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summary writing 英语作文写作技巧


Chapter 5

Summary Writing

Objectives
1.

2.

3.

4. 5.

Give an appropriate definition for a summary Know the characteristi

cs of a good summary Learn the techniques in summary writing Learn the steps in summary writing Practice

I. What is a summary?
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A summary is a shortened passage, which retains the essential information of the original. It is a fairly brief restatement --- in your own words ---of the contents of a passage.
Note: you simply report back what the writer has said, without making value judgments.

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II. Characteristics of a good summary
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Can be understood without reference to the original;
Is a faithful reproduction of, or contains only the ideas or information of, the original; Is brief without any unnecessary detail; Is a readable unified whole

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III. Techniques in summary writing
1.

Paraphrasing
To paraphrase means to completely

and correctly express other people’s ideas in one’s own words.

Examples:
1. You’ve cooked us all a hot potato.

(a troublesome person or issue)
2. Prevention is better than cure.

(预防胜于治疗。)
(It is better to prevent something unpleasant from happening than try to put it right afterwards.)

The importance of paraphrasing

★It helps us understand the original
better. ★It helps us grasp the central idea and

the main points.
★It helps us write summaries that are

brief and to the point, and in our own words.

Steps of paraphrasing

★Read the original carefully and comprehend its meaning wholly and correctly. ★Consider the original article as a whole, not in isolated sentences.

III. Techniques in summary writing
1. First, try to find the main idea in the reading; it’s usually in the first paragraph. Next, skim through the article, glancing at any headings and graphics. Then, read the conclusion. The intent here is both to give yourself a review of the work and t o effectively engage yourself with it.

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2. Then go back and read the original text carefully, jotting down(草草记下) notes on or highlighting the important points. Write the central idea and the author’s reasons (purpose and intent) for holding this viewpoint. Note the supporting elements the author uses to explain or back up her/his main information or claim.

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3. Make an outline that includes the main idea and the supporting details. Arrange your information in a logical order, for example, most to least important or chronological. Your order need not be the same as that in the original, but keep related supporting points together. The way you organize the outline may serve as a model for how you divide and write the essay.

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4. Write the summary, making sure to state the author’s name in the first sentence. Present the main idea, followed by the supporting points. The remainder of your summary should focus on how the author supports, defines, and/or illustrates that main idea. Remember, unless otherwise stated by your instructor, a summary should contain only the author’s views, so try to be as objective as possible.

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5. As you revise and edit your summary, compare it to the original and ask yourself questions such as: Have I rephrased the author’s words without changing their meaning? Have I restated the main idea and the supporting points accurately and in my own words?

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6. If you are asked to write a critical summary or to include a critique, you may want to ask yourself questions such as: Does the author succeed? How and why or why not? What are the strengths, weaknesses? Why? What did the author do well? Not well? Why?

Ways of condensation
1. Use synonyms or synonymous phrases He had a good command of English. (He knew English well.) 2. Change the structure of simple sentences My brother has an appreciation of modern art. (My brother appreciates modern art.)

3. Turn complex sentences into simple sentences He received a welcome that was as cold as ice. (He received an icy welcome.) 4. Combine the sentences Hurry up. If you don’t, you’ll miss the train. (Hurry up or you’ll miss the train.)

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Write a summary on how to manage your finances When you're away from home, your parents expect you to be responsible for yourself and this includes taking care of your own finances. To manage your money sensibly, you need a plan to work with. Write down your allowance and expenses for the month. What you are doing is actually budgeting your income. Make sure that you set aside a small amount for your savings. One way of cutting cost is eating in. It is cheaper than eating out. Moreover, by cooking your own meals, you have greater control over

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what you eat. Besides that, if you know of friends who live in the same area as you, you might want to consider driving to college together. This saves on petrol and parking. In addition, when you shop for household items, compare prices from one shop to another before making your purchase. If you can, wait for sales when you can get better discounts. However, sales where prices are marked down incredibly can sometimes tempt you to buy things which you don't really need. Therefore, be careful and don't give in to temptation. Your summary must : * not be more than 60 words, including the 10 words given below: To manage your money sensibly, you must first start with ...

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Answer: To manage your money sensibly, you must first start with a plan. Write out your budget and put aside a set amount for savings. You can save money by eating in and carpooling. Besides that, before buying household items, compare prices first. If possible, wait for sales but do not be tempted to buy what you do not need. ( 59 words )

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Write a summary on how we can attract more tourists to our country One of the many sources of revenue for the country is tourism. Malaysia has lots to offer the world. We have beautiful beaches, lush jungles, cool mountain retreats and modern cities. However, to further capitalize on tourism, there are a few areas that must be looked into. Firstly, we must expose people from foreign countries to what we can offer. We can do this by holding exhibitions overseas. Organizers of such exhibitions can offer a glimpse into what we have in our country. They can offer attractive four packages that would definitely lure tourists here. The mass media too can play an important role. The Internet, television and the newspaper offer an alternative mode of advertising the country to the world. Besides that, newspapers and television can be used to show the world the wonders found in our country.

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On the homeground, multiethnic cultural shows can be presented to woo foreign tourists to the country. People who come from other countries would definitely like to see the different cultural and traditional practices here. However, what is most important is to make sure that the facilities in our country, like public transport and accommodation, are of a reasonable and respectable standard. this is to ensure a pleasant and memorable stay for our visitors. Your summary must : * not be more than 60 words, including the 10 words given below:There are many ways of attracting tourists to our country .....

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Answer: There are many ways of attracting tourists to our country. For one, we can organize exhibitions abroad. Through these fairs, we can offer attractive tour packages. Besides that, the mass media plays an important role in promoting Malaysia's holiday destinations. In Malaysia itself, we can hold cultural shows. Most importantly, we must ensure that our facilities are up to standard. ( 60 words )

Chapter Six

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Composing Essays

Part One: How to Write an Outline
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1. What is it? An outline is a general plan of the material that is to be presented in a speech or a paper. The outline shows the order of the various topics, the relative importance of each, and the relationship between the various parts.

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2. Order in an Outline There are many ways to arrange the different parts of a subject. Sometimes, a chronological arrangement works well. At other times, a spatial arrangement is best suited to the material. The most common order in outlines is to go from the general to the specific. This means you begin with a general idea and then support it with specific examples.

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3. Thesis Statement of Summarizing Sentence All outlines should begin with a thesis statement of summarizing sentence. This thesis sentence presents the central idea of the paper. It must always be a complete, grammatical sentence, specific and brief, which expresses the point of view you are taking towards the subject. 4. Types of Outlines The two main types of outlines are the topic outline and the sentence outline. In the topic outline, the headings are given in single words or brief phrases. In the sentence outline, all the headings are expressed in complete sentences.

Examples
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Topic Outline Choices in College and After Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my life’s work. I. Two decisions described A. Art history or chemistry 1. Professional considerations 2. Personal considerations B. A third year of French? 1. Practical advantages of knowing a foreign language 2. Intellectual advantages 3. The issue of necessity

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II. Definition of the problem A. Decisions about occupation B. Decisions about a kind of life to lead III. Temporary resolution of the problem A. To hold open a professional possibility: chemistry B. To take advantage of cultural gains already made: French

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Sentence Outline Choices in College and After Thesis: The decisions I have to make in choosing college courses, depend on larger questions I am beginning to ask myself about my life’s work. I. I have two decisions to make with respect to choosing college courses in the immediate future. A. One is whether to elect a course in art history or in chemistry. 1. One time in my life, I planned to be a chemical engineer professionally. 2. On the other hand, I enjoy art and plan to travel and see more of it.

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B. The second decision is whether to continue a third year of French beyond the basic college requirement. 1. French might be useful both in engineering and travel. 2. Furthermore, I am eager to read good books which are written in French. 3. How necessary are these considerations in the light of other courses I might take instead? II. My problem can be put in the form of a dilemma involving larger questions about my whole future.

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A. On the one hand I want to hold a highly-trained position in a lucrative(有利可图的) profession. B. On the other hand I want to lead a certain kind of life, with capacities for values not connected with the making of money. III. I will have to make a decision balancing the conflicting needs I have described. A. I will hold open the professional possibilities by electing chemistry. B. I will improve and solidify what cultural proficiency in another language I have already gained, by electing French.

Part Two: Main Parts of a Composition
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Introduction (beginning)(P.133) Body (middle) Conclusion (end) 1. Introduction Paragraph It introduces the main idea of your essay. A good opening paragraph captures the interest of your reader and tells why your topic is important.

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How to write an introduction paragraph? 1. Write the thesis statement. The main idea of the essay is stated in a single sentence called the thesis statement. You must limit your entire essay to the topic you have introduced in your thesis statement. 2. Provide some background information about your topic. You can use interesting facts, quotations, or definitions of important terms you will use later in the essay.

Example:
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(1) Hockey has been a part of life in Canada for over 120 years. It has evolved into an extremely popular sport watched and played by millions of Canadians. (2) The game has gone through several changes since hockey was first played in Canada.
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(1)Background (2)Thsis statement

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2. The Body (middle or supporting paragraphs) How to write them? 1. List the points that develop the main idea of your essay. 2. Place each supporting point in its own paragraph. 3. Develop each supporting point with facts, details, and examples. To connect your supporting paragraphs, you should use special transition words. Transition words link your paragraphs together and make your essay easier to read. Use them at the beginning and end of your paragraphs.

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3. Conclusion (end) It summarizes or restates the main idea of the essay. You want to leave the reader with a sense that your essay is complete. How do I write one? 1. Restate the strongest points of your essay that support your main idea. 2. Conclude your essay by restating the main idea in different words. 3. Give your personal opinion or suggest a plan for action.

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Example: Overall, the changes that occurred in hockey have helped to improve the game. Hockey is faster and more exciting as a result of changes in the past 120 years. For these reasons, modern hockey is a better game than hockey in the 1890s.

Part Three: Types of Writing
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1. The descriptive essay a. Description of object or place b. Describing a sequence of events. c. Describing a process d. Describing and explaining

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a. Description of object or place Describe essays require you to state the appearance of something, or to state the major characteristics of it. Note the word state i.e. you are not asked to comment on the subject or to give your personal point of view on it. Questions are often introduced by:describe, narrate,tell Plan: Introduction of major aspects of the subject. description of aspect A , description of aspect B…. conclusion

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Language Position, weight, structure, colour, composition, size, shape, function Position
adjacent to, alongside, below, beyond, facing (diagonally), parallel to, underneath, opposite, in the middle of, on the right of, on the left of, near, close to, touching, behind, in front of, under, on top of, above, below, level with, diagonally above, vertically below
between, equidistant from

A is

B

A is

B and C

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Structure
nailed, screwed, fixed, fastened, linked, tied, welded, connected, attached to Y by Z

X is

X is

held in place, secured, supported, suspended joined to, mounted on, placed on, pivoted on consist of, contains, includus

by Y

X is

Y

X

Y and Z

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Colour
dark light pale bright dull green. blue. red. yellow.

X is

Shape
X is square, round, rectangular, triangular, semi-circular, conical, spherical, hexagonal, octagonal, oval, circular, irregular square, circle, rectangle, triangle, semi-circle, hexagon, octagon in shape

X is shaped like a

X is

diamond-shaped, kidney-shaped, U-shaped, star-shaped, bell-shaped, dome-shaped, mushroom-shaped, X-shaped, crescent-shaped, egg-shaped, pear-shaped, Y-shaped

Function
The function//purpose/aim/objectiveof the thermometer/tripod is to measure the temperature/ hold the beaker(烧杯). The thermometer/tripod is used for measuring the temperature/ holding the beaker.

Examples
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1. The fist place I visited was Tian An Men Square, the symbol of country. Standing in the middle of the square, I had a unique feeling which is quite different from the pictures which television showings I had seen before ! It is the largest square in the world. Around it there are the Great Hall of People, the Great Museum of Chinese History and the Memorial Hall of Chairman Mao. 按空间顺序对进行了“Tian An Men Square” 由内 向外的详细描写,从“in the middle”到“around it”, 这样描写逻辑很有条理。

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2. On the fifth day after the vacation, it started snowing. Everywhere was white, so in the evening my sister and I decided to play in the snow in the nearby park the next day. The next morning I got up early and dressed myself quickly. My sister had prepared the breakfast . At half past ten we arrived at the park. Many people there were playing snow ball fights. We joined them. After that, we made a big and funny snowman.. At noon, we felt hungry. I took out bread and peanuts and began to eat. The sunlight became stronger, and the snowman began to melt. Before we returned home, we were pleased to have had a good time in the park. 本文记叙了放假第六天发生的事,“早晨”、“十 点半”、“此后”、“中午”、“晚饭前”等表示 时间顺序的过渡词的妙用,使读者对整段内容“一 目了然”。

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b. Describing a sequence of events. Describing a sequence of events is simply telling a story. State clearly when events happened or how one event caused another. Questions may be introduced by: Give an account of..., Trace..., Examine developments in... Plan:Intoduction First situation then A happened then B happened Final situation Conclusion

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Language Past tense is common. Chronological order is also common, but when we are writing about past events, it is necessary to be explicit about the order in which things happened. To make the order clear, we mention dates and time, and we also use various links and connectives.

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Sequence before Before he was offered a job as a lecturer, he had finished his research. Before this, … For the previous X years, … Prior to this, … Previously, … X years previously, … Before… … before which … … prior to which …

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after When/As soon as/Afterhe had finished his research, he was offered a job as a lecturer. On finishing his research,/After finishing his research, /Having finished his research,/On finishing his research, he was offered a job as a lecturer. For the following X years, … X years later, … After … Following this, … When … Subsequently, … Soon/Shortly/Immediately afterwards, … … following which … … after which …

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while While he was doing his research, /When doing his research,/ While doing his research, /During his research, he made an important discovery. During this period, … Throughout this period, … … during which… … throughout which…

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c. Describing a process This is like telling a story but here the connections between the facts must be clearly shown and explained. Group the events into steps or stages. Examples of such questions are : Explain/What is the connection between.... Describe the procedures by which... Plan:Definition of process(Main equipment /Main steps) Step One Step Two Step Three Conclusion (Summary of process)

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Language Sequence

Common words include: Firstly, First of all, The first step is, To begin with,... Initially... , Beforehand, Before this, Previously, Prior to this, Earlier, At the same time, During, Simultaneously, When this happens, While, After this, Next, The next step is, Then, Subsequently, In the following stage, Later, Following this, Eventually, ... until... , Lastly... , finishes with ... Finally, concludes with, In the last stage, The last step is ...

Passive voice is often used.

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Method - how something is done. First of all, letters and packets are collected in bags from pillar boxes. This is done by placing them in the appropriate pigeon hole. The baskets are directed to the appropriate secondary sorting section by means of coding pegs. The drainage is accelerated by suction. The vapour is then compressed by means of a compressor.

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Position - where something happens They are then taken to the sorting office, where the bags are emptied. The pulp goes to the mixer, where materials are added to improve the quality of the paper. The steam from the boiler is admitted into the cylinder in which there is a piston. Purpose Following this step, the letters are put through machines so that the stamps can be cancelled. This is then chemically etched to reduce its thickness. From there it is absorbed by plants to build carbohydrates in green leaves. In order to take heat out of the low-temperature interior of the refrigerator, work must be done.

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Coffee is a good drink to treat your guests because it is very easy to make. You only need a pot, a bottle of ready-made coffee, a box of sugar and some hot water. First, warm the pot with the hot water, let it stand for a moment before you empty it. Then, put the coffee and the sugar into the pot. After that, fill the pot with boiling water and stir it for a little while. Finally, let it stand for 3 to 5 minutes and you can serve your guests.
这一例是说明一件事情(冲咖啡)的过程。主题句“咖啡 是招待客人的好饮料,且容易冲。”然后,作者使用了 “first, then, after that, finally”这几个表示顺序的过渡词语 来描述步骤的先后顺序,冲咖啡应循遵循的步骤便一目了 然了。

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d. Describing and explaining(Exposion说明文) Some of the words and phrases which introduce this type of description are: Explain the causes/reasons..../ Account for.... / Analyse the causes.... / Comment on (the reasons for).... / Show that.... / Show why.../ Examine the effect of.... / Suggest reasons for.... / Why did...? What are the implications of...? / Discuss the causes of..../ Discuss the reasons for.... When we are asked to describe or explain causes, factors, functions or results, the examiner wants us to group our facts. Similar causes are put together, for instance the economic causes of a situation. There are basically two main ways to organise this type of essay.

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Plan 1. Introduction + Cause1 with examlpe and effects1 + Cause2 with examlpe and effects2 + Cause3 with examlpe and effects3 + Conslusion 2. Introduction to causes of A + Causes with examples + Transition + Effects + Conclusion Please read PP 163-173 in our textbook.

Examples
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In the following paragraph, the effect, given in the first sentence, is followed by the causes:
During holidays, the traffic in big cities is always particularly heavy. This is mainly because most citizens do not have to work in these days and they ride their bicycles to the streets to do shopping. Farmers in the country also flood into the cities by bus or by their own motorcycles. The streets are full of buses, taxicabs, trolley buses, minibuses and pedestrians. The streets seem narrower. As a result, traffic jams often occur.

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The following paragraph lists the causes before the effect: Perhaps the invention of agriculture marked the beginning of a differentiation between men’s and women’s roles. Men continued to hunt, and women became food gatherers and tended the field. Men later became agriculturists as well, when the hunt no longer provided enough sustenance for the community. The biological fact that women bear children, and that each time they give birth they are unable, for a time, fully to play their role in the provision of food and other work for the family, slowly gave rise to more distinct men’s and women’s roles. Men who are physically stronger took on such “natural” roles as warriors, and in most cases men became chiefs, commanders, and kings. As a result, in the course of history, as matriarchal systems became minorities in many cultures, the roles of men and women in many societies became increasingly gender-oriented and differentiated.

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2. The argument essay There are two main methods of presenting an argument, and in general the one you choose will depend on exactly how the essay title is worded. a. The balanced view If the essay title begins with something like: Give the arguments for and against.... Assess the importance of.... Examine the arguments for and against.... What are the advantages and disadvantages of...? Evaluate.... Critically examine the statement that.... To what extent is...true? Discuss....

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Then it is clear that a balanced essay is required. That is to say you should present both sides of an argument, without necessarily committing yourself to any points of view, which should always be based on evidence, until the final paragraph. At its simplest your essay plan will be as follows: 1. Introduce the argument to the reader. e.g. why it is particularly relevant topic nowadays or refer directly to some comments that have been voiced on it recently. 2. Reasons against the argument 3. Reasons in favour of the argument 4. After summarising the two sides, state your own point of view, and explain why you think as you do

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Language Presenting another point of view
maintain(s) say(s) argue(s) assert(s) believe(s) claim(s) point(s) out is/are of the opinion seem(s) to believe

Some people X In a study of Y, X

that…

It is the view of X The opinion of X is It can be argued It has been suggested It might be said

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Commenting on another point of view Negatively
is/are may be seem(s) to be would seem to be

They He She X This approach /position /methods /beliefs

somewhat rather -

mistaken. wrong. rigid. inadequate.

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This/These views is/are open to doubt/not always the case/not necessarily true/unlikely to be true/highly debatable/incorrect/highly speculative. Serious doubts/reservations can /may be raised against this. I disagree with X when he writes/says that… However, it is clear that … One of the main argumentsagainstX is that… One disadvantage of X is… Another point against X is… A further argument against X is… One other disadvantage of X is… One objection to this argument is…

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Positively I agree with X when he writes/says that … X is certainly correct X may be correct when he says /in saying that … One advantage of X is … Another point in favour of X is … A further argument supporting X is … One other advantage of X is … One of the main arguments in favour of X is …

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Presenting own point of view There are many reasons why … It isimportant/true/necessary/essential to remember/bear in mind/point out that… The first thing/ First of all,we have/I would like to consider is… The first thing to be considered is… It is a fact… There is no doubt… I believethat…

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b. The persuasive essay This second type of argumentative essay involves stating your own point of view immediately, and trying to convince the reader by reasoned argument that you are right. Perhaps the essay title will begin with something like: Give your views on.... What do you think about...? Do you agree that...? Consider whether.... Or perhaps the title itself will be so controversial that everyone will hold a definite opinion in one direction or another.

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Plan: Paragraph One: Introduce the topic briefly in general terms,and then state your own opinion. Explain what you plan to prove in the essay. Paragraph Two: Reasons against the argument. Dispose briefly of the main objections to your case. Paragraph Three: Reasons for your argument, the arguments to support your own view, with evidence and examples. Paragraph Four: Conclusion - Do not repeat your point of view again. End your essay with something memorable, e.g. a quotation or a direct question.

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Methods Of Persuasion How to persuade? Facts are most frequently used as evidence of persuasion in essays. They may include names, dates, events and other specific pieces of information. Each item of “evidence” must lend support to your thesis statement. It also must be related in some way to your topic question.

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Evidence is organized into distinct units called paragraphs. A paragraph contains one important idea that supports your argument. That idea, in turn, is supported by specific facts. E.g. The topic sentence is a general statement, or argument, that you intend to prove in the body of a paragraph. Most of the time, it is the first sentence of a paragraph. Your evidence is contained in the body of the paragraph. It must support both your topic sentence and your overall argument. When organizing your evidence within the paragraphs, start with the most general statements and conclude with the most specific facts.

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thesis statement A thesis statement often lists the subdivisions of the topic or subtopics. Each subtopic will become the topic of a separate paragraph. Here are a few points to remember about thesis statements: 1. The thesis statement should be expressed in a complete sentence. And since it makes a statement, it should not be written as a question. Example: * My fear of the dark. My fear of the dark has made my life miserable.

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2. A thesis statement expresses an opinion, attitude, or idea; it does not simply announce the topic the essay will develop. Example: * I’m going to discuss the effects of radiation. The effects of radiation are often predictable. 3. A thesis statement should express an opinion, it should not express a fact. Example: * Cows produce milk. The milk cows produce is not always fit for human consumption. * There are many advantages and disadvantages to going to college. The advantages to going to college far outweigh the disadvantages.

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4. A thesis statement should express only one idea toward one topic; if a thesis statement contains two or more ideas, the essay runs the risk of lacking unity and coherence. Example: * Going to college in the Midwest can be fun, and I have found that living in a suburb of a large city is the best way to live while at college. Going to college in the Midwest can be fun. or I have found that living in a suburb of a large city is the best way to live while at college.

Exercises
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Study the following statements carefully. If the statement is a thesis statement, write YES; if it is not a thesis statement, write NO. 1.The advantages of majoring in engineering. 2.I would like to discuss my views on the Olympic Games. 3.Students should be allowed to manage the bookstore. 4.My vacation in San Francisco was a lot of fun, and I liked visiting the wine country in California, too. 5.Why do I want to be a lawyer?

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6.The differences between Mandarin and Hunan cuisine. 7.You can find some colorful people on the bus. 8.Being honest is important. 9.I am going to describe my home. 10.There are many similarities and differences between Boston and Seattle.

NOTES FOR ARGUMENTATIVE ESSAY / PERSUASIVE ESSAY WRITING
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FIRST PARAGRAPH THE INTRODUCTION Hook the reader with an interesting beginning. In other words, a good lead-in-statement. Describe or give background information on the topic. An issue raised as a question. Define what will be discussed. State why the topic is important. Briefly outline the counterarguments. Thesis statement indicating content and organization.

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SECOND PARAGRAPH THE COUNTER-ARGUMENTS Outline some of the arguments that are against your own opinion. You should include all these into just one paragraph with appropriate referencing where necessary. THIRD PARAGRAPH THE TRANSITION A short paragraph in which you briefly acknowledge the opposing argument, but indicate that your own arguments, which will be provided below, are far more compelling.

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FOURTH PARAGRAPH THE FIRST ARGUMENT Show the first argument that supports your opinion. Include a topic sentence that refers to the thesis statement. Supporting details with relevant facts and examples must be included and referenced. The remaining arguments(PARAGRAPHS …) FINAL PARAGRAPH THE CONCLUSION Restate your position. Review, in brief, why your opinion is the best , most correct, or morally right. Resolution to the problem. Prediction for the future. End with a statement that might be a satisfying closure for the reader.

Example
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The Necessity of Korean Foreign Language Education for KoreanAmerican Children Korean permanent residents in the U.S. face the problem of children who do not speak their native language. (Lead-in statement)While the new immigrants feel relieved from their hard lives, the speed of their English proficiency is slow like a turtle’s pace; on the other hand, that of their children is as fast as a rabbit. Here the necessity of Korean language education becomes an object of controversy. (Background information) Do they need to introduce their children to Korean language? (An issue raised as a question ) Some parents do not want their children to learn Korean; they want their children to learn English. (Brief counterargument) In my opinion, Korean language education not only promotes the development of children, but also brings domestic peace, which is a common aim of immigrant homes; furthermore, Korean language education makes the children understand the culture of their ancestors.(Thesis statement)

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2nd Paragraph (The counter Arguments ) Topic Sentence: Some parents insist that they need not to teach Korean language to their children. 3rd Paragraph (Transition) Although their arguments are not completely baseless, we should have nothing to worry about those points. In fact, their children will benefit more by learning Korean as well as English. 4th Paragraph (1st Supporting Argument) Topic Sentence: First of all, according to psychological research, children who learn two (or more) languages at the same time can improve their thinking faculties and creative abilities. 5th Paragraph (2nd Supporting Argument) Topic Sentence:Apart from that, Korean language education can be positively related to domestic peace. 6th Paragraph (3rd Supporting Argument) Topic Sentence: Moreover, Koreans are a minority in the U.S., and keeping in touch with their culture and ancestors is necessary on order to keep their pride and security.

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3. Compare and contrast essays.(p.150) a The Contrast essay Contrast or distinguish between questions usually present you with two or more terms, instruments, concepts or procedures that are closely connected, and sometimes confused. The purpose of the essay is to explain the differences between them. The question may be of the form: Contrast .... Distinguish between ... What is the difference between.... What are the differences between.... How are ... and ... different?

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Plan: 1.Introduction to differences between A and B 2 Contrast A & B in terms of first difference 3. Contrast A & B in terms of second difference 4. Contrast A & B in terms of third difference 5. Conclusion

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b. The Compare essay Compare questions usually present you with two or more terms, instruments, concepts or procedures that are closely connected, and sometimes confused. The purpose of the essay is to explain the similarities between them. Words used are: Compare .... What features do ... and ... have in common? What are the similarities between.... How are ... and ... similar?

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Plan: 1.Introduction to similarities between A and B 2 Compare A & B in terms of first similarity 3. Compare A & B in terms of second similarity 4. Compare A & B in terms of third similarity 5. Conclusion

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c. The compare and contrast essay Compare and contrast essays require you to indicate areas in which the things to be compared are similar and different. Compare and contrast.... Plan One: Introduction to differences and similarities between A and B Difference 1 Difference 2 (May be put into one paragraph) Difference 3 Transition Similarity 1 Similarity 2 (May be put into one paragraph) Similarity 3 Conclusion

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Plan Two: Introduction to differences and similarities between A and B Aspect 1 - differences and similarities Aspect 2 - differences and similarities Aspect 3 - differences and similarities Conclusion


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