B. that C. when D. how

C. the patients can be treated

(2013 江苏卷)27. “Never for a second,” the boy says, “______ that my father would come to my rescue.” A. I doubted C. I have doubted B. do I doubt D. did I doubt

(2013 湖南卷)35. Not once ________ to Michael that he could one day become a top student in his class. A. occurred it C. it occurred B. it did occur D. did it occur

(2013 福建卷)34.Not until he went through real hardship _____the love we have for our families is important. A. had he realized C. he realized B. did he realize D. he had realized

(2013 江西卷)25.Only when he apologizes for his rudeness ____to him again. A. I will speak B. will I speak C. do I speak D. I speak

(2013 辽宁卷)26. At no time ________the rules of the game. It was unfair to punish them. A. they actually broke C. did they actually break 祈使句 (2013 上海卷)37. ________ at the photos, illustrations, title and headings and you can guess what the reading is about. A. To look B. Looking C. Having looked D. Look B. do they actually break D. they had actually broken

(2013 湖南卷)30. Every day ________ a proverb aloud several times until you have it memorized.
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A. read

B. reading

C. to read

D. reads

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