当前位置:首页 >> 机械/仪表 >>

AS1554.1-2004(+A1) Structural Steel Welding


AS/NZS 1554.1:2004
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Australian/New Zealand Standard?
Structural steel welding Part 1: Welding of steel struct

ures

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004 This Joint Australian/New Zealand Standard was prepared by Joint Technical Committee WD-003, Welding of Structures. It was approved on behalf of the Council of Standards Australia on 19 December 2003 and on behalf of the Council of Standards New Zealand on 5 March 2004. This Standard was published on 24 March 2004.

The following are represented on Committee WD-003: Australian Chamber of Commerce and Industry Australian Industry Group AUSTROADS Bureau of Steel Manufacturers of Australia Electricity Supply Association of Australia Institute of Engineers Australia New Zealand Heavy Engineering Research Association New Zealand Non-destructive Testing Association Steel Reinforcement Institute of Australia University of Sydney Welding Technology Institute of Australia

Keeping Standards up-to-date
Standards are living documents which reflect progress in science, technology and systems. To maintain their currency, all Standards are periodically reviewed, and new editions are published. Between editions, amendments may be issued. Standards may also be withdrawn. It is important that readers assure themselves they are using a current Standard, which should include any amendments which may have been published since the Standard was purchased. Detailed information about joint Australian/New Zealand Standards can be found by visiting the Standards Web Shop at www.standards.com.au or Standards New Zealand web site at www.standards.co.nz and looking up the relevant Standard in the on-line catalogue. Alternatively, both organizations publish an annual printed Catalogue with full details of all current Standards. For more frequent listings or notification of revisions, amendments and withdrawals, Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand offer a number of update options. For information about these services, users should contact their respective national Standards organization. We also welcome suggestions for improvement in our Standards, and especially encourage readers to notify us immediately of any apparent inaccuracies or ambiguities. Please address your comments to the Chief Executive of either Standards Australia or Standards New Zealand at the address shown on the back cover.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

This Standard was issued in draft form for comment as DR 02618.

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004
(Incorporating Amendment No. 1)

Australian/New Zealand Standard?
Structural steel welding Part 1: Welding of steel structures

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Originated in Australia as AS CA8—1933. Originated in New Zealand, in part, as NZS 4701:1981. Previous edition AS/NZS 1554.1:2000. Seventh edition 2004. Reissued incorporating Amendment No. 1 (January 2005).

COPYRIGHT
? Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand All rights are reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced or copied in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, without the written permission of the publisher. Jointly published by Standards Australia, GPO Box 5420, Sydney, NSW 2001 and Standards New Zealand, Private Bag 2439, Wellington 6020

ISBN 0 7337 5730 8

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

2

PREFACE
This Standard was prepared by the Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee WD-003, Welding of Structures, to supersede AS/NZS 1554.1—2000. This Standard incorporates Amendment No. 1 (January 2005 ). The changes required by the Amendment are indicated in the text by a marginal bar and amendment number against the clause, note, table, figure or part thereof affected. The objective of this Standard is to provide rules for the welding of a wide range of steel constructions and while it is expected that its main use will be for statically loaded welds, it applies also to some welds subject to fatigue. Although this Standard has been specifically prepared for steel structures, it may be usefully applied to machine frames and other types of steel constructions.
A1

This edition incorporates the following major changes to the 2000 edition: (a) Amendments to the following Clauses: 1.6(a)(i), 1.6(a)(ii), 1.6(b)(i), 1.6(b)(ii), 1.6(b)(iii), 1.7 (new NOTE), 1.8.2 (NOTE deleted), 1.8.3 (new Clause), 2.1 (last paragraph and NOTE), 2.3.4, 3.3.1 (first paragraph), 4.1.2 (first sentence), 4.3, 4.4(c), 4.5.5.1 (second paragraph), 4.5.5.3, 4.6.1.1, 4.7.1 (NOTE 1 deleted), 4.7.9 (second paragraph), 4.7.10 (second sentence), 4.11 (new NOTE), 4.12.1, 4.12.2(f)(ii), 4.12.2 (NOTE 2), 5.1.1 (last two sentences), 5.2.2 (second paragraph), 5.3.3, 5.8.1 (new NOTE), 5.8.4 (new NOTE), 7.2, B3.3, B4.2 (first paragraph), Appendix D (new Item (n)). (b) Amendments to the following Tables: 3.3.5 (Title), 4.7.1, 4.11(A) (Items (b), (c), (e) and (k)), 4.12.2 (NOTE 2), 5.3.4(A), C2, E1 (drawings for joints B-C 8a and B-C 8b), E4 (new joints H-C 1c and H-C 1d). (c) Amendments to the following Figures: 3.4.1(c), 4.5.5.2 (new), 4.5.5.3 (NOTES), 5.3.4(A). The Standard requires that weld preparations, welding consumables and welding procedures be qualified before commencement of welding. Prequalified joint preparations, welding consumables and welding procedures are also given in the Standard.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

The Standard, in catering for structures subject to fatigue conditions as well as statically loaded structures, provides two categories of welds with two differing levels of weld quality assurance associated with the different types of service to which the welds are subjected. The intention is that the designer select the category suited to the severity of the service and nominate this on the drawings. Where a structure contains both categories, this nomination of appropriate categories will ensure that appropriate levels of supervision and inspection will be applied to the relevant parts of the structure. Statements expressed in mandatory terms in notes to tables and figures are deemed to be requirements of this Standard. The terms ‘normative’ and ‘informative’ have been used in this Standard to define the application of the appendix to which they apply. A ‘normative’ appendix is an integral part of a Standard, whereas an ‘informative’ appendix is only for information and guidance.

3

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

CONTENTS
Page SECTION 1 SCOPE AND GENERAL 1.1 SCOPE ........................................................................................................................ 5 1.2 EXCLUSIONS ............................................................................................................ 6 1.3 INNOVATION ............................................................................................................ 6 1.4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS .................................................................................. 6 1.5 DEFINITIONS ............................................................................................................ 6 1.6 WELD CATEGORIES ................................................................................................ 7 1.7 BASIC WELDING REQUIREMENTS ....................................................................... 7 1.8 SAFETY...................................................................................................................... 8 SECTION 2 MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION 2.1 PARENT MATERIAL ................................................................................................ 9 2.2 BACKING MATERIAL.............................................................................................. 9 2.3 WELDING CONSUMABLES..................................................................................... 9 SECTION 3 DETAILS OF WELDED CONNECTIONS 3.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 11 3.2 BUTT WELDS .......................................................................................................... 11 3.3 FILLET WELDS ....................................................................................................... 12 3.4 COMPOUND WELDS .............................................................................................. 16 3.5 SEAL WELDS .......................................................................................................... 17 3.6 PLUG WELDS .......................................................................................................... 17 3.7 SLOT WELDS .......................................................................................................... 17 3.8 COMBINING STEEL SECTIONS ............................................................................ 17 SECTION 4 QUALIFICATION OF PROCEDURES AND PERSONNEL 4.1 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE ................................................... 19 4.2 METHODS FOR QUALIFYING A WELDING PROCEDURE................................ 20 4.3 PREQUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES ......................................................... 21 4.4 PORTABILITY OF QUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES ................................ 21 4.5 PREQUALIFIED JOINT PREPARATIONS ............................................................. 21 4.6 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING CONSUMABLES ............................................. 29 4.7 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE BY TESTING............................ 35 4.8 EXTENSION OF QUALIFICATION........................................................................ 39 4.9 COMBINATION OF PROCESSES........................................................................... 40 4.10 RECORDS OF TESTS .............................................................................................. 40 4.11 REQUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES ............................................ 40 4.12 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PERSONNEL .................................................... 43 SECTION 5 WORKMANSHIP 5.1 PREPARATION OF EDGES FOR WELDING......................................................... 47 5.2 ASSEMBLY.............................................................................................................. 47 5.3 PREHEATING AND INTER-RUN CONTROL........................................................ 48 5.4 WELDING UNDER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS................................... 55 5.5 TACK WELDS.......................................................................................................... 55 5.6 WELD DEPTH-TO-WIDTH RATIO ........................................................................ 55 5.7 CONTROL OF DISTORTION AND RESIDUAL STRESS...................................... 56 5.8 BACKGOUGING AND REPAIR OF DEFECTS IN WELDS .................................. 56 5.9 TEMPORARY ATTACHMENTS............................................................................. 57

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

4

Page 5.10 ARC STRIKES.......................................................................................................... 58 5.11 CLEANING OF FINISHED WELDS........................................................................ 58 5.12 DRESSING OF BUTT WELDS ................................................................................ 58 SECTION 6 QUALITY OF WELDS 6.1 CATEGORIES OF WELDS ...................................................................................... 59 6.2 METHODS OF INSPECTION AND PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF IMPERFECTIONS .................................................................................................... 59 6.3 RADIOGRAPHY ...................................................................................................... 64 6.4 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION ............................................................................. 65 6.5 MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION .............................................................. 65 6.6 LIQUID PENETRANT EXAMINATION ................................................................. 66 6.7 WELD DEFECTS...................................................................................................... 66 6.8 REPORTING............................................................................................................. 66 SECTION 7 INSPECTION 7.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 67 7.2 QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTORS .................................................................... 67 7.3 VISUAL INSPECTION OF WORK.......................................................................... 67 7.4 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OTHER THAN VISUAL ......................... 67 APPENDICES A REFERENCED DOCUMENTS ................................................................................ 69 B BRITTLE FRACTURE ............................................................................................. 72 C TYPICAL FORMS FOR WELDING PROCEDURES .............................................. 77 D MATTERS FOR RESOLUTION............................................................................... 80 E WELDED JOINT AND PROCESS IDENTIFICATION ........................................... 82

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

5

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

STANDARDS AUSTRALIA/STANDARDS NEW ZEALAND Australian/New Zealand Standard Structural steel welding Part 1: Welding of steel structures

SECT ION
1.1 SCOPE

1

SCOPE

AND

GENERA L

This Standard specifies requirements for the welding of steel structures made up of combinations of steel plate, sheet or sections, including hollow sections and built-up sections, or castings and forgings, by the following processes:
A1

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g)

Manual metal-arc welding (MMAW). Submerged arc welding (SAW). Gas metal-arc welding (GMAW or MIG), including pulsed mode. Gas tungsten-arc welding (GTAW or TIG). Flux-cored arc welding (FCAW). Electroslag (including consumable guide) welding (ESW). Electrogas welding (EGW).

The Standard is limited to the welding of steel parent material with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 500 MPa. The Standard applies to the welding of steelwork in structures complying with AS 3990, AS 4100, AS/NZS 4600 or NZS 3404.1. Where welded joints in these structures are governed by dynamic loading conditions, the Standard applies only to those welded joints that comply with the fatigue provisions of AS 3990, AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, as limited by Item (ii) below, or the directly equivalent fatigue provisions of other application Standards.
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Welded joints complying with the above requirements are those that are — (i) (ii) not subject to fatigue conditions; or subject to fatigue conditions, where— (A) the stress range in the welded joint complies with the permissible stress range of stress categories C, D, E or F of AS 3990, or weld categories lower than or equal to detail category 112 of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1; or the stress range in the welded joint is not more than 80% of the permissible stress range of stress category B of AS 3990.

(B)

In addition to the abovementioned structures the Standard applies to the welding of cranes, hoists and other dynamically loaded structures, the welding of road and pedestrian bridges and the welding of steelwork in applications other than structural.
NOTE: Further information on this Standard, which the drafting committee could not incorporate, is given in WTIA Technical Note 11.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

6

1.2 EXCLUSIONS The Standard does not apply to the welding of structures by the following processes: (a) (b) (c) (d) Oxyacetylene welding (OAW). Friction welding (FW). Thermit welding (TW). Resistance welding (RW).

NOTE: Resistance welds in structures complying with AS/NZS 4600 should be made in accordance with AWS C1.1 or AWS C1.3, as appropriate.

The Standard does not apply to the welding of pressure vessels and pressure piping. The Standard does not cover the design of welded connections or permissible stresses in welds, nor the production, rectification or repair of castings. 1.3 INNOVATION Any alternative materials, welding processes, consumables, methods of construction or testing that give equivalent results to those specified, but do not comply with the specific requirements of this Standard or are not mentioned in it, are not necessarily prohibited. The Joint Standards Australia/Standards New Zealand Committee on welding of structures can act in an advisory capacity concerning equivalent suitability, but specific approval remains the prerogative of the inspecting authority. 1.4 REFERENCED DOCUMENTS The documents referred to in this Standard are listed in Appendix A. 1.5 DEFINITIONS For the purpose of this Standard, the symbols and definitions given in AS 1101.3, AS 2812 and those below apply. 1.5.1 Fabricator The person or organization responsible for the welding of the structure during fabrication or erection. 1.5.2 Inspecting authority
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

The authority having statutory powers to control the design and erection of buildings or structures.
NOTE: Where the structure is not subject to statutory jurisdiction, the principal is deemed to be the inspecting authority.

1.5.3 Inspector A person employed by or acceptable to the inspecting authority or principal for the purpose of inspecting welding in accordance with this Standard. 1.5.4 May Indicates the existence of an option. 1.5.5 Principal The purchaser or owner of the structure being fabricated or erected, or a nominated representative.
NOTE: The nominated representative should be suitably qualified to deal with the technical issues of this Standard.

COPYRIGHT

7

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

1.5.6 Shall Indicates that a statement is mandatory. 1.5.7 Should Indicates a recommendation. 1.6 WELD CATEGORIES The Standard provides two categories of welds based on the type of application (see Clause 6.1), which in turn necessitates two levels of quality assurance (i.e. inspection and acceptance of weld imperfections) suitable for different weld applications and service conditions. The two weld categories shall be designated as follows: (a) GP (general purpose)—GP to be generally selected where — (i) (ii) the weld is essentially statically loaded and designed to meet the appropriate requirements of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1; the weld is stressed to not more than 50% of the relevant maximum permissible stress as specified in AS 3990; or

(iii) the welding application is other than structural.
NOTE: Welds nominated as Category SP, but not complying with the requirements of that category, may be considered as Category GP welds, provided the requirements of the design Standard are satisfied and the principal has agreed.

(b)

SP (structural purpose)—SP to be generally selected where — (i) (ii) the weld is essentially statically loaded and designed to meet the appropriate requirements of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1; the weld is stressed to more than 50% of the relevant maximum permissible stress as specified in AS 3990; or

(iii) the weld is subject to the dynamic loading, within the limits stipulated in Clause 1.1. 1.7 BASIC WELDING REQUIREMENTS The basis of this Standard is that a weld shall—
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

(a) (b) (c) (d)

be made in accordance with a qualified welding procedure; be carried out by a welder suitably qualified to carry out such a procedure; be carried out under the supervision of a welding supervisor who is employed by or contracted to the fabricator; and comply with the appropriate requirements of this Standard.

For certain conditions prescribed herein, the welding procedure is deemed to be prequalified and may not require full qualification testing (see Clause 4.3 and Table 4.7.1).
NOTE: Fabricators may find it useful to refer to AS/NZS ISO 3834 and its parts where fabrication activities require the approval of the principal or the inspecting authority, or where the fabrication of large, complex or critical structures is being undertaken.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

8

1.8 SAFETY 1.8.1 Safety equipment and procedures Welding shall be carried out in accordance with the relevant requirements of the following Standards: AS 1470, AS 1674.1, AS 1674.2, AS 2865, AS/NZS 1336, AS/NZS 1337, AS/NZS 1338.1. 1.8.2 Welding equipment Welding plant and equipment shall comply with the relevant sections of appropriate regulations, and the following relevant Standards: AS 1966.1, AS 1966.2, AS 2799, AS/NZS 1995, IEC 60974-1. 1.8.3 Other hazards The fabricator shall identify and manage any other risks and hazards from welding that are not covered by Clauses 1.8.1 and 1.8.2. In particular, due consideration shall be given to the control of emitted fumes, especially when welding through paints, primers and other surface coatings.
NOTES: 1 2 Guidance on the management of risk is given in AS/NZS 4360. Further guidance on safety precautions is given in WTIA Technical Notes 7 and 22.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

9

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

SE C T I ON

2

MA T E R I A L S

O F

CO N ST RU CT I O N

2.1 PARENT MATERIAL The parent material to be welded shall— (a) (b) (c) be of a grade with a specified minimum yield strength not exceeding 500 MPa; be selected in accordance with the provisions of Appendix B; and comply with the following Standards as appropriate: AS 1163, AS 1397, AS 1450, AS 1548, AS 2074, AS/NZS 1594, AS/NZS 1595, AS/NZS 3678, AS/NZS 3679.1, AS/NZS 3679.2, NZS 3415.
NOTE: Any steel type from any Standard above may be welded to any other steel type from any Standard above, provided the requirements of this Standard are met for each of the steels.

With the exception of quenched and tempered steels, parent materials not identified to a Standard nominated in Item (c) above may be used provided one of the following requirements are met: (i) Testing of the material to determine compliance with any of the grade types in the Standards nominated in Item (c) above has been carried out to the satisfaction of the principal. A comparison of supplied test certificates with the requirements of any of the grade types in the Standards nominated in Item (c) above has been performed to the satisfaction of the principal.
For high-strength quenched and tempered steels, see AS/NZS 1554.4. Impact tests in addition to those prescribed by the Standards in Item (c) above may be required to establish compliance with Appendix B and Paragraph B4.3.4.

(ii)

NOTES: 1 2

2.2 BACKING MATERIAL Permanently attached steel backing material shall have a weldability not less than that of the parent material. Temporary backing material of any type may be used for welds, provided that the finished weld complies with the requirements of this Standard. 2.3 WELDING CONSUMABLES 2.3.1 Electrodes and filler wires Electrodes for manual metal-arc welding shall comply with AS/NZS 1553.1 or AS/NZS 1553.2, as applicable (see Clause 4.6.1). Electrodes or filler wires for processes other than manual metal-arc welding shall comply with AS 1858.1, AS 2203.1 AS/NZS 1167.2 or AS/NZS 2717.1, as applicable (see Clause 4.6.1). Electrodes that do not comply with the above Standards may be used, provided that they are qualified in accordance with the requirements of Clause 4.6.2.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

10

2.3.2 Care of electrodes and filler wires Electrodes and filler wires shall be stored in their original packets, cans or cartons in a dry place adequately protected from the weather. Filler wires shall be dry, smooth and free from corrosion or other matter deleterious either to satisfactory operation or to the weld metal. Any coating on the electrodes or filler wires shall be continuous and firmly adherent. Any recommendations of the manufacturer, covering protection during storage and use, conditioning and pretreatment of electrodes or filler wires prior to use, shall be followed.
NOTE: See WTIA Technical Note 3 for recommendations for the storage and conditioning of arc welding consumables.

2.3.3 Flux Flux for submerged arc welding shall be stored in accordance with AS 1858.1. Where the manufacturer makes specific recommendations covering conditioning and pretreatment of flux prior to use, such recommendations shall be followed. Where flux is re-used, flux-recycling systems shall include suitable sieves and magnetic particle separators and shall be such that the flux remains in a satisfactory condition for re-use. Flux fused in the welding process shall not be re-used. 2.3.4 Shielding gas A gas or gas mixture used for shielding during arc welding shall be of a welding grade complying with the requirements of AS 4882, and shall be suitable for the intended application.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

11

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

S E C T I ON
3.1 GENERAL

3 D E T A I L S O F CONNECT I O NS

W E L DE D

3.1.1 Permissible weld types Welded connections may be made by butt, fillet, plug or slot welds, or by a combination of these. 3.1.2 Design stresses Where welded joints are to be welded in accordance with this Standard, the maximum stresses in the joints shall not exceed the maximum values given in AS 3990, AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, as applicable. 3.1.3 Drawings Drawings or other documents that give details of welded connections shall specify the following: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) Specification and grade of the parent metal. Nominal tensile strength of the weld metal. Location, type, size of welds, and the effective length of welds. Whether welds are to be made in the shop or at the site. Weld category. Details of non-standard welds. Details of seal welds, if such welds are required. Type and extent of inspection, including any special inspection requirements. Relevant design Standard. Any special requirements that could affect welding operations.

3.2 BUTT WELDS 3.2.1 Size of weld
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

The size of a complete penetration butt weld shall be the thickness of the thinner part. The size of a complete penetration T-joint or corner joint butt weld shall be the thickness of the part that butts against the face of the other part. The size of an incomplete penetration butt weld shall be the minimum depth to which the weld extends from its face into the joint, exclusive of reinforcement. Where the joint contains two welds, the size shall be the combined depths. 3.2.2 Design throat thickness 3.2.2.1 Complete penetration butt weld The design throat thickness of a complete penetration butt weld shall be the thickness of the thinner part. 3.2.2.2 Incomplete penetration butt weld The design throat thickness of an incomplete penetration butt weld shall be as follows: (a) For prequalified incomplete penetration butt welds, except as otherwise provided in Item (c) below, as shown in Table E2, Appendix E.
COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

12

(b)

For non-prequalified incomplete penetration butt welds, except as provided in Item (c) below— (i) (ii) where θ < 60 °, D ? 3 mm; or where θ ≥ 60 ° , D; where D = depth of preparation θ = angle of preparation

(c)

For incomplete penetration butt welds made by a fully automatic arc welding process, provided that it can be demonstrated by means of a macro test on a production weld that the required penetration has been achieved, a design throat thickness up to the depth of penetration. Where such penetration is achieved, the size of the weld may be correspondingly reduced.

3.2.3 Effective length The effective length of the butt weld shall be the length of a continuous full-size weld. 3.2.4 Effective area The effective area of a butt weld shall be the product of the effective length and the design throat thickness. 3.2.5 Transition of thickness or width Butt-welded joints between parts of different thicknesses or parts of unequal widths that are subject to tension shall have a smooth transition between the surfaces or the edges. The transition shall be made by chamfering the thicker part or by sloping the weld surfaces or by any combination of these as shown in Figure 3.2.5. The transition slope between the parts shall be not steeper than 1:1. However, the fatigue provisions of AS 3990, AS 4100, NZS 3404.1 and other design codes may require a lesser slope or a curved transition between the parts. 3.3 FILLET WELDS 3.3.1 Size of weld The size of a fillet weld shall be the leg length as defined by AS 2812.
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

The preferred sizes of fillet welds less than 15 mm are 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12 mm. Where there is a root gap, the size shall be given by the lengths of the legs of the inscribed triangle, reduced by the amount shown in Table E3, Appendix E. 3.3.2 Design throat thickness The design throat thickness (DTT) of a fillet weld shall be as shown in Table E3, Appendix E. For deep penetration fillet welds made by fully automatic arc welding processes, provided that it can be demonstrated by means of a macro test on a production weld that the required penetration has been achieved, an increase in design throat thickness shall be allowed as shown in Figure 3.3.2. Where such penetration is achieved, the size of the weld may be correspondingly reduced. 3.3.3 Effective length The effective length of a fillet weld shall be the overall length of the full-size fillet, including end returns. Where the weld is full size throughout its length, no reduction in effective length shall be made for either the start or crater of the weld.
COPYRIGHT

13

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Where the effective length of a fillet weld is less than four times the size of the weld, the size of the weld for design calculation purposes shall be reduced to 25% of the effective length. Any segment of intermittent fillet weld shall have an effective length of not less than 40 mm. 3.3.4 Effective area The effective area of a fillet weld shall be the product of the effective length and the design throat thickness. 3.3.5 Minimum size of fillet welds The minimum size of a fillet weld, including the first run of a multi-run fillet weld, other than a fillet weld used to reinforce a butt weld, shall conform to Table 3.3.5 except that the size of the weld need not exceed the thickness of the thinner part joined (see also Clause 5.3).

TABLE 3.3.5 MINIMUM SIZE (LEG LENGTH) OF FILLET WELDS
millimetres Thickness of thickest part ( t) ≤3 >3 ≤7 >7 ≤10 >10 ≤15 >15 Minimum size of fillet weld 2t /3* 3* 4* 5 6

* These values may need to be increased to comply with some design Standards.

3.3.6 Maximum size of fillet welds along edges
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

The maximum size of a fillet weld along edges of material shall be— (a) (b) (c) for material with a thickness of less than 6 mm (see Figure 3.3.6(a)), the thickness of the material; for material with thickness of not less than 6 mm (see Figure 3.3.6(b)), the thickness of the material minus 1 mm; or for material with a thickness of not less than 6 mm, where the weld is designated on the drawing to be built out to obtain the design throat thickness (see Figure 3.3.6(c)), the thickness of the material.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

14

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

FIGURE 3.2.5 TRANSITION OF THICKNESSES OR WIDTHS FOR BUTT WELDS SUBJECT TO TENSION

COPYRIGHT

15

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

NOTE: DTT = D1 + 0.85 D2, where DTT is the design throat thickness for deep penetration fillet welds made by a fully automatic process.

FIGURE 3.3.2 DEEP PENETRATION FILLET WELD

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

FIGURE 3.3.6 MAXIMUM SIZE OF FILLET WELDS ALONG EDGES

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

16

3.4 COMPOUND WELDS 3.4.1 Description A compound weld is a butt-welded T-joint with a fillet weld superimposed on one or both faces. Details of typical compound welds are shown in Figure 3.4.1.

FIGURE 3.4.1 COMPOUND WELDS

3.4.2 Design throat thickness (DTT) 3.4.2.1 Compound welds with complete penetration welds in the T-joint The DTT of compound welds with complete penetration welds in the T-joint shall be the thickness of the part that butts against the face of the other part.
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

3.4.2.2 Compound welds with incomplete penetration welds The DTT of compound welds with incomplete penetration welds shall be as shown in Figure 3.4.2.2, where DTT is the shortest distance from the root of the incomplete penetration welds to the face of the fillet welds as determined by the largest inscribed triangle in the total weld cross-section, with a maximum value equal to the thickness of the part that butts against the face of the other part to form the T-joint.

FIGURE 3.4.2.2 DESIGN THROAT THICKNESS OF COMPOUND WELDS WITH INCOMPLETE PENETRATION WELDS
COPYRIGHT

17

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

3.5 SEAL WELDS Seal welds shall be single-run fillet or incomplete penetration butt welds, as applicable. The size of seal welds shall comply with Clauses 3.3.5 and 3.8, unless a larger weld is specifically required. Seal welds shall be made in accordance with a qualified welding procedure.
NOTE: Where seal welding is required, such a procedure has to be specified clearly on the drawings or other documents (see Clause 3.1.2).

3.6 PLUG WELDS The diameter of the hole for a plug weld shall be— (a) (b) not less than the sum of 8 mm plus the thickness of the part containing the hole; and not more than the greater of— (i) (ii) the sum of 11 mm plus the thickness of the part containing the hole; and 2.25 times the thickness of the member.

The centre-to-centre spacing between plug welds shall be not less than four times the diameter of the hole. The effective area of a plug weld shall be the nominal cross-sectional area of the hole in the plane of the faying or contact surface. The depth of the filling of plug welds shall be as follows: Material thickness (t) mm ≤16 >16 ≤32 >32 3.7 SLOT WELDS The length of the slot for slot welds shall be not greater than 10 times the thickness of the part containing it. The width of the slot for slot welds shall be— (a) (b)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Depth of filling mm T ≥16 ≥t/2

not less than the sum of 8 mm plus the thickness of the part containing the slot; and not more than the greater of— (i) (ii) the sum of 11 mm plus the thickness of the part containing the slot; and 2.25 times the thickness of the member.

The ends of the slot shall be semicircular or shall have the corners rounded to a radius of not less than the thickness of the part containing it, except for those ends that extend to the edge of the part. The minimum spacing of lines of slot welds in a direction transverse to their length shall be four times the width of the slot. The minimum centre-to-centre spacing in a longitudinal direction on any line shall be two times the length of the slot. The effective area of a slot weld shall be as for a fillet weld of the same size and effective length. Where a slot weld is made by completely or partially filling the slot (i.e. not made with a fillet weld around the perimeter of the slot), the effective area shall be as for plug welds (see Clause 3.6). 3.8 COMBINING STEEL SECTIONS The size of welds made for the purpose of combining steel sections to form composite members (see Figure 3.8) shall be not less than 3 mm.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

18

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

FIGURE 3.8 WELDING OF ROLLED SECTIONS TO FORM BUILT-UP MEMBERS
COPYRIGHT

19

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

SECT ION 4 QUA L I F I C AT I ON O F PROCEDURES AND PERSONNE L
4.1 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE 4.1.1 General The welding procedure (that is the weld preparation, the welding consumables and the welding parameters) shall be qualified before welding of either the structure or the component commences. The fabricator shall establish a welding procedure and list the applicable parameters in the welding procedure qualification record (also known as PQR or WPQR), which shall be held as a record and shall be available for examination. A welding procedure specification shall be developed from the PQR, based on the limits of the essential variables of Clause 4.11, and made available to the welder during fabrication. The welding procedure may be approved on the welding procedure sheets by a representative of the principal, who shall have, as a minimum, the qualification of a welding supervisor in accordance with Clause 4.12.1 or welding inspector (see Clause 7.2).
NOTES: 1 2 Forms suitable as PQR and WPS welding procedure sheets are shown in Appendix C. For New Zealand, NZS 3404.1 requires the welding procedures to have been approved by the principal, prior to the commencement of welding.

4.1.2 Butt welds For complete penetration and incomplete penetration butt welds, the following also apply: (a) For welding processes MMAW, SAW, GMAW, GTAW and FCAW, a procedure qualification of a butt weld that has been welded from only the one side on a single-V or a single-U preparation shall qualify for single-sided butt welds in both plate and pipe. A procedure qualification for any prequalified butt-welded joint listed in Table E1, E2 or E4, Appendix E, shall qualify all other welding positions listed for that joint and angle of preparation (θ) used without further testing. A change in welding direction between vertically up and vertical down shall require separate qualification. A procedure qualification on a single-V butt weld that has been welded from only the one side shall qualify for welding a double-V butt weld and a single-V butt weld that has been welded on both sides. A procedure qualification on a single-U butt weld that has been welded from only the one side shall qualify for welding a double-U butt weld and a single-U butt weld that has been welded on both sides. A procedure qualification on a double-V butt weld shall also qualify for welding a single-V butt weld that has been welded on both sides. A procedure qualification on a double-U butt weld shall also qualify for welding a single-U butt weld that has been welded on both sides. Thickness limitations for butt welds shall comply with the following: (i) (ii) For material with a thickness of less than 36 mm, Item (o) of Table 4.11(A) applies. For material with a thickness of not less than 36 mm, no upper limit applies.

(b)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

(c)

(d)

(e) (f) (g)

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

20

4.1.3 Fillet welds For fillet welds, the following also apply: (a) (b) The procedure qualification of a fillet weld using processes on either plate or pipe shall qualify for fillet welds on both plate and pipe. The procedure qualification of a fillet weld shall be based on the fillet weld size (leg length), not material thicknesses, as follows: (i) For a single-run fillet weld, qualification shall cover the size of the fillet used for the qualification test and all single-run fillets below the size qualified for the positions shown in Table 4.1.3. For multi-run fillets, qualification shall cover the size of the fillet used for qualification and all larger multi-run fillets for the positions shown in Table 4.1.3. When applying this qualification for single-run and multi-run fillets, consideration shall be given to the pre-heat requirements for combined thicknesses of T1, T2 and T3, and the pre-heat requirements for the combined thicknesses shall be shown on the welding procedure specification (WPS) and on the procedure qualification record (PQR).

(ii)

(c)

A change in welding direction between vertical up and vertical down shall require separate qualification.
NOTE: Single-run and multiple-run fillet welds may be qualified on opposite sides of the same test plates.

TABLE 4.1.3 PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION FOR FILLET WELDS ON PLATE OR PIPE—POSITIONS QUALIFIED
Weld position 1F (flat) 2F (horizontal) 3F (vertical) 4F (overhead)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Position qualified 1F only 1F, 2F and 4F (overhead) 3F only 1F, 2F and 4F

4.1.4 Qualification of multiple welding positions Where a test piece requires procedure qualification in more than one position, the test piece qualifies the welding procedures for those positions, provided a macro is taken from each position to be qualified.
NOTE: This can be achieved by welding a pipe test piece in the 5G or 6G fixed position.

4.2 METHODS FOR QUALIFYING A WELDING PROCEDURE A welding procedure shall be qualified by one of the following methods: (a) (b) A prequalified procedure in accordance with Clause 4.3. Production of documentary evidence of relevant prior experience by the fabricator.
NOTE: A completed welding procedure sheet such as that shown in Appendix C, together with records of any tests carried out as required by the application Standard to which the procedure was qualified, constitutes documentary evidence of prior experience.

COPYRIGHT

21

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

(c)

Production of a suitable length of test piece of the same joint type, material type, material thickness and edge preparation as the component, upon which the procedures are to be applied, and testing it in accordance with Clause 4.7 where the type of joint allows such testing. The test piece may be made as a production test piece. Preparation of a special test piece, such as shown in Figure 4.7.2, which simulates as closely as practicable the weld penetration, material type and direction of rolling, material thickness, edge preparation, welding conditions, including welder access and conditions of restraint to be used in production, and testing it in accordance with Clause 4.7. Destructive testing of a prototype joint, structure or component. A welding procedure qualified by another fabricator, see Clause 4.4.

(d)

(e) (f)

4.3 PREQUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES Welding procedures shall be deemed to be prequalified, where— (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) the joint preparations are prequalified in accordance with Clause 4.5: the materials are prequalified in accordance with Clause 2.1; the consumables are prequalified in accordance with Clause 4.6; the workmanship and welding techniques, including the preheat and inter-run temperature requirements, comply with this Standard; and there is documentary evidence of a satisfactory macro test in accordance with Clause 4.7.4, including a satisfactory macro or a sketch or photograph of it, showing the position number, the sequence of runs, the minimum leg length, the throat thickness and the scale of the sketch.
NOTE: For the purpose of this requirement, a digital or scanned image is considered to be the equivalent of a photograph.

4.4 PORTABILITY OF QUALIFIED WELDING PROCEDURES A welding procedure qualified by one fabricator shall be valid for use by a second fabricator, provided that— (a) (b)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

the original qualification tests were carried out in accordance with this Standard or other acceptable national or international Standards, and were fully documented; the second fabricator has adequate equipment and facilities and demonstrates successful welding of welder qualification tests or a macro test using the procedure; the application of the welding procedure is acceptable to both fabricators and the principal; and the welding procedure identifies the original and second fabricator.

(c) (d)

4.5 PREQUALIFIED JOINT PREPARATIONS 4.5.1 General The joint preparations prescribed in Clauses 4.5.2, 4.5.3 and 4.5.4 shall be deemed prequalified, provided that the welding processes and consumables used comply with the recommendations of the consumables manufacturer.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

22

4.5.2 Prequalified complete penetration butt welds Joint preparations for prequalified complete penetration butt welds conforming to a preparation listed in Table E1, Appendix E, shall be deemed prequalified. Provided that each preparation complies with the requirements of Table E1 for double-V, double bevel, double-U and double-J welds, preparations of unequal depth shall be deemed prequalified also.
NOTE: For additional requirements for hollow sections, see Clause 4.5.5.

Complete penetration butt welds that are to be welded from both sides using these prequalified preparations shall have the roots of the weld gouged out by suitable means to sound metal, before welding is started on the second side, unless evidence is produced by macro etching that complete fusion can be obtained without such gouging. 4.5.3 Prequalified incomplete penetration butt welds Joint preparations for prequalified incomplete penetration butt welds that conform to a preparation listed in Table E2, Appendix E, shall be deemed prequalified. Provided that each preparation complies with the requirements of Table E2, Appendix E, for double-V, double-bevel, double-U or double-J welds, preparations of unequal depth shall be deemed prequalified also. 4.5.4 Prequalified fillet welds Joint preparations for prequalified fillet welds conforming to a preparation listed in Table E3, Appendix E, shall be deemed prequalified. Welding positions shall comply with AS 3545 (see also Table 4.5.4).
NOTES: 1 2 For additional requirements for fillet welds for hollow sections, see Clause 4.5.5. Single-run and multiple-run fillet welds may be qualified on opposite sides of the same test plates.

TABLE 4.5.4 PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION FOR FILLET WELDS ON PLATE OR PIPE, AND SIZE QUALIFIED
Fillet Size
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Number of welds per procedure One

Macro etch samples See Table 4.7.1

Sizes qualified Material thickness Unlimited Fillet size Maximum test size single-run and smaller Minimum test size multi-run and larger

Single-run maximum size to be used in qualification Multi-run minimum size to be used in qualification

One

See Table 4.7.1

Unlimited

4.5.5 Additional requirements for welds in hollow section members 4.5.5.1 Complete penetration butt welds Joint preparations for complete penetration butt welds in hollow sections that conform to one of the following shall be deemed prequalified: (a) (b) Joints welded from both sides and complying with one of the processes specified in Table E1, Appendix E. Joints welded from one side with sections complying with AS 1163 or AS 1450, and in addition complying with one of the processes specified in Table E4, Appendix E.
COPYRIGHT

23

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Joint preparations for connections butt-welded from one side, complying with the details shown in Figure 4.5.5.1 for circular and unequal-width rectangular hollow sections and in Figure 4.5.5.2 for equal-width rectangular hollow sections, shall be deemed prequalified for all appropriate processes. 4.5.5.2 Fillet welds Joint preparations for fillet welds conforming to Table E3, Appendix E, shall be deemed prequalified for all processes. In addition, the joint preparations shown in Figure 4.5.5.3 for fillet-welded connections shall be deemed prequalified for all appropriate processes. 4.5.5.3 Combination of fillet and butt welds Joint preparations for combinations of fillet welds and butt welds, complying with the details shown in Figure 4.5.5.4 for circular and unequal-width rectangular hollow sections and Figure 4.5.5.2 for equal-width rectangular hollow sections, shall be deemed prequalified for all processes, provided that the joint preparations for butt welds conform to Table E1 or E2, Appendix E, as applicable. 4.5.5.4 Circular hollow section connections Where a weld connects the end of one circular hollow section member to the surface of another circular hollow section member, the following shall also apply, as appropriate: (a) Not flattened Where the end of the section is not flattened and the sections intersect at an angle of — (i) (ii) less than 30 °, the welding procedure shall be qualified in accordance with Clause 4.2 before welding commences; and not less than 30 ° , the joint shall comply with the following additional requirements: Type of weld Butt throughout Fillet throughout Usage Used in any joint Used only where diameter of smaller member is less than one-third of that of larger member Used in any joint

Combination of butt and fillet with gradual transitions between them (b)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Partially or fully flattened Where the end of a circular hollow section member is partially flattened to a suitable shape, Items (a)(i) and (a)(ii) above shall apply and, for the application of Item (a)(ii), the diameter of the flattened portion of the section shall be measured in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the main section, the plane being taken at the point of intersection of the axis of the branch section with the surface of the main section. The flattening of the section shall be made over the minimum length practicable. The change of shape shall be gradual, with no evidence of splitting or cracking in the flattened portion. Typical flattened circular hollow section joints are shown in Figure 4.5.5.5.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

24

4.5.5.5 End-to-surface connections of rectangular hollow sections For end-to-surface connections of rectangular hollow sections, the following shall also apply, as appropriate: (a) Angle of intersection not less than 30° Where the end of a rectangular hollow section member is welded to the surface of another rectangular hollow section member of greater width, with the axes of the members intersecting at an angle of not less than 30 ° , the joint shall comply with one of the following additional requirements: (i) (ii) (b) A butt weld is used throughout. A fillet weld is used throughout.

(iii) A combination of fillet and butt welds is used throughout. Angle of intersection less than 30° Where the end of a rectangular hollow section member is welded to the surface of another rectangular hollow section member of greater width, with the axes of the members intersecting at an angle of less than 30°, the welding procedure shall be qualified in accordance with Clause 4.2 before welding commences. Equal width rectangular hollow sections Where the end of a rectangular hollow section member is welded to the surface of another rectangular hollow section member of equal width, the welding procedure shall be qualified in accordance with Clause 4.2 before welding commences.

(c)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

25

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

NOTES: 1 2 3 4 5 6 θ ≥ 30°. The values for width of root gap (G ) are given in Table E4, Appendix E. These sections, as drawn, apply to circular hollow sections. Only Sections U, X and Z apply to unequal-width rectangular hollow sections. For Section Y, see Figure 4.5.5.2 for equal-width rectangular hollow sections. For rectangular hollow sections, welds should not be started or stopped at corners.

FIGURE 4.5.5.1 PREQUALIFIED BUTT WELDS FOR CIRCULAR AND UNEQUAL-WIDTH RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

26

NOTES: 1 2 3 4 5 θ ≥ 30 ° . The values for width of root gap (G ) are given in Table E4, Appendix E. Placing pieces of metal in the root gap for bridging the gap is not permitted. Sections X and Z are the same as Sections X and Z of Figures 4.5.5.1 and 4.5.5.3. For unequal-width rectangular hollow sections, see Figure 4.5.5.1.

FIGURE 4.5.5.2 PREQUALIFIED BUTT WELDS FOR EQUAL-WIDTH RECTANGULAR HOLLOW SECTIONS
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

27

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

NOTES: 1 2 3 4 5 θ ≥ 30 ° . The values for width of root gap (G ) are given in Table E4, Appendix E. These sections, as drawn, apply to circular hollow sections. Only sections X and Z apply to unequal-width rectangular hollow sections. For Section Y, see Figure 4.5.5.2 for equal-width rectangular hollow sections (see Clause 4.5.5.5(c)).

FIGURE 4.5.5.3 PREQUALIFIED FILLET WELDS

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

28

NOTES: 1 2 3 4 5 θ ≥ 30 ° . The values for width of root gap (G ) are given in Table E4, Appendix E. These sections apply to circular hollow sections. Only Sections X and Z apply to unequal-width rectangular hollow sections. These details may not apply to equal-width rectangular hollow sections (see Clause 4.5.5.5(c)).

FIGURE 4.5.5.4 PREQUALIFIED COMBINATION OF FILLET AND BUTT WELDS INCLUDING COMPOUND BUTT AND FILLET WELD

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

29

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

FIGURE 4.5.5.5 FLATTENED CIRCULAR HOLLOW SECTION JOINTS

4.6 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING CONSUMABLES 4.6.1 Prequalified welding consumables 4.6.1.1 General
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Welding consumables shall be matched with the steel type in compliance with Table 4.6.1(A) and used within the welding parameter ranges specified by the manufacturer. In addition, the impact test temperature of the consumables (as specified in the relevant Standard for the consumables) shall not be warmer than the design service temperature (see Paragraph B3, Appendix B). Where welding consumables meet the above requirements and comply with the following relevant requirements, they shall be deemed prequalified and require no qualification testing: (a) (b) Electrodes for manual metal-arc welding conform to Columns 2 and 3 of Table 4.6.1(A). Consumables for submerged arc and flux-cored arc welding conform to Columns 4 and 5 of Table 4.6.1(A), provided that for L0 grade steels the maximum arc energy is limited to 5 kJ/mm and for L15 grade or L20 grade steels the maximum arc energy is limited to 2.5 kJ/mm. Consumables for gas metal-arc welding conform to Column 6 of Table 4.6.1(A). Consumables for gas-tungsten arc welding conform to Column 7 of Table 4.6.1(A).
COPYRIGHT

(c) (d)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

30

(e)

Consumables for automatic and semi-automatic processes (submerged arc, flux-cored arc, gas metal-arc) have Lloyds’ or other ship classification societies’ approval as shown in Columns 8, 9 and 10 of Table 4.6.1(A), with the following limitations regarding arc energy: (i) Consumables with S, M or SM grading— (A) (B) (i) (ii) for multi-run butt welds or any fillet weld in L0 grade steel, 5 kJ/mm max.; or for multi-run butt welds or any fillet weld in L15 or L20 grade steels, 2.5 kJ/mm max.

Consumables with T grading, no limitation on arc energy for single-run or two-run technique. Consumables with TM grading, no limitation on arc energy for single-run or multi-run technique.

Where a consumable is not prequalified in accordance with Items (a), (b), (c) (d) or (e) above, but the fabricator can produce relevant data, properly documented, of satisfactory prior experience in the use of the consumables with a qualified procedure, the data shall be taken as sufficient evidence for deeming the consumable qualified for that procedure (see Clause 4.2(b)). 4.6.1.2 Weather-resistant steels For applications of weather-resistant steels, where the weld metal is required to have the characteristics of resistance to atmospheric corrosion and colouring similar to those of the parent material, the following consumables shall be deemed prequalified: (a) For single-run fillet welds and butt welds made with a single run or a single run each side and where the welds are made with no weave, welding consumables selected in accordance with Table 4.6.1(A). For single-run fillet welds and butt welds made with a single run or a single-run each side and where weaving is used during the run, welding consumables selected in accordance with Table 4.6.1(C). For capping runs on multi-run fillet or butt welds, welding consumables selected in accordance with Table 4.6.1(C). For runs other than capping runs on multi-run fillet or butt welds, welding consumables selected in accordance with Table 4.6.1(A).

(b)

(c) (d)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

31

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE 4.6.1(A) PREQUALIFIED WELDING CONSUMABLES (See Notes below)
1 2 3 4 5 6 Gas metal-arc (AS/NZS 2717.1) 7 Gas tungsten-arc (AS/NZS 1167.2) 8 9 10

Submerged Flux-cored Manual metal-arc arc arc Steel type (AS/NZS 1553.1) (AS 1858.1) (AS 2203.1) (see Table 4.6.1(B)) ClassifiClassifiClassifiGrade cation cation cation 1 E41XX E48XX 0 and 1 W40XY W50XY W40XX.X W50XX.X

Ship classification societies’ approval
TM Grade S, M or SM T Grade two-run and Grade two-run multi-run multi-run 1M 1S 1SM 1T 1TM

Classification W50X

Classification R1

2

E41XX E48XX

2

W402Y W502Y

W402X.X W502X.X

W502



2M 2S 2SM

2T

2TM

3

E41XX E48XX

3

W403Y W503Y

W403X.X W503X.X

W503



3M 3S 3SM

3T

3TM

4

E41XX E48XX

0 and 1

W40XY W50XY

W40XX.X W50XX.X

W50X



1YM 1YSM 1YS

1YT

1YTM

5

E41XX E48XX

2

W402Y W502Y

W402X.X W502X.X

W502



2YM 2YSM 2YS

2YT

2YTM

6

E41XX E48XX

3

W403Y W503Y

W403X.X W503X.X

W503



3YM 3YSM 3YS

3YT

3YTM

7A

E48XX

0 and 1

W50XY

W50X

W50X



1YM 1YSM 1YS

1YT

1YTM

7B
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

E48XX

2

W502Y

W502X.X

W502



2YM 2YSM 2YS

2YT

2YTM

7C

E48XX

1

W503Y

W503X.X

W503



3YM 3YSM 3YS

3YT

3YTM

8

See Note 6



See Note 7

W55XY.ZH W62XY.ZH

W559H-Z W629H-Z









COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

32

NOTES TO TABLE 4.6.1(A) 1 The allocation of steel type numbers to particular steels is given in Table 4.6.1(B). 2 Consumables with a higher impact grading than that shown are also acceptable. 3 The letter `H ’ denotes controlled hydrogen.
The letter ‘ X ’ represents impact energy values. The letter ‘ Y ’ designates condition of heat treatment. The letter ‘ Z ’ stands for any chemical composition.

4 Consumables are prequalified for use with weathering steels (WR, HW) of AS/NZS 1594, AS/NZS 3678, AS/NZS 3679.1 and
AS/NZS 3679.2 where similar weathering properties are not required. Where matching weathering properties are required, refer to Table 4.6.1(C).

5 For steel types 4, 5 and 6 (except steel to AS/NZS 3678—400), consumables of the E4IXX, W40XY or W40XX.X type will equal or
exceed the specified minimum yield strength of the material and will usually give a tensile strength of not less than 95% of the specified tensile strength of the parent material. For steel to AS/NZS 3678—400, consumables of the E4IXX, W40XY or W40XX.X type shall require qualification.

6 AS/NZS 1553.2, Classifications: E5515-Z, E5516-Z, E5518-Z, E6215-Z, E6216-Z, E6218-Z.
7 AS 1858.2, Classifications: W55XY.ZH, W62XY.ZH.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

33

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE 4.6.1(B) ASSOCIATION OF STEEL TYPE NUMBERS TO AUSTRALIAN AND NEW ZEALAND STEELS
Specification and grade of parent metal Steel type 1 AS 1163 C250 AS 1397 G250 G300 AS 1450 C200 H200 C250 H250 AS 1548 7-430 7-460 AS/NZS 1594 HA1 HA3 HA4N HA200 HA250 HA250/1 HU250 HA300 HA300/1 HU300 HA1006 HA1010 HA1016 HXA1016 2 C250 L0 — — 7-430L0 7-460L0 3 — — — 7-430L20 7-430L40 7-430L50 7-460L20 7-460L40 7-460L50 4 C350 G350 C350 H350 5-490 7-490 HA350 HA400 HW350 — C1 C4-1 C4-2 C7A-2 350 WR350 400 350 400 Fe 510A Fe 510B XF300 — — 250L15 300L15 — — — — 250 L0 300 L0 250 L15 300 L15 Fe 430D Fe 430C AS/NZS 1595 AS 2074 All grades C2 C3 C7A-1 AS/NZS 3678 AS/NZS 3679.1 NZS 3415 AS/NZS 3679.2 200 250 300 A1006 XK1016 250 300 Fe 430A

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

5

C350 L0





7-490L0







WR350 L0

350 L0 400 L0

Fe 510C

6







5-490L20 5-490L40 5-490L50 7-490L20 7-490L40 7-490L50

XF400





350 L15 400 L15

350 L15 400 L15

Fe 510D

7A 7B 7C 8

C450 C450 L0 — —

G450 — — —

C450 — — —

— — — —

— — — XF500

— — — —

— — — —

450 — 450 L15 —

— — — —

— — — —

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

34

TABLE 4.6.1(C) PREQUALIFIED WELDING CONSUMABLES WITH SIMILAR WEATHERING RESISTANCE
Consumables (see Note) Steel grade Manual metal-arc (AS/NZS 1553.2) Flux-cored arc (AS 2203.1) W50XX.Ni1 W55XX.Ni1 W50XX.Ni2 W55XX.Ni2 W50XX.Ni3 W55XX.Ni3

AS/NZS 1594— HW350 AS/NZS 3678— WR350 AS/NZS 3678— WR350 L0

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

E4815-C1L E4816-C1L E4818-C1L E4815-C2L E4816-C2L E4818-C2L E5516-C1 E5518-C1 E5516-C2 E5518-C2

NOTE: Any listed consumables may be used with any listed steel grade.

4.6.2 Qualification of welding consumables by testing Where welding consumables are not prequalified in accordance with Clause 4.6.1, they may be qualified in conjunction with a procedure qualification test in accordance with Clause 4.7. Where the mechanical properties of the transverse butt tensile test meet the minimum requirements shown in Table 4.6.2 and the weld metal hardness complies with Clause 4.7.8, the consumables shall be deemed qualified for that procedure.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

35

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE 4.6.2 TRANSVERSE BUTT TENSILE TEST AND CHARPY-V IMPACT PROPERTIES
Charpy-V impact properties (see Note 2) Steel type (see Table 4.6.1(B) and Note 1) Minimum tensile strength, MPa Manual metalarc Average energy, J (see Note 3) TNR 40 40 TNR 47 47 TNR 47 47 47 Automatic and semi-automatic (see Note 4) Minimum energy, J TNR 23 23 TNR 26 26 TNR 26 26 26 Average energy, J TNR 35 35 TNR 40 40 TNR 40 40 40 Temperature, °C (see Note 5) TNR 0 –15 TNR 0 –15 TNR 0 –15 –15

1 2 3 4 5 6 7A 7B 7C 8 NOTES: 1 2 3 4 5

430 430 430 500 500 500 500 500 500 550

Facture of the tensile test specimen outside the weld zone with a tensile strength of not less than the minimum specified for the parent material is permitted. TNR = testing not required. For manual metal-arc electrodes, the impact requirements are for the computed average values for the three test specimens. For automatic and semi-automatic consumables, the impact requirements are for the minimum computed average values of the three test specimens plus the allowable minimum of any single specimen. The Charpy-V test temperature shall be the lower of the relevant temperature given in Table 4.6.2 and the design service temperature (see Appendix B) as specified in Clause 4.6.1.1(h).

4.7 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURE BY TESTING 4.7.1 Method of qualification Where the welding procedure to be used is not qualified in accordance with Items (a), (b) or (e) of Clause 4.2, it shall be qualified by producing a suitable test piece in accordance with either Item (c) or (d) of Clause 4.2 and subjecting the weld in the as-welded condition to the tests specified in Table 4.7.1. Where the weld complies with the relevant test requirements of Clause 4.7, the welding procedure shall be accepted as qualified.
NOTE: Instructions for the qualification of welding procedures on steels not listed in Clause 2.1 or Table 4.6.1(B) are not specifically provided for by this Standard. Thus, such instructions should be agreed between the fabricator and principal. It is recommended that the fabricator treat such joints as if they had been welded with non-prequalified welding consumables. The tests listed within the appropriate section of this Table should be performed, including the hardness comparison test (Clause 4.7.8) and the HAZ hardness test (Clause 4.7.9). In addition, where the design service temperature is not more than 5°C, it is also recommended that parent plate charpy tests be taken, to ensure compliance with Appendix B, in particular Table B1.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

4.7.2 Preparation of special test piece Where required, a special test piece shall be prepared in accordance with Figure 4.7.2, as appropriate. Under certain circumstances, such as an unusual joint configuration, it may be necessary to prepare two test pieces for different purposes, one as shown in Figure 4.7.2 for testing the weld metal and the other for closely simulating the configuration of the joint for testing the weld penetration.
COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

36

4.7.3 Dimensions of test pieces The dimensions of the test piece that is obtained either from the same joint type as the component being welded (see Clause 4.2(c)) or from a run-on or run-off piece welded in production or from the special test piece shown in Figure 4.7.2 shall be sufficient to allow preparation of the required number of test specimens for the tests. 4.7.4 Macro test The macro test shall be carried out in accordance with AS 2205.5.1. The specimen shall comply with the requirements of Clauses 5.6 and 6.2 and Table 6.2.2, as appropriate. Unless it can be proved otherwise for the remainder of the test plate (e.g. by radiographic testing, by ultrasonic testing, by further macro testing), internal imperfections revealed by the test piece shall be assumed to run the full length of the weld and assessed in accordance with Tables 6.2.1 and 6.2.2. 4.7.5 Transverse butt tensile test The transverse butt tensile test shall be carried out in accordance with AS 2205.2.1. The specimen shall comply with the requirements given in Table 4.6.2.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE 4.7.1 REQUIRED EXTENT OF TESTING
Test required Butt welds Hardness Macro (see Clause 4.7.4 and Note 1) Comparison (see Clause 4.7.8) Tensile (see Clause 4.7.5 and Note 1) Bend (see Clause 4.7.6 and Note 1) Fillet welds Hardness

A1

Weld category

Consumables Charpy V (see Clause 4.7.7 and Note 1) HAZ in accordance with Note 2 (see Clause 4.7.9) 1 1

Preparation

Macro (see Clause 4.7.4)

HAZ in accordance with Note 2 (see Clause 4.7.9) 1

Prequalified, conforming to Table 4.6.1(A) 1 Nil 2 side or 1 face and 1 root Nil Nil 2 side or 1 face and 1 root 3 (see Note 3) 1 2 side or 1 face and 1 root 3 (see Note 3) Nil Nil Nil Nil 1

Prequalified, conforming to Tables E1 to E4 1 Nil Nil Nil Nil 1

Other preparations

1

1
37

SP 1 1

COPYRIGHT

Not prequalified Prequalified, conforming to Tables E1 to E4 2 1

1

1

1

Other preparations

1

2

1

Nil 1 Nil

Nil

Nil Nil

GP

Prequalified, conforming to Table 4.6.1(A)

Prequalified, conforming to Tables E1 to E4

1 1

Nil 1

1 1

Any other condition

NOTES:

1

Where the welding procedure for a fillet weld requires qualification because the preheat temperature does not comply with Clause 5.3, or the welding consumable is not prequalified, the butt weld test piece shown in Figure 4.7.2 is used in the qualification tests.

2

Where the preheat temperatures do not comply with Clause 5.3, hardness tests are required only to qualify the welding procedure.

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

3

Three tests are required only for L0 and L15 steels, but may also be required for HAZ in accordance with Appendix D.

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

38

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

DIMENSIONS IN MILLIMETRES

FIGURE 4.7.2 FORM AND DIMENSIONS OF WELD TEST PIECES

4.7.6 Bend test The bend test shall be carried out in accordance with AS 2205.3.1, using a former having a diameter complying with Table 4.7.6. On the completion of the test, the dimension of any crack or other defect in the weld or the heat-affected zone shall be not greater than 3 mm, measured in any direction at the outer surface of the test specimen. Premature failure at the corners of the test specimen shall not be considered cause for rejection.
COPYRIGHT

39

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE 4.7.6 DIAMETER OF FORMER FOR BEND TEST
Minimum specified tensile strength of plate MPa ≤ 530 >530 LEGEND: T = thickness of test specimen Diameter of former (D) 3T 4T Free space between supports at the end of test 5.2T 6.2T

4.7.7 Charpy impact test Charpy impact tests shall be carried out in accordance with AS 2205.7.1. In welds made from two sides, specimens shall be taken from the first welded side. The specimen shall comply with Table 4.6.2. 4.7.8 Hardness comparison test for parent metal and weld metal The hardness comparison test for parent metal and weld metal shall be carried out in accordance with AS 1817. Hardness tests for the qualification of procedures employing consumables not prequalified shall show that the weld metal does not exceed the parent metal hardness by more than 100 HV 10. 4.7.9 Hardness test for weld-heat-affected zones The hardness test for weld-heat-affected zones shall be carried out in accordance with AS 2205.6.1. Except where a greater hardness is permitted in accordance with Appendix D, the hardness of weld-heat-affected zones shall be not greater than 350 HV 10. 4.7.10 Retests Where any one specimen of all those tested during a procedure qualification test fails to comply with the test requirements, two retests for that particular type of test specimen may be performed with specimens cut from the same procedure qualification test piece. Both retests shall comply with the test requirements. If any of the failures is due to cracking in the heat-affected zone or in the weld, the procedure shall be modified and a new procedure test plate shall be prepared. 4.8 EXTENSION OF QUALIFICATION Procedures qualified to AS/NZS 1554.5 may be employed without further qualification for category SP of this Standard. Similarly, procedures qualified for category SP may be employed without further qualification for category GP of this Standard. A procedure qualified for use with a carbon or carbon-manganese steel may be employed without further qualification testing on any other carbon or carbon-manganese steel, provided that all of the following apply: (a) (b) (c) The specified minimum yield strength of the other steel does not exceed that used in the qualified procedure by more than 51 MPa. The steel type number, as given in Table 4.6.1(B), has not increased. The Charpy V impact test temperature of the other steel is not colder than that of the steel used in the qualified procedure.
COPYRIGHT

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

40

(d) (e)

The preheat group number of the other steel, as given in Table 5.3.4(A), is not greater than that of the steel used in the qualified procedure. The chemical composition of the weld metal is not required to match that of the parent metal for weather resistance purpose.

4.9 COMBINATION OF PROCESSES For complete penetration or incomplete penetration butt joints— (a) a different process may be used on each side of the one joint, provided that the preparation on the first side welded conforms to that listed under the process that is being used and the angle of the preparation on the second side conforms to that listed under the applicable process; and a combination of processes may be used on the same side of a joint, provided that the preparation conforms to that listed under the process that is being used for the initial portion of the weld.

(b)

4.10 RECORDS OF TESTS The fabricator shall record the results of the qualification tests carried out (e.g., macro, radiography), together with the relevant welding procedure documents, including PQR and WPS. These records shall be kept and made available to those authorized to examine them. 4.11 REQUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES Where a change in an essential variable for a welding procedure exceeds the relevant limits given in Tables 4.11(A) and 4.11(B), the welding procedure shall be requalified in accordance with Table 4.7.1. Where a change in an essential variable for a welding procedure exceeds the relevant limits given in Table 4.11(C), the welding procedure shall be requalified by a macro test, taken from either a production weld run-off plate or a special test plate welded for the purpose.
NOTE: A change in the pulse parameters includes a change in pulse waveform (Item (q) of Table 4.11(A)) and implies that the welding machine and machine program used to qualify the welding procedure be identified on the welding procedure and used to produce the qualified production welds unless it can be demonstrated that pulse parameters remain unchanged.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

41

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE 4.11(A) CHANGES IN ESSENTIAL VARIABLES REQUIRING REQUALIFICATION FOR WELDING PROCESSES OTHER THAN ELECTROGAS AND ELECTROSLAG WELDING
Applicability (see Legend) Nature of change MMAW (a) (b) A change from one process to another A change in consumable classification, except for a decrease in strength of the filler metal within the limits of prequalification (see Table 4.6.1(A)) An increase in filler metal strength A change from a hydrogen-controlled consumable to a non-hydrogen-controlled consumable or any increase in hydrogen classification of the consumable A change of shielding gas classification outside the limits of AS 4882 A change of more than ± 7% of the specified mean arc voltage of the electrode used for SAW, GMAW or FCAW or more than ± 15% for MMAW or GTAW A change of more than ± 10% of the specified mean welding current for the electrode used for SAW, GMAW or FCAW or more than ±15% for MMAW or GTAW A change of more than ± 15% of the specified mean speed of travel A change of more than ± 25% in the specified number of runs. If the cross-sectional area of the preparation is increased, it is also permissible to increase the number of runs in proportion to the increased area An increase of 25% or more or a decrease of 10% or more in flow rate of the shielding gas A change in position in which welding is done or a change in direction for a vertical weld outside of that permitted by Clauses 4.1.2 and 4.1.3 A change in welding current from a.c. to d.c., or vice versa, or a change in d.c. polarity, or a change in metal transfer across the arc A decrease of more than 20°C in the minimum specified preheat or inter-run temperature For automatic welding, a change in the number of electrodes used in a multiple wire application For butt welds, a change in material thickness outside the range of 0.75 to 1.5 times the thickness of the test plate, see Clause 4.1.2(g) A change in electrical stick-out of more than ± 20% A change in pulse parameters (see Clause 4.11) For fillet welds, a change from single pass to multi-pass, see Clause 4.1.3 For fillet welds, a change in welding position as per Clause 4.5.4 For single pass fillets, an increase in leg length over the size reported in the qualification X X SAW X X GMAW X X FCAW X X GTAW X X

(c) (d)

X X

X X

X —

X X

X —

(e) (f)

— X

— X

X X

X X

X X

(g)

X

X

X

X

X

(h) (i).

— X

X X

X X

X X

X X

(j) (k)

— X

— X

X X

X X

X X

(l)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

X

X

X

X

X

(m) (n) (o)

X — X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

(p) (q) (r) (s) (t)

— — X X X

X — X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

— X X X X

LEGEND: X = applicable — = not applicable
COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

42

TABLE 4.11(B) CHANGES IN ESSENTIAL VARIABLES REQUIRING REQUALIFICATION FOR ELECTROGAS AND ELECTROSLAG WELDING
(a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q) (r) (s) A significant change in filler metal or consumable guide metal composition A change in consumable guide metal core cross-sectional area of more than 30% A change in fluxing system (e.g., cored electrode, external flux) A change in flux composition, including consumable guide coating A change in shielding gas composition of any one constituent of more than 5% of the total flow A change in welding current of more than 10% A change in joint preparation, other than square butt, outside the limits of Clause 4.5 A change in root gap of more than 6 mm A change in joint thickness (T ) outside the limits of 0.5T to 1.1T, where T is the thickness used for procedure qualification A change in number of electrodes A change between alternating current and direct current A change in polarity of a direct current A change from the qualified process or method of welding to a combination with any other welding process or method A change in electrode diameter exceeding 1 mm A change in type of moulding shoe, either fixed or movable, from non-fusing solid to water-cooled, and vice versa A change of welding position from the qualified position of more than 20 ° A change in voltage of more than 10%, except starting voltage settings A change in speed of vertical travel exceeding 20%, except as necessary to compensate for a variation in the joint opening A change in spacing of electrodes or consumable guides, except as a consequence of Item (j) above

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

43

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE 4.11(C) MINOR CHANGES IN ESSENTIAL VARIABLES REQUIRING REQUALIFICATION OF WELDING PROCEDURES BY MACRO TEST
Nature of change MMAW (a) (b) An increase in the diameter of the electrode A change in electrode diameter of more than one step in the sequence of diameters An increase or decrease in wire diameter of more than one step in the sequence of diameters A change of weld preparation from V-shape to U-shape A change in the shape of any one type of weld preparation more than the tolerance in Clause 5.2 and involving the following: (i) (ii) A decrease in the included angle of the weld preparation A decrease in the root gap of the weld preparation X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X — Applicability (see Legend) SAW — — GMAW X — FCAW X — GTAW — X

(c)



X





X

(d) (e)

X

X

X

X

X

(iii) An increase in the root face of the weld preparation (iv) The omission of backing material (f) A change in electrode geometry beyond the following limits: (i) (ii) Longitudinal spacing of arcs of the greater of ±10% and ±4 mm Lateral spacing of arcs of the greater ± 10% and ±1.5 mm

— — — — — — —

X X X X X X X

— — — — — — —

— — — — — — —

— — — — — — —

(iii) Angular rotation of any parallel electrode of ±10% (iv) Angle of electrodes: (A) In direction of travel of ±3 °
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

(B) Normal to direction of travel of ±5° (g) A change in electrical phase sequence between electrodes in multiple electrode welding

LEGEND: X = applicable — = not applicable

4.12 QUALIFICATION OF WELDING PERSONNEL 4.12.1 Welding supervisor Welding shall be carried out under the supervision of a welding supervisor employed by or contracted to the fabricator. The welding supervisor shall ensure that all welding is carried out in accordance with the plans, the specifications, any other documents and the requirements of this Standard.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

44

The welding supervisor shall have a minimum of three years experience in the fabrication of welded structure and shall comply with one or more of the following: (a) (b) Hold a Welding Supervisor’s Certificate in accordance with AS 2214, AS 1796 Certificate No. 10, or a New Zealand Institute of Welding Supervisor’s Certificate. Hold an International Institute of Welding qualification at the level of International Welding Specialist (IWS), International Welding Technologist (IWT) or International Welding Engineer (IWE) diploma. Hold a New Zealand Institute of Welding Certificate in welding engineering. Hold postgraduate certificate, diploma or degree in welding engineering from a recognized university or an approved technical college. Have served an apprenticeship in an appropriate metal trade; and during or subsequent thereto, has had five years’ experience in the fabrication of welded steel structures and is able to satisfy the principal of sufficient technical knowledge and suitability for the work under the conditions of employment. Have at least seven years’ experience in the fabrication of welded steel structures and is able to satisfy the principal of sufficient technical knowledge and suitability for the work under the conditions of employment. Hold a diploma or a certificate in engineering or metallurgy from an approved technical college; or is a graduate in engineering or metallurgy of a recognized university and, is able to satisfy the principal of sufficient technical knowledge and suitability for the work under the conditions of employment. Has equivalent qualifications acceptable to the Principal.

(c) (d) (e)

(f)

(g)

(h)

NOTE: Guidance on the minimum technical knowledge requirements for Items (e), (f), (g) and (h) is provided in AS 2214.

4.12.2 Welders Welders shall be suitably qualified to carry out the welding procedures for which they will be employed. The fabricator shall provide evidence acceptable to the principal that the welders are suitably qualified. Such evidence shall be based on welds that closely resemble the joints and their positions to be used in the construction. If a welder repeatedly produces welds not complying with this Standard, further welding by the welder shall be discontinued, until the welder carries out additional tests and the welds so produced comply with this Standard. The names of all welders qualified in accordance with this Clause, together with particulars of any tests passed by each, shall be recorded and made available for perusal by the inspector for the duration of the job. In addition, the following requirements apply to the qualification of welders: (a) Qualifications obtained by welders under appropriate Standards laying down welder qualification tests are acceptable as evidence of their ability. Such evidence shall refer to welding carried out on joints and in positions as close as practicable to the actual joints and positions to be used in construction. Welders qualified to Standards such as AS 1796, AS 2980, AS/NZS 3992, NZS 4711 or ISO 9606-1 shall be deemed to be qualified. Welders not already qualified for the welding process and position required by the welding procedure under the conditions of employment shall be required to demonstrate an ability to comply with the appropriate requirements of this Standard by means of a macro test for all welding procedures required on the job.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

(b)

COPYRIGHT

45

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

(c)

Persons operating automatic or semi-automatic equipment and qualified to use a particular process with an approved consumable or combination of consumables shall be considered qualified to use other approved consumables or combinations of consumables with the same process. Qualifications established under this Clause with any one of the steels covered by this Standard shall be considered as qualification to weld any other of the steels covered by this Standard. Qualifications established in any one position described by this Standard may be extended within the limits of Table 4.12.2. Qualifications for welding to a specified welding procedure shall remain valid, provided that it can be shown from records maintained by the organization employing welders that the welders have been employed with reasonable continuity using the relevant welding processes and have continued to produce satisfactory welds as verified by a non-destructive examination.

(d)

(e) (f)

Reapproval shall be required if any of the following conditions apply: (i) (ii) Six months or more have elapsed since the welder was employed on the relevant welding processes. The welder changes employment. Under such circumstances, the new employer shall qualify the welder who has changed employment.

(iii) There is some specific reason to question the welder’s ability.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

46

TABLE 4.12.2 RANGE OF APPROVAL ACCORDING TO WELDING POSITION (See Notes below)
Range of approval Plates Butt welds Welding position of approval test piece Butt welds Fillet welds Rotating 0° F F H VD Butt welds VU Plates OH F HV Fillet welds VD VU OH Rotating 0° Butt welds 90° Fixed Pipes 6G-VU 45° Rot6G-VD F X – – X – – – X – X – – X – – X – X X – – – X – X ? – X – – X – – – X – X – – X – – – – – – X – X – – – X – X – – X – – H X X – – – X X – – – X – – – – X X – – – VD VU – X – – X – – X – X – X – X X – – X – X – X – – – – – – – – – X – X X – – X – X F X X – – – – – X – X – – – – – – – – – – – – – – X – – – – – – – – – – – – X – X X X – X X X – – – X – – – X X X X – – – – – X X – – – – X – – – – X X – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – X X X X – X X X X X – X – X X X – – – – – – – – X X – – – – – – – X – – – – X – X – – H – VD – – VU – – – OH – – – F X X – HV X X – VD – – X VU – – – OH – – – F X X – VD – – – VU – – – Fixed 90° H – X – 6GVU – – – 45° 6GVD – – – F X X – HV X X – VD – – – Rotating (2) Pipes Fillet welds Fixed 0° VU – – – 90° (3) – – –

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

ating Fillet welds VD Fixed 0° VU LEGEND: = welding position for which the welder is approved in the approval list X = welding positions for which the welder is also approved – = welding positions for which the welder is not approved. – – – – – X X – X X – – – – – – X X – X – – – – – – – X – – – – – – – – – – – – (2) HV – – – – – X X – – – – – – – – – X – – –

NOTES: 1 2 The letters in the Table refer to welding positions as defined in Appendix E, except that for vertical welding directions D = down and U = up. Horizontal for pipes may be welded in two versions: (a) (b) 3 Pipe: rotating, axis: horizontal, welds: vertical. Pipe: fixed, axis: vertical, weld: horizontal vertical.

OH—an approved position, which is covered by the other related tests.

COPYRIGHT

47

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

SECT ION

5

WORKMANSH IP

5.1 PREPARATION OF EDGES FOR WELDING 5.1.1 General Surfaces and edges to be welded shall be uniform and free from fins, tears, cracks and other defects that would adversely affect the quality or strength of the weld. Surfaces to be welded and surfaces adjacent to a weld shall also be free from loose or thick scale, slag, rust, grease, paint or other foreign matter that could prevent proper welding. Millscale that withstands vigorous wire brushing, rust-inhibiting coatings, antispatter compound and weld-through primers that do not interfere with weld quality or the welding operation may remain. 5.1.2 Thermal cutting Surfaces to be incorporated in a weld shall not have a surface rougher than Class 3 as defined in WTIA Technical Note 5. Surfaces not incorporated in a weld shall comply with AS 3990, AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, as applicable.
NOTE: WTIA Technical Note 5 gives guidance on cutting conditions, together with replicas of flame-cut surfaces.

5.2 ASSEMBLY 5.2.1 General The alignment of parts to be welded shall be made as carefully as possible having regard to the normal tolerances associated with the fabrication and erection procedures specified in the application Standard. 5.2.2 Alignment of butt-welded joints Ends of parts to be joined by butt welds shall be carefully aligned, having regard to the procedure being employed. Where the parts are effectively restrained against bending, because of eccentricity in alignment, the surfaces of plates of equal thickness shall not be out of alignment by more than the lesser of— (a) (b) 3 mm; or 10% of the thickness of the plates, unless otherwise approved by the principal.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Except for electroslag and electrogas processes, the dimensions of butt-welded joints that differ from those shown on the detailed drawings or other documents by more than the tolerances shown in Table 5.2.2 shall be referred to the inspector for approval. The tolerances for electroslag and electrogas processes shall be determined, before commencement of welding, in accordance with Appendix D. Root openings wider than those permitted in Table 5.2.2, but not wider than the lesser of 19 mm and twice the thickness of the thinner part, may be corrected by welding to acceptable dimensions, prior to joining of the parts by welding. Root openings wider than the lesser of 19 mm and twice the thickness of the thinner part shall be corrected by welding only with the approval of the principal. Where the root is to be gouged back to sound metal, the root tolerances given in Table 5.2.2 may be disregarded.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

48

TABLE 5.2.2 ALLOWABLE JOINT TOLERANCES
Dimension Root face (root not gouged) Root gap without backing (root not gouged) Root radius (root not gouged) Root gap with backing Angle of preparation NOTE: For Clause 5.2.2. gouged Tolerance ± 1.5 mm ± 1.5 mm +3, ?0 mm +6, ?1.5 mm +10, ?5 ° preparations, see

5.2.3 Alignment of fillet welds and incomplete penetration butt welds Except for full contact joints, parts to be joined by fillet welds, or by incomplete penetration butt welds parallel to the length of the member, shall be brought into as close a contact as practicable. The gap between parts shall normally not exceed 5 mm, except in cases involving rolled shapes and plates 75 mm or greater in thickness where, after straightening and on assembly, the gap cannot be closed sufficiently to comply with the requirement. In such cases, a maximum gap of 8 mm is acceptable, provided that a sealing weld or suitable backing material is used to prevent burn through. Where the separation is 1.5 mm or greater, the size of the fillet weld shall be increased by the amount of the separation or the fabricator shall demonstrate that the required design throat thickness has been obtained. 5.2.4 Separation of a backing material The separation between the faying surfaces (i.e., two surfaces in contact) of butt-welded material and permanent backing material shall not exceed 1.5 mm. 5.3 PREHEATING AND INTER-RUN CONTROL 5.3.1 General
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Control of preheating and inter-run temperature is required for certain combinations of steel grades, material thicknesses and welding conditions. Minimum preheating temperatures related to arc energy input may be determined in accordance with Clause 5.3.4. Excessive preheating should be avoided. 5.3.2 Need for preheating Where the metal temperature is below the preheating temperature determined from Clause 5.3.4 for the metal being welded and the arc energy employed, the metal shall be preheated to the required temperature and maintained at that temperature while welding is in progress. 5.3.3 Extent of preheating and cooling after welding Where preheating is required, it shall be applied in such a manner that the parts being welded are at the specified minimum temperature as specified in AS ISO 13916. The preheat shall be applied in such a manner as will ensure that the full thickness of the materials to be welded are heated to the required temperature.

COPYRIGHT

49

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

The rate of cooling from the preheating or interrun temperatures should be uniform and as slow as practicable. Delayed cooling by means of insulation or heat may be desirable in extreme cases or complex joints. The measurement of preheat and interrun temperature shall comply with AS ISO 13916 5.3.4 Determination of preheating temperature Preheating and inter-run temperatures shall be determined from Tables 5.3.4(A) and 5.3.4(B) and Figures 5.3.4(A), 5.3.4(B) and 5.3.4(C), in accordance with the following method: (a) Select or calculate the weldability group number, using either of the following methods: (i) (ii) For a standard steel of known specification, select the weldability group number from Table 5.3.4(A). For a standard steel type listed in Table 5.3.4(A) of known ladle or heat analysis, calculate the carbon equivalent (CE) using the following equation, add 0.01 to the value, then select the weldability group number from Table 5.3.4(B):

CE = C +
where

Mn (Cr + Mo + V ) Ni + Cu + + 6 5 15

...1

CE = carbon equivalent C = carbon content, in percent

Mn = manganese content, in percent Cr = chromium content, in percent Mo = molybdenum content, in percent V = vanadium content, in percent

Ni = nickel content, in percent Cu = copper content, in percent
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

NOTE: For other steel types not listed in Table 3.5.4(A), guidance may be obtained from WTIA Technical Note 1.

(b) (c) (d)

Calculate the combined thickness (see Figure 5.3.4(A)). Using Figure 5.3.4(A), find the closest curve to the intersection points from Items (a) and (b) above to give the joint weldability index (one of the letters A to L). Using the joint weldability index from Item (c) above, obtain the combination of arc energy and minimum preheating temperature from Figure 5.3.4(B) or Figure 5.3.4(C), depending on whether hydrogen controlled or non-hydrogen controlled processes are used. The relationship between the arc energy, voltage, current and travel speed is shown in the following equation:
Q= 60 E I 1000 V

(e)

...2

where Q = arc energy, in kilojoules per millimetre E = arc voltage, measured at the welding head, in volts
COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

50

I = welding current, in amperes V = travel speed, in millimetres per minute
NOTE: For pulsed mode welding, use E = average voltage and I = average current in Equation (2) to calculate the minimum arc energy. In cases where the arc energy may need to be limited, such as given in Clause 4.6.1.1, advice should be sought from the welding machine supplier on the calculation of arc energy when using pulsed mode.

To calculate the total arc energy for multi-arc processes, the arc energy for each individual arc shall be calculated using the above equation. The total arc energy for the process is the sum of all arc energies for each individual arc. Where it is desired to apply preheating temperatures not determined by this method, the welding procedure shall be qualified in accordance with Section 4.
NOTES: 1 2 Guidance on determining preheats for steels not listed in Table 5.3.4(A) can be obtained from WTIA Technical Note 1. The preheat prediction methods given herein are designed to minimize the risk of heataffected zone cold cracking under most fabrication circumstances. The Standard does not address the issue of weld-metal cold cracking. If encountered, weld procedure modifications may be required, including the application of additional preheat beyond that predicted and the use of lower hydrogen consumables. There is evidence that weld-metal cold cracking is more likely to occur with multi-pass welds in restrained plates over 20 mm thick and where high heat input runs are used (i.e. larger weld bead sizes).

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

51

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE 5.3.4(A) PREHEAT DETERMINATION
Parent metal Standard AS 1163 C250 C350, C450 G250, G300 G350 G450 C200, H200 C250, H250 C350, H350 C450 5-490 7-430, 7-460 7-490 HA1, HA3, HA4, HA200, HA250/1 HA250, HU250 HA300, HA300/1, HU300, XF300 HA350 HW350 (see Note 2) HA400 XF400 XF500 HA1006, HA1010 HA1016, HXA1016 All C1 C2 C3 C4-1 C4-2 C7A-1 C7A-2 200 250, 300 350, WR350 (see Note 2), 400, 450 A1006 XK1016 250, 300 350, 400 Fe 430 Fe 510 Grade (see Note 1) Weldability group number 1 3 1 4 1 1 4 5 4 5 4 5 1 3 3 4 5 4 3 4 1 3 1 5 2 6 5 6 4 5 1 4 5 1 4 4 5 4 5

AS 1397

AS 1450

AS 1548

AS/NZS 1594 (see Note 2)

AS/NZS 1595

AS 2074

AS/NZS 3678
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

and AS/NZS 3679.2 AS/NZS 3679.1 NZS 3415 NOTES: 1 2

The weldability of each impact tested steel variant is the same as its base steel. Weldability Group Number 5 for HW350 and WR350 steels is based on the typical maximum carbon equivalent encountered in Australia and New Zealand, rather than the maximum specification limits normally applied.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

52

TABLE 5.3.4(B) RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CARBON EQUIVALENT AND GROUP NUMBER
Carbon equivalent <0.30 ≥ 0.30 ≥ 0.35 ≥ 0.40 ≥ 0.45 ≥ 0.50 ≥ 0.55 ≥ 0.60 ≥ 0.65 ≥ 0.70 ≥ 0.75 ≥ 0.80 <0.35 <0.40 <0.45 <0.50 <0.55 <0.60 <0.65 <0.70 <0.75 <0.80 Group number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

53

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

NOTE: Combined thickness is shown only up to 125 mm for convenience.

FIGURE 5.3.4(A) RELATION OF JOINT WELDABILITY INDEX TO JOINT COMBINED THICKNESS AND GROUP NUMBER

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

54

FIGURE 5.3.4(B) PREHEATING DETERMINATION FOR HYDROGEN-CONTROLLED MANUAL METAL-ARC ELECTRODES AND SEMI-AUTOMATIC OR AUTOMATIC PROCESSES

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

FIGURE 5.3.4(C) PREHEATING DETERMINATION FOR MANUAL METAL-ARC ELECTRODES OTHER THAN HYDROGEN CONTROLLED

COPYRIGHT

55

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

5.4 WELDING UNDER ADVERSE WEATHER CONDITIONS Welding shall not be carried out when the welding surfaces are wet or during periods of high wind, unless the welder and the work are properly protected. Welding processes requiring an external gas shield shall not be carried out in a draught or wind speed of more than 10 km/h, unless the welding area is suitably protected, so as to reduce the wind speed to less than 10 km/h, or unless a satisfactory welding procedure is established in accordance with Section 4. Welding and thermal cutting shall not be carried out when the metal temperature is colder than 0 °C, unless the welding procedure is qualified in accordance with Section 4. 5.5 TACK WELDS Tack welds shall— (a) (b) (c) be subject to the same quality and workmanship requirements as the final welds, including appropriate temperature controls as given in Clause 5.3; if multi-run, have cascaded ends; and have a length of not less than the lesser of 40 mm and four times the thickness of the thicker part.

5.6 WELD DEPTH-TO-WIDTH RATIO The depth and the maximum width of the deposited weld metal shall not exceed its width at the surface of the weld (see Figure 5.6); except that this requirement may be waived where the weld depth exceeds the width of the weld at the face, an the testing of the welding procedure to be used has demonstrated that such welds are free from cracks. This requirement shall not be waived where the maximum width in the cross-section of the weld material deposited exceeds the width of the weld at the surface.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

FIGURE 5.6 UNACCEPTABLE WELD RUN IN WHICH DEPTH AND WIDTH EXCEED THE WIDTH OF THE WELD FACE

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

56

5.7 CONTROL OF DISTORTION AND RESIDUAL STRESS 5.7.1 General In the assembly and joining of parts of a structure or built-up members and in the welding of reinforcing parts to members, the procedure and sequence shall be such as will maintain distortion and shrinkage within the required structural limits.
NOTE: Guidance distortion and shrinkage is given in AS 3990, AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1.

Welding under conditions of severe external shrinkage restraint shall be carried out continuously to completion or to a point that will ensure freedom from cracking, before the joint is allowed to cool below the minimum specified preheating and inter-run temperatures. 5.7.2 Stressed parts Parts that are stressed shall not be cut or welded except where— (a) (b) (c) the effect of such actions on the flexural tensile and compressive capacity of the member is considered; the matter is discussed between the fabricator and the principal in accordance with Appendix D; and appropriate safety precautions are taken to prevent damage to or failure of the structure

NOTE: See the requirements for modification of existing structures in AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, as appropriate.

5.7.3 Peening Peening may be used on intermediate weld runs for control of shrinkage stresses in thick welds, to prevent cracking. No peening shall be done on the root or surface layer of the weld or in the base metal at the edges of the weld. Care should be taken to prevent overlapping or cracking of the weld or base metal. The procedure to be adopted for peening shall be established by the fabricator and approved by the principal, before use, in accordance with Appendix D. 5.7.4 Correction of distortion Distortion resulting from welding and fabrication may be corrected by mechanical means, by heating or by the controlled application of weld runs. Where flame-heating methods are applied, the following restrictions shall apply:
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

(a) (b)

Solid water jets may be used for cooling, only if arranged before use in accordance with Appendix D. The temperature of steels shall not exceed 600° C.

Improperly fitted parts may be cut apart and rewelded, if arranged in accordance with Appendix D. 5.8 BACKGOUGING AND REPAIR OF DEFECTS IN WELDS 5.8.1 General Where welds are found to have defects as classified by Clause 6.7, either the defects shall be repaired or the entire weld shall be removed and replaced. Repairing or rewelding shall be carried out in accordance with this Standard and the principal shall be advised of all such repairs. A repair weld procedure may be required in such instances.
NOTE: The principal may require that a welding procedure for repairs be qualified and approved.

COPYRIGHT

57

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

5.8.2 Removal of weld metal Removal of the weld metal or portions of the base metal shall be effected by machining, grinding, chipping, oxygen gouging, air-arc gouging or plasma gouging, in such a manner that the remaining weld metal or base metal is not nicked or undercut. Unacceptable portions of the weld shall be removed without substantial removal of the base metal. The surfaces shall be cleaned thoroughly before welding. Oxygen-gouged and air-arc-gouged surfaces shall be at least cleaned by grinding or machining, to remove all carbon absorption or contamination. Gouged areas requiring re-welding shall have a root radius of not less than 5 mm and sufficient width to allow the welder reasonable access to reinstate the weld. Unacceptable undercutting shall be made good by either the deposition of additional weld metal in accordance with this Standard or the removal of the undercut by grinding in accordance with Clause 5.8.3.
NOTE: The use of preheat before air-arc or plasma gouging should be considered. Guidance may be obtained from WTIA Technical Note 5.

5.8.3 Grinding Grinding shall comply with the following requirements: (a) (b) The area ground shall blend smoothly into the surrounding surface, without abrupt changes in contour. The grinding shall not extend below the surface of the parent material by more than— (i) (ii) for material less than 10 mm thick, 0.5 mm; or for material not less than 10 mm thick, the lesser of 0.07 times the nominal thickness and 3 mm.

5.8.4 Stop starts Where stop/starts occur in a length of continuous automatic longitudinal fillet or butt weld, with stress ranges for detail category 112 in accordance with AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, they shall be repaired by the following procedures: (a) (b)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Grind the stopped end of the weld, so that it tapers to the root of the joint with a slope of not less than 4:1. Restart the weld from the top of the taper slope. Grind the repaired weld to a smooth surface, to blend into the profile of the existing weld.

(c)

The site of the repair shall be subjected to 100% magnetic particle examination to the requirements of Section 6.
NOTE: In rectangular hollow section joints, welds should not be started or stopped at corners.

5.9 TEMPORARY ATTACHMENTS Welds joining temporary attachments to the structure shall be made to the same standards as final welds. All temporary attachments shall be removed, unless otherwise specified on the drawings or other documents. Temporary welds and attachments shall not be allowed on the tension flanges of beams, girders and similar members. When temporary welds or attachments are removed, the surface shall be— (a) reinstated to a reasonably smooth condition by grinding or by a combination of welding and grinding;

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

58

(b) (c)

checked by magnetic particle examination or other suitable method to ensure soundness; and finished to the requirements of Clause 5.8.2.

5.10 ARC STRIKES Arc strikes outside the area of permanent welds should be avoided on any material. Cracks or blemishes resulting from arc strikes on members, other than those that are essentially statically loaded, shall be ground to a smooth contour in accordance with Clause 5.8.3 and checked by magnetic particle examination. 5.11 CLEANING OF FINISHED WELDS Slag shall be removed from completed welds. The weld and adjacent base metal shall be cleaned by brushing or other suitable means. Tightly adhering spatter remaining after the cleaning operation is acceptable, unless its removal is required for subsequent non-destructive testing or surface treatment. Welded joints shall not be painted until after the welding has been completed, inspected and accepted. 5.12 DRESSING OF BUTT WELDS The surfaces of butt welds that have been dressed flush shall be finished so as to— (a) (b) not reduce the thickness of the thinner base metal or weld metal by more than 0.8 mm or 5% of the thickness, whichever is lesser; or not leave reinforcement that exceeds 0.8 mm.

Reinforcements shall be removed where welds form part of a faying or contact surface. Any dressing of reinforcements shall blend smoothly with the plate surfaces.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

59

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

SECT ION

6

QUA L I TY

OF

WE L DS

6.1 CATEGORIES OF WELDS According to the intended application, welds shall be classified as Category GP or Category SP (see Clause 1.6). The compliance of completed welds with these categories shall be determined in accordance with the different inspection requirements and different acceptance levels of imperfections for the categories, as given in Clause 6.2. 6.2 METHODS OF IMPERFECTIONS INSPECTION AND PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF

6.2.1 Methods of inspection of completed welds Welds shall be inspected in accordance with Clause 7.3 and, where appropriate, Clause 7.4. In addition, for Category SP butt welds, where radiographic or ultrasonic examination is required by the principal and is specified on the drawings or other documents, examination for the relevant types of imperfections shown in Table 6.2.1 shall be carried out in accordance with Clause 6.3 or 6.4, as appropriate.
NOTE: Table 7.4 contains guidance on the suggested extent of non-destructive examination, which is consistent with the principles on which this Standard is based.

6.2.2 Permissible levels of imperfection The size, number and spacing of imperfections that are permitted for the weld categories shall not exceed the relevant levels given in Tables 6.2.1 and 6.2.2. 6.2.3 Adjacent imperfections 6.2.3.1 Aligned Where adjacent imperfections are aligned, they shall be assessed in the manner shown in Figure 6.2.3(a). 6.2.3.2 Overlapping Where there is a horizontal displacement between adjacent imperfections, the effective length (L) shall be as shown in Figure 6.2.3(b). 6.2.3.3 Overlapping vertical displacement Where imperfections occur above each other in the vertical plane of the weld, they shall be assessed in the manner shown in Figure 6.2.3(c). 6.2.4 Interpretation of tests Where qualification by both a macro test and side-bend tests are required (see Clause 4.7), the bend tests shall be used solely to reveal imperfections not observed in the macro section. Tearing at the ends of imperfections shall not be considered for the purposes of assessing the depth or height of imperfections. Any imperfections observed may be assumed to extend the total length of the weld, unless additional sections are taken to show the extent of the imperfections.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

60

TABLE 6.2.1 PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF IMPERFECTIONS AS DETERMINED BY RADIOGRAPHIC OR ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION FOR WELDS OF CATEGORY SP
Thickness of thinner parent metal ( t) mm (see Note 4) All ≤ 10 >10 ≤20 >20 ≤40 >40 Porosity All 2 2 1 1 X 4 2 2 X X 5 5 Weighting factor Height of imperfection (h), mm ≤2 >2 ≤4 >4 ≤10 >10 ≤20 Not permitted X X X 10 See Note 8 X X X X L /5 L /4 L /2 L >20 Maximum permissible imperfection level (see Notes 5, 6 and 7)

Type of imperfection (see Notes 1 to 3)

Cracks Inclusions, lack of penetration, or lack of fusion:

LEGEND: X = not permitted L = weld length under consideration NOTES: 1 2 For adjacent imperfections, see Clause 6.2.3. For the purpose of radiographic examinations and routine ultrasonic examinations, h shall to be taken as 2 mm. Where an ultrasonic or a radiographic examination indicates that h may be greater than 2 mm, h shall be determined by sectioning or vertical ultrasonic sizing in accordance with AS 2207. Any imperfections that are suspected of being lamellar tears should be recorded on the NDE report and referred to the principal for consideration. See also Clause 3.2.1. For any weld length under consideration, the imperfection level shall be calculated by multiplying the length of each imperfection by its weighting factor and adding these weighted lengths to determine a total imperfection level. The total imperfection level shall be less than the maximum permissible imperfection level. Any imperfections shall not exceed a height equal to the greater of 2 mm and t/20, within a distance of t of the end of a weld. Where the length of a continuous weld exceeds 1 m, the maximum permissible imperfection level shall not be exceeded in any continuous weld length of 1 m. Where continuous or adjacent imperfections cross the division between examination lengths, the examination lengths shall be relocated to include the most severe combination of imperfections. Porosity is not considered to be a particularly serious imperfection and is cause for rejection of a weld only where it is present in sufficient quantity to render difficult an inspection for the other imperfections listed in Table 6.2.1. Any such level of porosity shall be recorded and referred to the principal for consideration. For radiographic inspections, porosity levels representing a loss of projected area of not more than 2% are permitted. If required, reference may be made to porosity charts in AS 4037, to assist in assessing the appearance of this level of porosity on a radiograph.

3 4 5

6 7
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

8 9

COPYRIGHT

61

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE 6.2.2 PERMISSIBLE LEVELS OF IMPERFECTIONS IN BUTT AND FILLET WELDS AS DETERMINED BY VISUAL, MAGNETIC PARTICLE AND LIQUID PENETRANT EXAMINATION OF THE WELD ZONE (see also Figure 6.2.2)
Imperfection (see Note 1) Type Parameter BUTT WELDS Length Cracks Cumulative length L ΣL Crater cracks only 6 mm in 1000 mm weld (crater cracks only) L No cracks allowed Where located more than 3t from end of weld, 2t /3, but not more than 20 mm Where located within 3t of end of weld, 3 mm ΣL Undercut-continuous (see Note 2) Undercut-intermittent (see Note 2) Shrinkage grooves Root concavity Reinforcement (each side) Excess penetration Linear misalignment Depth Depth h h t /10, but not more than 1.5 mm t /5, but not more than 2 mm As for undercut For t ≤ 12 mm, 3 mm For 12 < t ≤ 25 mm, 5 mm For t > 25 mm, 6 mm t in 6 t length, but proportionally less for shorter length Symbol Maximum allowable dimension or number of imperfections GP SP

Lack of fusion or incomplete penetration

Length for SP Depth for GP

As for undercut depth

t /20, but not more than 1 mm t /10, but not more than 1.5 mm





Height Height (depth) — Length

h — — L ΣL

Not limited As for reinforcement

See Clauses 5.2.2 and 5.2.3 2t , but not more than 20 mm 60 mm in 300 mm, but proportionately less for shorter lengths No restriction Not limited Six per 12 t length ≤ 10% FILLET WELDS t , but not more than 10 mm 30 mm in 300 mm, but proportionately less for shorter lengths Suitable to permit required NDE t /3, but not more than 5 mm Two per 12t length ≤ 5%

Overlap (see Note 3)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Cumulative length — Size of pore

Toe shape, other than above Surface pores (see Note 3) Loss of cross-sectional area (see Notes 4 and 5)

— D — —

Number of pores Loss of area

Reinforcement

Height

H

Not limited

For S ≤ 12 mm, 2 mm For 12 < S ≤ 25 mm, 3 mm For S > 25 mm, 4 mm S/10, but not more than 3 mm

Undersize-intermittent (see Note 6) Other surface imperfections Loss of cross-sectional area (see Note 5)

Leg length — Loss of area

— — —

S/5, but not more than 4 mm As for butt welds As for butt welds

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

62

NOTES TO TABLE 6.2.2: 1 2 3 4 For adjacent imperfections, see Clause 6.2.3. Undercut less than 0.5 mm in depth should be disregarded. Where these allowances for overlap and surface pores are detrimental to any surface treatment, they may not be acceptable. For a welding procedure qualification, the assessment of the test piece for compliance with the permissible levels of imperfections should be done with the aid of the macro test specimen. For calculation of the loss of cross-sectional area, internal imperfections are estimated from the macro test specimen. For the calculation of the loss of cross-sectional area, all relevant surface imperfections shall be included. Where lack of root fusion is evident, the inspector is required to assess the approximate depth of the imperfection. The macro test specimen from the welding procedure qualification may need examination for this purpose. The cumulative length of intermittent undersize fillet welds shall not exceed 10% of the length of the weld.

5

6

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

LEGEND: L = length or maximum dimensions of an individual imperfection measured parallel to axis of weld Σ L = sum of lengths of imperfections in stated weld length h = height (depth) of imperfection t = thickness of parent metal (thinner) d = size of pore S = size of fillet weld (see Clause 3.3.1)

FIGURE 6.2.2 DIMENSIONS REFERRED TO IN TABLE 6.2.2

COPYRIGHT

63

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

FIGURE 6.2.3 ASSESSMENT OF ADJACENT IMPERFECTIONS

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

64

6.3 RADIOGRAPHY 6.3.1 Method When required, radiography shall be carried out in accordance with AS 2177.1, using the following test methods as designated by AS 2177.1, for which ‘z’ is ‘S’ , ‘DWS’ or ‘DWD’ as appropriate: (a) (b) For material thicknesses of not more than 12 mm, XR2/z; except that GR1/z or GR2/ z may be used, provided that this is agreed with the principal. For material thicknesses of more than 12 mm, XR2/z , GR1/z or GR2/z .

Where materials of different thicknesses are examined, the technique shall be selected according to the thinner plate. 6.3.2 IQI sensitivity IQI sensitivity for each technique shall comply with Table 6.3.2. The IQI sensitivity shall be measured through the weld using wire type IQI in accordance with AS 2177.2. At least one IQI should be used with each radiograph.

TABLE 6.3.2 SMALLEST DISCERNIBLE WIRE
Wire number (see AS 2177.2) Method (see Note 1) ≤6 XR2/z GR1/z or GR2/z NOTES: 1 2 As designated by AS 2177.1, for which ‘ z’ is ‘ S’, ‘ DWS ’ OR ‘ DWD ’ as appropriate. For thicknesses of more than 50 mm, an IQI sensitivity of 2.0% is required. 13 12 > 6 ≤10 12 11 >10 ≤12 11 11 Weld metal thickness, mm >12 ≤18 10 10 >18 ≤25 9 9 >25 ≤35 8 8 >35 ≤50 7 7 > 50 See Note 2 See Note 2

6.3.3 Acceptance limits
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

The maximum permissible levels of imperfections shall be as given in Table 6.2.1. Where imperfections in excess of the limits in Table 6.2.1 are detected, the unacceptable areas shall be repaired and re-radiographed in accordance with this Clause, or by mutual agreement be examined using ultrasonics in accordance with Clause 6.4, in which case, the results of such ultrasonic examination shall be taken as the basis for acceptance. Alternatively, the weld may be considered to be defective and dealt with in accordance with Clause 6.7.
NOTE: Where non-complying welds are detected during a spot examination, two additional spots, each of the same length as the original spot, should be examined. They should comply with the following requirements, as appropriate: (a) (b) Where the two additional spots pass, only the original spot should be repaired and re-radiographed. Where either of the two additional spots fail, the entire weld should be radiographed or replaced.

COPYRIGHT

65

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

6.4 ULTRASONIC EXAMINATION 6.4.1 Method One of the following shall be carried out: (a) Ultrasonic examination complying with AS 2207. Shear probes shall have a dominant frequency in the range 2.0 MHz to 2.5 MHz, and an essentially square or circular transducer in the size range 15 mm to 22 mm. For plate thicknesses of less than 15 mm, the transducer size may be reduced to 8 mm and frequencies increased to 5 MHz. Compression probes shall have a dominant frequency in the range 4 MHz to 5 MHz, and an essentially square or circular transducer in the size range 10 mm to 20 mm. Variations to the equipment requirements may be used upon agreement with the principal. Such variations include transducer sizes and frequencies. (b) Alternative method of test that is acceptable to the principal (see Clause 1.3).

6.4.2 Evaluation For welds on material with a thickness of not more than 50 mm, evaluation shall be carried out at Level 2, in accordance with AS 2207. For welds on material with a thicknesses of more than 50 mm, evaluation shall be carried out at Level 3. Planar imperfections should be evaluated at an incident angle of less than 10° . Where this is not possible, additional gain shall be added in accordance with Table 6.4.2. For the purposes of Table 6.4.2, planar imperfections shall be considered to lie along the welding preparation faces. The probe angle shall be the actual measured angle, not the nominal angle.

TABLE 6.4.2 ADDITIONAL GAIN FOR EVALUATION OF PLANAR IMPERFECTIONS
Angle of incidence, degrees ≤ 10 >10 >15
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Additional gain, dB 0 6 12 Not permitted

≤ 15 ≤ 20 > 20

6.4.3 Acceptance limits The maximum permissible level of imperfections shall be as given in Table 6.2.1. Where welds fail to meet the criteria of Table 6.2.1, they shall be either repaired and retested, or considered defective and dealt with in accordance with Clause 6.7. 6.5 MAGNETIC PARTICLE EXAMINATION Where required, magnetic particle examination shall be carried out in accordance with one of the techniques specified in AS 1171. The maximum permissible levels of imperfections shall be as given in Table 6.2.2.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

66

6.6 LIQUID PENETRANT EXAMINATION Where required, penetrant examination shall be carried out in accordance with one of the techniques specified in AS 2062. The maximum permissible levels of imperfections shall be as given in Table 6.2.2. 6.7 WELD DEFECTS Weld imperfections that exceed the levels given in Tables 6.2.1 and 6.2.2 shall be classed as defects. However, where it can be demonstrated, by the use of fracture mechanics or other suitable methods of assessment, that the defects will not be injurious to the performance of the structure, such defects need not be repaired or rewelded; provided that, for any such defect, such methods of assessment are acceptable to both the principal and the fabricator (see Paragraph B5, Appendix B). Repaired welds shall be reinspected to the same level as that originally specified.
NOTES: 1 2 WTIA Technical Note 10 gives guidance on the use of fracture mechanics analyses in the assessment of the effects of imperfections. Imperfections of plate origin are not normally considered to be a cause for rejection of the weld.

6.8 REPORTING Test reports for non-destructive examination shall comply with the appropriate Australian Standard and shall include the following additional information: (a) (b) (c) Identity of testing personnel. A statement on whether the weld complies with the requirements of this Section. If the weld does not comply, the location and extent of the defects shall be given. Results of re-tests.

All reports, including calculations for fracture mechanics assessments of defective welds, shall be retained and made available for information purposes.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

67

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

SECT ION
7.1 GENERAL

7

I NSPECT I ON

This Section applies only to inspection by the inspecting authority or the principal. The inspector shall have access at all reasonable times to all relevant phases of the work, and shall be given reasonable notice in advance of the start of welding operations. The inspector shall have the opportunity to witness all testing of welding procedures and welder qualification tests that are required. 7.2 QUALIFICATIONS OF INSPECTORS The inspector shall have had suitable training and experience in the fabrication and inspection of welded structures. The holding of one of the following shall be accepted as evidence of these qualifications: (a) (b) (c)
1 2

A Welding Technology Institute of Australia Certificate as a Welding Inspector. A Certification Board of Inspection Personnel (CBIP) New Zealand Welding Inspector. A certificate as a structural welding supervisor in accordance with AS 2214.
The inspector should have at least the qualifications required for a welding supervisor. The inspector should not be involved in the supervision of the welded fabrication.

NOTES:

7.3 VISUAL INSPECTION OF WORK Prior to and during welding, the inspector shall inspect the set-up of the work and ensure that — (a) (b) (c) (d)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

welds are in accordance with the drawings; the welding is carried out on the specified material with suitable equipment; correct procedures are maintained; and the work is performed in accordance with the requirements of this Standard.

The inspector shall make a careful and systematic check to ensure that no welds called for in the drawings are omitted. All welds shall receive a full visual inspection in accordance with Section 6. 7.4 NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OTHER THAN VISUAL Personnel responsible for the interpretation, evaluation and reporting of non-destructive examination shall have qualifications and experience acceptable to the inspecting authority and the principal. Personnel holding appropriate certification from the Australian Institute of Non-destructive Testing or the CBIP-NZ shall be deemed to be qualified. Where a non-destructive examination is specified, the drawings or other documents shall clearly state the methods to be used and the extent of testing to be carried out (see also Clause 3.1.2).
NOTE: Guidance as to the extent of non-destructive examination is given in Table 7.4.

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

68

TABLE 7.4

SUGGESTED EXTENT OF NON-DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION
Extent of NDE (see Notes 1 and 2), % Visual means (see Notes 3 and 4) Weld category Visual scanning (see Clause 7.3) 100 100 Other means Radiography or ultrasonics to Table 6.2.1 (see Note 7) Nil 0 to 10

Visual examination Magnetic particle or liquid penetrant in accordance with (see Notes 5 and 6) Table 6.2.2 5 to 25 10 to 50 0 to 2 0 to 10

GP SP NOTES: 1

This Table is intended to apply to routine testing of welds, to determine the level of weld quality. Where routine testing reveals imperfections requiring further consideration in accordance with Section 6, Clause 6.7 applies. Where less than 100% of NDE is required, a program for testing should be drawn up by the principal and approved by the design engineer. This program should involve full testing of the first major component or 5% of welds, as appropriate, in order to detect and be able to correct the cause of any major defects on commencement of welding. It should then involve a progressive reduction in frequency of testing, on the basis of achieving compliance with each test. If testing indicates non-compliance, the next 5% of welds or the next major component, as appropriate, should be tested consecutively. Visual means of NDE implies the two following levels of examination: (a) Visual scanning, to determine that all welds called for in the drawings are included and to detect gross defects. (b) Visual examination, to examine a percentage of the welds, to determine whether the required weld quality (see Table 6.2.2) has been achieved.

2

3

4 5

SP category welds that comply with NZS 3404.1, or constitute part of a seismic-resisting or associated structural system or are subject to fatigue loading should be subject to a 100% visual examination. The use of magnetic particle or liquid penetrant is unusual except for supplementary inspection after visual inspection for the types of structures and applications for which this Standard is intended, and their use is usually restricted to repairs (see Clause 6.2.1). Liquid penetrant examination may be used for the inspection of ferromagnetic materials, as an alternative to magnetic particle examination; however, where convenient, magnetic particle examination is preferred. For plates with a thickness of not less than 20 mm, a portion of each multi-pass butt weld should be examined ultrasonically, to determine whether there are any transverse cracks within the weld metal.

6 7

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

69

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

APPENDIX A

REFERENCED DOCUMENTS
(Normative) AS 1101 1101.3 1163 1171 1397 1450 1470 1548 1674 1674.1 1674.2 1796 1817 1817.1 1817.2 1817.3 1858 1858.1 1858.2 1966 1966.1 1966.2
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Graphical symbols for general engineering Part 3: Welding and non-destructive examination Structural steel hollow sections Non-destructive testing—Magnetic particle testing of ferromagnetic products, components and structures Steel sheet and strip—Hot-dipped zinc-coated or aluminium/zinc-coated Steel tubes for mechanical purposes Health and safety at work—Principles and practices Steel plates for pressure equipment Safety in welding and allied processes Part 1: Fire precautions Part 2: Electrical Certification of welders and welding supervisors Metallic Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: materials—Vickers hardness test Test methods Verification of testing machines Calibration of reference blocks

Electrodes and fluxes for submerged-arc welding Part 1: Carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels Part 2: Low and intermediate alloy steels Electric arc welding power sources Part 1: Transformer type Part 2: Rotary type Non-destructive testing—Penetrant testing of products and components Cast steels Non-destructive testing—Radiography of welded butt joints in metal Part 1: Methods of test Radiography of welded butt joints in metal Part 2: Image quality indicators (IQI) and recommendations for their use Cored electrodes for arc-welding Part 1: Ferritic steel electrodes Methods for destructive testing of welds in metal Method 2.1: Transverse butt tensile test Method 3.1: Transverse guided bend test Method 5.1: Macro metallographic test for cross-section examination Method 6.1: Weld joint hardness test Method 7.1: Charpy V-notch impact fracture toughness tests Non-destructive testing—Ultrasonic testing of fusion-welded joints in carbon and low alloy steel
COPYRIGHT

2062 2074 2177 2177.1 2177 2177.2 2203 2203.1 2205 2205.2.1 2205.3.1 2205.5.1 2205.6.1 2205.7.1 2207

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

70

AS 2214 2799 2812 2865 2980 3545 3990 4037 4100 4458 4882 AS ISO 13916 AS/NZS 1167 1167.2 1336 1337 1338 1338.1 1553 1553.1 1553.2
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Certification of welding supervisors— Structural steel welding Resistance welding equipment— Single-phase a.c. transformer type Welding, brazing and cutting of metals— Glossary of terms Safe working in a confined space Qualification of arc-welders for welding of steels Welding positions Mechanical equipment—Steelwork Pressure equipment—Examination and testing Steel structures Pressure equipment—Manufacture Shielding gases for welding Welding— Guide on the measurement of preheating temperature, interpass temperature and preheat maintenance temperature Welding and brazing— Filler metals Part 2: Filler metal for brazing and braze welding Recommended practices for occupational eye protection Eye protectors for industrial applications Filters for eye protectors Part 1: Filters for protection against radiation generated in welding and allied operations Covered electrodes for welding Part 1: Low carbon steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and carbon-manganese steels Part 2: Low and intermediate alloy steel electrodes for manual metal-arc welding of carbon steels and low and intermediate alloy steels Structural steel welding Part 4: Welding of high strength quenched and tempered steels Part 5: Welding of steel structures subject to high levels of fatigue loading Hot-rolled steel flat products Cold-rolled, unalloyed, steel sheet and strip Welding cables Welding— Electrodes— Gas metal-arc Part 1: Ferritic steel electrodes Structural steel —Hot-rolled plates, floorplates and slabs Structural steel Part 1: Hot-rolled bars and sections Part 2: Welded I sections Pressure equipment—Welding and brazing qualification

1554 1554.4 1554.5 1594 1595 1995 2717 2717.1 3678 3679 3679.1 3679.2 3992

COPYRIGHT

71

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

4360 4600
A1

Risk management Cold-formed steel structures Quality Part 1: Part 2: Part 3: Part 4: requirements for welding— Fusion welding for metallic material Guidelines for selection and use Comprehensive quality requirements Standard quality requirements Elementary quality requirements

AS/NZS ISO 3834 3834-1 3834-2 3834-3 3834-4 NZS 3404 3404.1 3415 4711 AWS C1.1 C1.3 IEC 60974 60974-1 ISO 9606 9606-1 BS 7910 WTIA Technical Technical Technical Technical Technical Technical Technical

Steel structures standard Part 1: Steel structures standard Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels—Technical delivery conditions Qualification tests for metal-arc welders Recommended practices for resistance welding Recommended practices for resistance welding coated low carbon steels Arc welding equipment Part 1: Welding power sources Approval testing of welders— Fusion welding Part 1: Steels Guide on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures Note Note Note Note Note Note Note 1—Weldability of steels 3—Care and conditioning of arc welding consumables 5—Flame cutting of steels 7— Health and safety in welding 10—Fracture mechanics 11—Commentary on the structural steel welding Standard AS/NZS 1554 22?Welding electrical safety

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

72

APPENDIX B

BRITTLE FRACTURE
(Normative) B1 METHODS The steel grade shall be selected by either the notch-ductile range method as specified in Paragraph B2 or using a fracture assessment as specified in Paragraph B5. B2 NOTCH-DUCTILE RANGE METHOD The steel grade shall be selected to operate in its notch-ductile temperature range. The design service temperature for the steel shall be determined in accordance with Paragraph B3. The appropriate steel type, suitable for the design service temperature and material thickness, shall be selected in accordance with Paragraphs B4.1, B4.2 and B4.3. B3 DESIGN SERVICE TEMPERATURE B3.1 General The design service temperature shall be the estimated lowest metal temperature to be encountered in service or during erection or testing and taken as the basic design temperature as defined in Paragraph B3.2, except as modified in Paragraph B3.3. B3.2 Basic design temperature Lowest one-day mean ambient temperature (LODMAT) isotherms for Australia and New Zealand are given in Figures B1 and B2 respectively. The basic design temperature shall be the LODMAT temperature, except that— (a) structures that may be subjected to especially-low local ambient temperatures, such as exposed bridges over inland rivers, shall have a basic design service temperature of 5 ° C cooler than the LODMAT temperature; and critical structures, located where the Bureau of Meteorology records indicate the occurrence of abnormally-low local ambient temperatures for a significant time to cause the temperature of the critical structure to be lowered below the LODMAT temperature, shall have a basic design service temperature equal to such a lowered temperature of the critical structure.

(b)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

NOTE: In special cases, metal temperatures cooler than the LODMAT may occur where there is minimum insulation, minimum heat capacity, minimum radiation shielding or abnormally low local temperatures (such as snow, ice and frost conditions).

B3.3 Modifications to the basic design temperature The design service temperature shall be the basic design temperature; except that for parts that are to be subjected to artificial cooling below the basic design service temperature (for example, in refrigerated buildings) it shall be the minimum expected temperature for the part.

COPYRIGHT

73

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

B4 MATERIAL SELECTION B4.1 Selection of steel type The steel type for the material thickness shall be selected from Table B1, so that the permissible service temperature listed in Table B1 is less than the design service temperature, determined in accordance with Paragraph B3. The permissible service temperatures listed in Table B1 shall be subject to the limitations and modifications specified in Paragraphs B4.2 and B4.3 respectively. B4.2 Limitations Table B1 shall only be used without modification for members and components that comply with the fabrication and erection provisions of AS 4100 or NZS 3404.1, and with the provisions of this Standard. Table B1 may be used without modification for welded members and connection components that are not subjected to more than 1.0% outer bend fibre strain during fabrication. Members and components subjected to greater outer bend fibre strains shall be assessed using the provisions of Paragraph B4.3. B4.3 Modification for certain applications B4.3.1 Steel subject to strain between 1.0% and 10.0% Where a member or component is subjected to an outer bend fibre strain during fabrication of between 1% and 10%, the permissible service temperatures for each steel type shall be increased by at least 20 ° C above the value given in Table B1.
NOTE: Local strain due to weld distortion should be disregarded.

B4.3.2 Steel subject to a strain of not less than 10% Where a member or component is subjected to an outer bend fibre strain during fabrication of not less than 10%, the permissible service temperatures for each steel type shall be increased above the value given in Table B1 by 20° C plus 1 ° C for every 1.0% increase in outer bend fibre strain above 10%.
NOTE: Local strain due to weld distortion should be disregarded.

B4.3.3 Post-weld heat-treated members Where a member or component has been welded or strained and has been subjected to a post-weld heat-treatment temperature of more than 500° C, but not more than 620 ° C, the permissible service temperature given in Table B1 shall not be modified.
NOTE: Guidance on appropriate post weld heat treatment may be found in AS 4458.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

B4.3.4 Non-complying conditions Steels, for which the permissible service temperature (as modified where applicable) is not known or is warmer than the design service temperature specified by the designer, shall not be used, unless compliance with each of the following requirements is demonstrated: (a) (b) (c) (d) A mock-up of the joint or member shall be fabricated from the desired grade of steel, having similar dimensions and strains of not less than that of the service component. Three Charpy test specimens shall be taken from the area of maximum strain and tested at the design service temperature. The impact properties as determined from these tests shall be not less than the minimum specified impact properties for the steel grade under test. Where the Standard to which the steel complies does not specify minimum impact properties, the average absorbed energy for three 10 mm × 10 mm test specimens shall be not less than 27J, provided none of them is less than 20J.
COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

74

(e)

Where a plate thickness prevents a 10 mm × 10 mm test piece from being used, the standard test thickness closest to the plate thickness shall be used and the minimum value energy absorption requirements shall be reduced proportionally.

B5 FRACTURE ASSESSMENT A fracture assessment shall be made, using a fracture mechanics analysis coupled with fracture toughness measurements of the steel selected, weld metal and heat-affected zones and non-destructive examination of the welds and their heat-affected zones.
NOTE: For methods of fracture assessment, see BS 7910 and WTIA Technical Note 10.

TABLE B1 PERMISSIBLE SERVICE TEMPERATURES ACCORDING TO STEEL TYPE AND THICKNESS
Steel type (see Table 4.6.1(B)) ≤6 1 2 3 4 5 6 7A 7B 7C 8 –20 –30 –40 –10 –30 –40 –10 –30 –40 –40 >6≤12 –10 –20 –30 0 –20 –30 0 –20 –30 –30 Permissible service temperature, °C Thickness, mm >12≤20 0 –10 –20 0 –10 –20 0 –10 –20 — >20≤32 0 –10 –15 0 0 –15 0 0 –15 — >32≤70 0 0 –15 0 0 –15 0 0 –15 — >70 5 0 –10 5 0 –10 — — — —

NOTE: This Table is based on available statistical data on notch toughness characteristics of steels currently made in Australia or New Zealand. Care should be taken in applying this Table to imported steels as verification tests may be required. For a further explanation, see WTIA Technical Note 11.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

75

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

NOTES: 1 2 The isotherms show the lowest one day mean ambient temperature (LODMAT) in degrees Celsius. Based on records during the years 1957 to 1971 as supplied by the Australian Bureau of Meteorology.

FIGURE B1 LODMAT ISOTHERMS FOR AUSTRALIA
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

76

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

NOTES: 1 2 3 The isotherms show the lowest one day mean ambient temperature (LODMAT) in degrees Celsius. Based on records during the years 1930 to 1990 as supplied by the National Institute of Water and Atmosphere Research. Where site-specific LODMAT temperatures are available, these should be used in lieu of these temperatures.

FIGURE B2 LODMAT ISOTHERMS FOR NEW ZEALAND
COPYRIGHT

77

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

APPENDIX C

TYPICAL FORMS FOR WELDING PROCEDURES
(Informative) This Appendix provides typical forms for procedure qualification record (PQR) and welding procedure specification (WPS).
NOTE: These forms may be copied.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

78

PROCEDURE QUALIFICATION RECORD Material spec/grade Fabricator Process Welding Standard Edge preparation Weldability group no. Specimen thickness Preheat temperature Inter-run temperature Type and check method Run sequence To PQR No. Date qualified Welded by Page Revision Qualified position PWHT Hold Other Joint details Prequal. joint No. To Table Root gap G mm Root face Fr mm Incl. angle θ ° Backing Remainder Remainder Flow rate Flow rate Weld run details No. Side Position
φ mm

Date

Specification—Root Classification—Root Shielding gas Purge gas

Flux

Welding parameters Tradename Amperage Voltage Current and polarity Speed mm/min Heat input kJ/mm

Technique Initial cleaning Inter-run clean Nozzle size
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Stringer/weave Electrical stick-out Backgouge method Backgouge check Test results Visual Macro Tensile Bend Charpy V Hardness Other

Test type Test by Report no. Result Notes/revisions

Witnessed by

Approved by

COPYRIGHT

79

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

WELDING PROCEDURE SPECIFICATION Material specification/grade Fabricator Standard Process Edge preparation Welding direction Range qualified Preheat temperature Method and check method Inter-run temperature (max.) Joint sketch Run sequence to WPS No. Date PQR No. Page Revision Positions PWHT Hold Other Joint tolerance Pre-qualified joint No. To Table Root gap G mm Root face F r mm Included angle θ ° Backing Date

Welding consumables
Specification —Root Classification — Root Shielding gas Purge gas Weld run details Pass no. Side Position φ mm Tradename Amperage range Remainder Remainder Flowrate Flowrate Welding parameters Voltage range Current and polarity Travel speed mm/min Heat input kJ/mm Flux

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Technique Single-run or multi-run Initial cleaning Inter-run clean Notes/revisions

Stringer/weave Electrical stick-out Backgouge Gouge check

Approved by

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

80

APPENDIX D

MATTERS FOR RESOLUTION
(Normative) The following matters of a contractual nature shall be resolved: (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) (m) (n) (o) (p) (q)
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Nomination of weld categories and nominal tensile strength of welds (see Clause 3.1.2). Increased penetration from fully automatic arc welding processes (see Clauses 3.2.2 and 3.3.2). Where seal welds are required (see Clause 3.5). Approval of welding procedures (see Clauses 4.1 and 4.2). Method of qualification of welding procedure (see Clause 4.2). Prequalification of consumables (see Clause 4.6.1). Qualification of non-prequalified steel types (see Clause 4.7.1). Whether Charpy (see Table 4.7.1). V-notch impact test is required for heat-affected zone

Hardness of heat-affected zone (see Table 4.7.1 and Clause 4.7.9). Preparation of special test piece (see Clause 4.7.2). Availability of records, for perusal by inspector (see Clause 4.10). Qualifications of welding supervisor (see Clause 4.12.1). Qualifications of welders (see Clause 4.12.2). Misalignement of plates of equal thickness (see Clause 5.2.2). Tolerances for butt-welded joints, for electroslag and electrogas (see Clause 5.2.2). Welding and cutting under stress (see Clause 5.7.2). Peening (see Clause 5.7.3). Correction of distortion (see Clause 5.7.4). Weld surface quality requirements, to comply with painting specifications (see Clauses 5.11 and 5.12). Type and extent of inspection, including requirements for NDE, ultrasonic examination for the detection of transverse cracks in weld metal, and the value of L as the basis for assessment under Tables 6.2.1 and 7.4 (see Clauses 6.3, 6.4, 6.5, 6.6 and 7.4). NDE technique and alternatives (see Clauses 6.3.1, 6.4.1, 6.5 and 6.6). Correction of faulty (defective) welds and cost of weld repair and associated NDE (see Clauses 6.3.3, 6.4.3 and 6.7). Whether a test report is required (see Clause 6.8). Qualification of NDE technicians (see Clause 7.4). For plates with a thickness of not less than 20 mm, whether a portion of each multi-pass butt weld should be tested, to determine whether there are any transverse cracks within the weld metal (see Table 7.4).

(r) (s) (t)

(u) (v) (w) (x) (y)

COPYRIGHT

81

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Where practicable, it is recommended that the principal resolve any problems with the fabricator, before work is commenced.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

COPYRIGHT

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

82

APPENDIX E

WELDED JOINT AND PROCESS IDENTIFICATION
(Normative) E1 NOTATION FOR JOINT IDENTIFICATION The notation used for joint identification in the first column of Tables E1 to E4 is the following:
W ? X Yz

where W = joint type identification, as follows: B = butt joint C = corner joint F = fillet joint H = joint for hollow sections to AS 1163 and AS 1450 T = T joint X = penetration identification, as follows: C = complete penetration P = part (incomplete) penetration Y = preparation identification, as follows: 1 = square 2 = single-V 3 = double-V 4 = single-bevel 5 = double-bevel
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

6 = single-U 7 = double-U 8 = single-J 9 = double-J z = a, b, c or d, to distinguish between diagrams showing variations of the same prequalified joint. E2 NOTATION FOR DIMENSIONS, POSITIONS AND BACKING MATERIAL The notation used for dimensions, positions and backing material in Tables E1 to E4 is the following: D = depth of preparation, in millimetres

DTT = design throat thickness, in millimetres F Fr = flat position = width of root face, in millimetres
COPYRIGHT

83

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

G H M MR OH R S S′ t V X θ

= width of root gap, in millimetres = horizontal position = material of backing as specified = material of backing as specified, but with backing removed after welding = overhead position = root radius (the point from which the radius is generated lies on a line projected from the root face), in millimetres = size of weld, in millimetres = apparent size of weld, in millimetres = plate thickness, in millimetres = vertical position = depth of one preparation in a double-V butt weld, in millimetres = included angle of preparation, in degrees.

E3 NOTATION FOR PROCESSES The notation used for welding processes is the following: EGW ESW FCAW(C or M) = electrogas welding = electroslag welding, including consumable guide = flux-cored arc welding with gas shielding, where C indicates shielding with carbon dioxide and M indicates shielding with mixed gases = flux-cored arc welding without gas shielding, where N indicates no gas shielding = gas-shielded metal-arc welding or MIG = gas-shielded tungsten-arc welding or TIG = manual metal-arc welding = submerged arc welding

FCAW(N) GMAW GTAW MMAW
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

SAW E4 EXAMPLE

A square corner joint complete penetration butt weld, welded both sides using submerged arc welding, can be described as C-C 1c – SAW.

COPYRIGHT

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE E1 PREQUALIFIED COMPLETE PENETRATION BUTT WELD PREPARATIONS
NOTES: 1 2 3 4 5
The notation used is given in Paragraphs E1 to E3. For requirements for gouging the roots of the weld, see Clause 4.5.2. For dimensional tolerances of weld preparations, see Table 5.2.2. Gas metal-arc pulsed-transfer mode may be used for these preparations where average current exceeds 250 A. Gas metal-arc welding with globular transfer mode may be used with CO 2 Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) t Position G
shielding gas.

Joint identification
COPYRIGHT

Joint type

Manual metal-arc 3 max. All 0

Submerged arc 12 max. F 0

Gas metal-arc, Gas metal-arc, Electroslag, Flux-cored arc, spray transfer short-circuiting including self-shielded (see Notes 4 arc transfer or consumable and gas-shielded and 5) pulsed mode guide 6 max. F 0 6 max. F 0

Gas-tungsten arc 3 max.
84

B-C 1a

Close-joint square butt weld, welded both sides

All 0

B-C 1b

Open-joint square butt weld, welded both sides

t Position G

6 max. All t /2

10 max. All t /4

6 max. All t /2

20 min. V 25

6 max. All t /2

( continued)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E1 (continued)

Joint identification Manual metal-arc 6 max. All t t /2 t t /2 3t /2 F All F All V 25 12 max. 12 max. 12 max. 10 max. 20 min. Submerged arc t Position G

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) Gas metal-arc, Gas metal-arc, Electroslag, Flux-cored arc, spray transfer short-circuiting including self-shielded (see Notes 4 arc transfer or consumable and gas-shielded pulsed mode guide and 5)

Gas-tungsten arc

B-C 1c n-joint square butt weld and corner joint, welded one side with C-C 1a backing strip

T-C 1a Position G t /2 t /4 All F&H

C-C 1b

Open-joint square T-butt weld and corner joint welded both sides t 6 max. 10 max.

6 max. All 3

20 min. V 25

6 max. All t /2
85

COPYRIGHT

C-C 1c Close joint square T and corner joint, butt welded both sides T-C 1b Position G 0 0 0 All F F

t

3

10 max.

6 max.

6 max. F 0

3 max. All 0

( continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E1 (continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Joint identification Manual metal-arc All All 3.5 3 0 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V All See θ 6 0 30 30 for F, H & OH 45 for V 1.6 60 50 60 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V 6 3 4 0 3 0 F See θ F See θ All All All All Submerged arc t Position G Fr θ

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) Gas metal-arc, Gas metal-arc, Electroslag, Flux-cored arc, spray transfer short-circuiting including self-shielded (see Notes 4 arc transfer or consumable and gas-shielded pulsed mode guide and 5)

Gas-tungsten arc 20 max. All 3 1.5 60

B-C 2a Single-V butt weld and corner joint, welded both sides C-C 2a

t All All See θ F 3 1.5 6 0 All See θ F See θ 0 30: G = 6 30 for F, H & OH 20: G = 15 45 for V See θ 0 20 for F & OH: G = 12 30 for F & OH: G = 9 45 for all: G = 6 20 max. H 5-8 0 45 15 20 max. H 5-8 0 45 15 All Position G Fr θ

B-C 2b Single-V butt weld and corner joint, welded one side with C-C 2b backing strip

86

COPYRIGHT

B-C 2c Single-V butt weld, welded one side with backing strip t Position G Fr θ1 θ2

20 max. H 5-8 0 45 15

20 max. H 5-8 0 45 15

( continued)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E1 (continued)

Joint identification Manual metal-arc 32 max. All 0 t /3 max. 60 60 60 60 60 ≥ 6 ≤ t /3 t /3 max. t /3 max. t /3 max. 0 0 0 0 F All F All 32 max. 32 max. 32 max. 32 max. Submerged arc t Position G Fr θ

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) Gas metal-arc, Gas metal-arc, Electroslag, Flux-cored arc, spray transfer short-circuiting including self-shielded (see Notes 4 arc transfer or consumable and gas-shielded pulsed mode guide and 5)

Gas-tungsten arc 20 max. All 0 t /3 max. 60

B-C 2d Single-V butt weld, welded both sides

t All See θ 3 3 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V F 0 3 50 All Position All 3.5 1.5 60 60 6 0 F G Fr θ

All

All

All See θ 4 0 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V

20 max. All 3 1.5 60

87

COPYRIGHT

A1

B-C 3 Double-V butt weld NOTE: Depth X may range from 2 (t ? Fr ) to 1 (t ? Fr ) 3 3

( continued)
AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E1 (continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Joint identification Manual metal-arc All All 3.5 4 0 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V 1.5 45 50 60 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V 6 1.5 4 0 3 1.5 F&H See θ F&H See θ All All All All Submerged arc t Position G Fr θ

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) Gas metal-arc, Gas metal-arc, Electroslag, Flux-cored arc, spray transfer short-circuiting including self-shielded (see Notes 4 arc transfer or consumable and gas-shielded pulsed mode guide and 5)

Gas-tungsten arc 20 max. All 3 1.5 60

B-C 4a Single bevel butt weld, T and corner joint, welded both sides T-C 4a

C-C 4a

88

COPYRIGHT

t Position G Fr θ 0 0 0 See θ See θ See θ See θ F&H See θ

All

All

All

All F&H 5 0 30 for F & H

All See θ See θ 0 30 for F: G = 10 45 for V, H & OH: G = 6

B-C 4b Single bevel butt weld, T and corner joint, welded one side with T-C 4b backing strip C-C 4b

20 for F: G = 11 30 for F: G = 30 for F: G = 10 45 for V, H & (B-C 4b only) 10 OH: G = 6 30 for F: G = 9 mm 45 for H: G = 45 for all: G = 6 6 mm

( continued)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE D1 E1 (continued)

Joint identification Manual metal-arc All All 3.5 4 0 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V 1.5 45 50 60 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V 6 1.5 3 0 1.5 0 F See θ F See θ All All All All Submerged arc t Position G Fr θ

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) Gas metal-arc, Gas metal-arc, Electroslag, Flux-cored arc, spray transfer short-circuiting including self-shielded (see Notes 4 arc transfer or consumable and gas-shielded pulsed mode guide and 5)

Gas-tungsten arc 20 max. All 3 1.5 60

B-C 5 Double-bevel butt weld, T and corner joint T-C 5

C-C 5

B-C 6a Single-U butt weld and corner t Position G Fr R θ 30 for F & OH 45 for all All See θ F 2 1.5 8 20 7 1.5 6 30 for F & OH 45 for all All All All 6 0 8 30 20 30 6 8 8 1.5 6 1.5 1.5 0 1.5 0 3 8 30 See θ F All Flat All All All All

All All 4 0 8 30

All All 1.5 1.5 6 45
89

COPYRIGHT

C-C 6a joint, welded both sides

t Position G Fr R θ

All F 3 1.5 8 30

All All 6 0 8 30

B-C 6b Single-U butt weld and corner joint, welded one side with C-C 6b backing strip

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

( continued)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E1 (continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Joint identification Manual metal-arc All See θ F 0 6 8 20 30 30 30 8 8 8 3 3 0 1.5 0 4 All F All 1.5 1.5 6 30 for F & OH 45 for all All All All All Submerged arc t Position G Fr R θ

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) Gas metal-arc, Gas metal-arc, Electroslag, Flux-cored arc, spray transfer short-circuiting including self-shielded (see Notes 4 arc transfer or consumable and gas-shielded pulsed mode guide and 5) All All 1.5 1.5 6 45

Gas-tungsten arc

B-C 7 Double-U butt weld, welded both sides

t All F&H Position All See θ F: MMAW or SAW weld on second side 0 6 See θ 30: R = 12 45: R = 6 See θ 30: R = 10 45: R = 6 3 3 1.5 4 8 45

All

All

All

All All

All All
90

B-C 8a Singe-J butt weld, T and corner joint, welded both sides T-C 8a

COPYRIGHT

C-C 8a G Fr R θ 30 for F & OH 45 for all 6 1.5 1.5

4 0 8 45

1.5 1.5 6 45 ( continued)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E1 D1 ((continued continued))

Joint identification Manual metal-arc All See θ F 6 2 6 30 45 45 45 6 6 6 0 3 0 6 3 6 F F All 7 1.5 6 30 for F & OH 45 for all All All All 20 max. Submerged arc t Position G Fr R θ

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) Gas metal-arc, Gas metal-arc, Electroslag, Flux-cored arc, spray transfer short-circuiting including self-shielded (see Notes 4 arc transfer or consumable and gas-shielded and 5) pulsed mode guide

Gas-tungsten arc

B-C 8b Single-J butt weld, T and corner joint, welded one side with T-C 8b backing strip C-C 8b

91

COPYRIGHT

t Position See θ F: MMAW or SAW weld on second side 0 6 See θ 30: R = 12 45: R = 6 All

All

All

All

All F&H

All All

All All

B-C 9 Double-J butt weld, T and corner joint T-C 9

C-C 9 G Fr R θ 30 for F & OH 45 for all 6 1.5 1.5

3 3 6 45

0 4 8 45

4 0 8 45

1.5 1.5 6 45
AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E2

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

PREQUALIFIED INCOMPLETE PENETRATION BUTT WELD PREPARATIONS

NOTES: 1 The notation used is given in Paragraphs E1 to E3. 2 For increased DTT for fully automatic process, see Clause 3.2.2. 3 For dimensional tolerances of weld preparations, see Table 5.2.2. 4 Gas metal-arc pulsed-transfer mode may be used for these preparations where average current exceeds 250 A. 5 Gas metal-arc welding with globular transfer mode may be used with CO 2 shielding gas.

Joint identification

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) Manual metal-arc Submerged arc T Position G DTT 0.75 t 0.75 t 0.75 t 0 0 0 All F F&H 3 max. 6 max. 4 max. 3 max. F&H 0 0.75 t

Gas metalFlux-cored arc, Gas metal-arc, arc, shortGas-tungsten self-shielded circuiting arc spray transfer arc and gas-shielded (see Notes 4 and 5) transfer or pulsed mode 3 max. All 0 t /2 3 max. All 0 0.75 t 8 max. F&H t /4 0.75 t 6 max. F&H t /4 0.75 t 6 max. All t /2 t /2 6 max. All t /2 t /2
92

COPYRIGHT

B-P 1a

Close-joint square butt weld, welded one side

B-P 1b T Position G DTT 0.75 t t /2 All 6 max.

Open-joint square butt weld, welded one side

B-P 2a All All 0 See θ 45: DTT = D ? 3 60: DTT = D Position G DTT θ

C-P 2

Close joint single-V butt weld and corner joint, welded one side T

All F 0 D 60

All See θ 0 D?3 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V

All F 0 D?3 50

All See θ 0 D?3 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V

20 max. All 0 D 60

( continued)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E2 (continued)

Joint identification Manual metal-arc Submerged arc

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) t All F 0 ( D 1 + D2 ) ?6 50 Position G DTT θ 45: ( D1 + D 2) ? 6 60: D1 + D2 60 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V See θ D1 + D2 ( D 1 + D2 ) ?6 0 0 0 All F See θ All All All All See θ 0 ( D 1 + D2 ) ?6 50 for F, H & OH 60 for V

Gas metalarc, shortFlux-cored arc, Gas metal-arc, Gas-tungsten self-shielded spray transfer circuiting arc arc and gas-shielded (see Notes 4 and 5) transfer or pulsed mode 20 max. All 0 D1 + D2 70

B-P 3

Close joint double-V butt weld, welded both sides

B-P 4a Position G DTT θ 45 60 D?3 D 0 0 0 D?3 45 All F&H All

COPYRIGHT

C-P 4

Close joint single-bevel butt weld, T and corner joint, welded one side t

All

All

All

All F&H 0 D?3 45

All All 0 D?3 45

20 max. All 0 D 60

93

A1

T-P 4

( continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E2 (continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Joint identification Manual metal-arc Submerged arc

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) t Position G DTT θ 45 60 45 45 ( D 1 + D2 ) ?6 D1 + D2 ( D 1 + D2 ) ?6 (D 1 + D2 ) ?6 0 0 0 0 All F All F&H All 0 ( D 1 + D2 ) ?6 45 All All All All All

Gas metalarc, shortFlux-cored arc, Gas metal-arc, Gas-tungsten self-shielded spray transfer circuiting arc arc and gas-shielded (see Notes 4 and 5) transfer or pulsed mode 20 max. All 0 D1 + D2 60

B-P 5

T-P 5

Close joint double-bevel butt weld, T and corner joint

C-P 5

B-P 6 Position G R DTT θ 45 20 D D 6 6 1.5 0 0 6 D 30 All F All

COPYRIGHT

C-P 6

Single-U butt weld and corner joint, welded one side t All All All

All F&H 0 6 D 30

All All 0 6 D 30

20 max. All 0 6 D 45

94

B-P 7 Position G R DTT θ 45 D1 + D2 6 1.5 All

Double-U butt weld, welded both sides t All

All F 0 6 D1 + D2 20

All All 0 6 D1 + D2 30

All F&H 0 6 D1 + D2 30

All All 0 6 D1 + D2 30

All All 0 6 D1 + D2 45

( continued)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E2 (continued)

Joint identification Manual metal-arc Submerged arc

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Notes 2 and 3) t Position G R DTT θ 45 20 for B & C joints 45 for T joints All F 0 12 D1 + D2 20 for B & C joints 0 10 D1 + D2 45 All All 45 45 D D D D 10 12 10 10 1.5 0 0 0 All F All F&H All 0 10 D 45 All All All All All

Gas metalarc, shortFlux-cored arc, Gas metal-arc, Gas-tungsten self-shielded spray transfer circuiting arc arc and gas-shielded (see Notes 4 and 5) transfer or pulsed mode 20 max. All 0 10 D 45

B-P 8

T-P 8

Single-J butt weld, T and C joint, welded one side

C-P 8

B-P 9 Position G R DTT θ 45 D1 + D2 10 1.5 All

T-P 9

Double-J butt weld, T and corner joint, welded both sides

t

All

All F&H 0 10 D1 + D2 45

All All 0 10 D1 + D2 45

All
95

All 0 10 D1 + D2 45

COPYRIGHT

C-P 9

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

96

TABLE E3 PREQUALIFIED FILLET WELD PREPARATIONS
NOTES: 1 2 3
The notation used is given in Paragraphs E1 to E3. For increased DTT for fully automatic processes, see Clause 3.3.2.
DTT = DTT1 + DTT2

= S1 cos

180 ? θ θ + S 2 cos 2 2
2 sin θ S1

4

DTT = DTT1 + DTT2
=
2 ?? ? G ? ?? S 1 + + S1 cos θ ? + (G + S1 sin θ ) 2? tan θ ? ? ? ?? ?

+

S2 2 sin θ
2 ?? ? G ? ?? S 2 ? ? S 2 cos θ ? + (G + S 2 sin θ ) 2? tan θ ? ? ? ?? ?

Joint identification F1

Joint type

Joint description Fillet weld with equal leg size and no root gap; for gap tolerances, see Clause 5.2.3 θ = 90

DTT (see Note 2) S 2

F2

Fillet weld with equal leg size, but with root gap θ = 90

(S - G) 2

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

F3

Fillet weld with unequal leg size θ = 90

S1 × S 2
2+ 2 ) ( S1 S2

( continued)

97

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE E3 (continued)
Joint identification F4 Joint type Joint description Lap joint with unfused edge— applicable for t < 6 θ = 90 DTT (see Note 2) S 2

F5

Lap joint with fused edge— applicable for t < 6 θ = 90

S 2

F6

Lap joint with build-up edge— applicable to all thicknesses θ = 90

S 2

F7

Skewed T-joint with no root gap, welded both sides θ = 60 to 90

(see Note 3)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

F8

Skewed T-joint with root gap, welded both sides θ = 60 to 90

(see Note 4)

COPYRIGHT

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

TABLE E4

PREQUALIFIED COMPLETE PENETRATION BUTT WELD PREPARATIONS FOR HOLLOW SECTIONS WELDED FROM ONE SIDE

NOTES:

1

The notation used is given in Paragraphs E1 to E3.

2
shielding gas.

For dimensional tolerances of weld preparations, see Table 5.2.2; except where this Table specifies different tolerances.

3

Gas metal-arc pulsed-transfer mode may be used for these preparations where average current exceeds 250 A.

4

Gas metal-arc welding with globular transfer mode may be use with CO 2

Joint identifcation Manual metal-arc 3 max. All 1.5 Submerged arc t

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Note 2)

Flux-cored arc, self-shielded and gas-shielded

Gas metal-arc, spray transfer (see Notes 3 and 4)

Gas metal-arc, shortcircuiting arc transfer or pulsed mode 3 max. All 1.5

Gastungsten arc 3 max.
98

H-C 1a

Square butt weld, welded one side without backing strip G

Position

All 1.5

COPYRIGHT

H-C 1b All t t /2 F

Square butt weld, welded one side with backing strip G

t

6 max.

12 max.

12 max. All t

12 max. F t /2

10 max. All 1.5 t

Position

( continued)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Joint identifcation Manual metal-arc 9 max. F&H 4 mm min. F&H 3 mm min. 9 max. Submerged arc Flux-cored arc, self-shielded and gas-shielded Gas metal-arc, spray transfer (see Notes 3 and 4) t

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Note 2)

Gas metal-arc, shortcircuiting arc transfer or pulsed mode

Gastungsten arc

H-C 1c

Butt weld, equal width brace and chord welded to one side G

Position

See Clause 5.2.2 for wide root gaps (G) t F&H 4 mm min. 9 max. 9 max.
99

H-C 1d

Butt weld, equal width brace and chord welded one side with backing strip G

Position

F&H 3 mm min.

COPYRIGHT

*M or MR ( continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E4 (continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Joint identifcation Manual metal-arc 20 max. All 1 to 3 1 to 2.5 60 All 1 to 3 0 60 20 max. Submerged arc t

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Note 2)

Flux-cored arc, self-shielded and gas-shielded

Gas metal-arc, spray transfer (see Notes 3 and 4)

Gas metal-arc, shortcircuiting arc transfer or pulsed mode

Gastungsten arc 20 max. All 2 to 3 0 60

H-C 2a

Single-V butt weld, welded one side without sealing run and without backing strip G Fr θ

Position

H-C 2b t All 5 to 8 0 60 30: G = 6 20: G = 15 60 0 0 See θ 5 to 8 F All

Single-V butt weld, welded one side with backing strip G Fr θ

All

All

All

All F 5 to 8 0 60

All All
100

Position

5 to 8 0 60

COPYRIGHT

( continued)

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E4 (continued)

Joint identifcation Manual metal-arc 20 max. H 5 to 8 0 45 15 15 15 45 45 0 0 5 to 8 5 to 8 H H H 5 to 8 0 45 15 20 max. 20 max. 20 max. Submerged arc t

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Note 2)

Flux-cored arc, self-shielded and gas-shielded

Gas metal-arc, spray transfer (see Notes 3 and 4)

Gas metal-arc, shortcircuiting arc transfer or pulsed mode

Gastungsten arc

A1

H-C 2c

Single-V butt weld, welded one side with backing strip G Fr θ1 θ2

Position

H-C 4a 20 max. All 2 to 4 1 to 3 45

Single bevel butt weld, welded one side G Fr θ

t

20 max. All 2 to 4 0 45

20 max. All 1.5 1.5 45

101

COPYRIGHT

Position

( continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

TABLE E4 (continued)

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

Joint identifcation Manual metal-arc All All 6 0 45 45 45 0 0 6 6 All F&H All 6 0 45 All All All Submerged arc t

Joint type

Preparation detail (see Note 2)

Flux-cored arc, self-shielded and gas-shielded

Gas metal-arc, spray transfer (see Notes 3 and 4)

Gas metal-arc, shortcircuiting arc transfer or pulsed mode

Gastungsten arc

H-C 4b

Single bevel butt weld, welded one side with backing strip G Fr θ

Position

H-C 4c Butt welded T-joint, welded one side All See θ 0 to 1 0 to 1 45 min. ≥ 45 ≤ 90: G 1 = 2 to 5 > 90: G 1 = 0 > 15 ≤ 25: G 2 = 5 > 25 ≤ 40: G2 = 3 > 40: G 2 = 2 30 min. See θ All

t

20 max.

20 max.

20 max. F See θ 0 to 1

20 max. All See θ 0 to 1 45min. ≥ 45 ≤ 90: G 1 = 2 to 5 > 90: G 1 = 0
102

Position G Fr θ1

COPYRIGHT

45min. 45min. ≥ 45 ≤ 90: G 1 = 2 to 5 ≥ 45 ≤ 90: G 1 = 2 to 5 > 90: G 1 = 0 > 90: G 1 = 0 > 15 ≤ 20: G2 = 12 > 20 ≤ 25: G2 = 9 > 25 ≤ 30: G2 = 6 > 30 ≤ 40: G2 = 3 30 min. > 15 ≤ 20: G2 = 12 > 20 ≤ 25: G2 = 9 > 25 ≤ 30: G2 = 6 > 30 ≤ 40: G2 = 3 30 min.

θ2

> 15 ≤ 20: G2 = 5 > 20 ≤ 40: G2 = 3 > 40: G 2 = 1 30 min.

θ3

103

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004

AMENDMENT CONTROL SHEET AS/NZS 1554.1:2004 Amendment No. 1 (2005)

CORRECTION SUMMARY: This Amendment applies to the Preface, C lause 1.1, Table 4.7.1, Appendix A and

Appendix E.
Published on 20 January 2005.

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

AS/NZS 1554.1:2004 104

NOTES

Standards Australia Standards Australia is an independent company, limited by guarantee, which prepares and publishes most of the voluntary technical and commercial standards used in Australia. These standards are developed through an open process of consultation and consensus, in which all interested parties are invited to participate. Through a Memorandum of Understanding with the Commonwealth government, Standards Australia is recognized as Australia’s peak national standards body.

Standards New Zealand The first national Standards organization was created in New Zealand in 1932. The Standards Council of New Zealand is the national authority responsible for the production of Standards. Standards New Zealand is the trading arm of the Standards Council established under the Standards Act 1988.

Australian/New Zealand Standards Under a Memorandum of Understanding between Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand, Australian/New Zealand Standards are prepared by committees of experts from industry, governments, consumers and other sectors. The requirements or recommendations contained in published Standards are a consensus of the views of representative interests and also take account of comments received from other sources. They reflect the latest scientific and industry experience. Australian/New Zealand Standards are kept under continuous review after publication
Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

and are updated regularly to take account of changing technology.

International Involvement Standards Australia and Standards New Zealand are responsible for ensuring that the Australian and New Zealand viewpoints are considered in the formulation of international Standards and that the latest international experience is incorporated in national and Joint Standards. This role is vital in assisting local industry to compete in international markets. Both organizations are the national members of ISO (the International Organization for Standardization) and IEC (the International Electrotechnical Commission).

Visit our web sites

www.standards.org.au www.standards.com.au

www.standards.co.nz

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

GPO Box 5420 Sydney NSW 2001 Administration Phone (02) 8206 6000 Fax (02) 8206 6001 Email mail@standards.com.au Customer Service Phone 1300 65 46 46 Fax 1300 65 49 49 Email sales@standards.com.au Internet www.standards.org.au

Level 10 Radio New Zealand House 155 The Terrace Wellington 6001 (Private Bag 2439 Wellington 6020) Phone (04) 498 5990 Fax (04) 498 5994 Customer Services (04) 498 5991 Information Service (04) 498 5992 Email snz@standards.co.nz Internet www.standards.co.nz

ISBN 0 7337 5730 8

Printed in Australia

Accessed by CITIC HIC AUSTRALIA PTY LTD on 02 May 2011

This page has been left intentionally blank.


相关文章:
AS_1554.1-2011
AS_1554.1-2011_机械/仪表_工程科技_专业资料。AS/NZS 1554.1:2011 AS/NZS 1554.1:2011 Australian/New Zealand Standard? Structural steel welding结构钢 ...
02 AS 1554.5-2004澳大利亚焊接标准(高应力载荷钢结构)第5部分
02 AS 1554.5-2004澳大利亚焊接标准(高应力载荷钢结构)第5部分_机械/仪表_工程...AS/NZS 1554.1, Structural steel welding, Part 1: Welding of steel ...
更多相关标签:
structural steel | 1554年 | astm f1554 | 太阁立志传5 1554剧本 | dv 1554 | as1554.1 2014 | tda1554q | as1554.1 |