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高中英语语法专练-形容词 副词


第五章

形容词、副词

4.1 形容词及其用法

形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常, 可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。

1) 直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot

热的。

2) 叙述形容词只能作表语, 所以又称为表语形容词。 这类形容词没有级的变化, 也不可用程度副词修饰。 大多数以 a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。 例如:afraid 害怕的。 (错) (对) He is an ill man. The man is ill.

(错) She is an afraid girl. (对) The girl is afraid.

这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。

3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如: something nice

4.1 形容词及其用法 形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常,可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。

1) 直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词,它有级的变化,可以用程度副词修饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的。

2) 叙述形容词只能作表语, 所以又称为表语形容词。 这类形容词没有级的变化, 也不可用程度副词修饰。 大多数以 a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。 例如:afraid 害怕的。 (错) (对) He is an ill man. The man is ill.

(错) She is an afraid girl. (对) The girl is afraid.

这类词还有: well,unwell,ill,faint,afraid,alike,alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。

3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为字尾的词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如: something nice

4.2 以-ly 结尾的形容词

) 大部分形容词加-ly 可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely,lively, 改错:(错) She sang lovely. (错) He spoke to me very friendly. (对) Her singing was lovely. (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way.

ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。

2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。 daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early The Times is a daily paper. The Times is published daily.

4.3 用形容词表示类别和整体 1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。如:the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry The poor are losing hope.

2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。 the British,the English,the French,the Chinese. The English have wonderful sense of humor

4.4 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为: 限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --出处--材料性质,类别--名词 a small round table a tall gray building a dirty old brown shirt a famous German medical school an expensive Japanese sports car

典型例题: 1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys. A. little two other B. two little other C. two other little D. little other two

答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词"的公式可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有 C 符合 答案。

2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace. A. old Chinese stone B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. Chinese stone old

答案 A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+质地+用途+国家+名词。

3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao? ---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside. A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last

答案:B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词

在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定时,可参照下表:

限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+ those + three + beautiful + large + square

新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词 old + brown + wood + table

4.5 副词及其基本用法

副词主要用来修饰动词,形容词,副词或其他结构。 一、副词的位置: 1) 在动词之前。 2) 在 be 动词、助动词之后。 3) 多个助动词时,副词一般放在第一个助动词后。

注意: a. 大多数方式副词位于句尾,但宾语过长,副词可以提前,以使句子平衡。 We could see very clearly a strange light ahead of us. b. 方式副词 well,badly 糟、坏,hard 等只放在句尾。 He speaks English well.

二、副词的排列顺序: 1) 时间,地点副词,小单位的在前,大单位在后。 2) 方式副词,短的在前,长的在后,并用 and 或 but 等连词连接。 Please write slowly and carefully. 3) 多个不同副词排列:程度+地点+方式+时间副词。

注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 改错:(错) I very like English. (对) I like English very much.

注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。 I don't know him well enough. There is enough food for everyone to eat. There is food enough for everyone to eat

4.6 兼有两种形式的副词

1) close 与 closely close 意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地" He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely. 2) late 与 lately

late 意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近" You have come too late. What have you been doing lately? 3) deep 与 deeply deep 意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地" He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film. 4) high 与 highly high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion. 5) wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是"广泛地","在许多地方" He opened the door wide. English is widely used in the world. 6) free 与 freely free 的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地" You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like. You may speak freely; say what you like

4.7 形容词与副词的比较级

大多数形容词(性质形容词)和副词有比较级和最高级的变化,即原级、比较级和最高级,用来表示事物的等级差别。原级即形容词的原形,比较 级和最高级有规则变化和不规则变化两种。

1) 规则变化 单音节词和少数双音节词,加词尾-er,-est 来构成比较级和最高级。

构成法 一般单音节词

原级 tall(高的)

比较级 taller

最高级 tallest greatest nicest largest ablest

未尾加-er,-est great(巨大的) greater 以不发音的 e 结尾 nice(好的) 的单音词和少数 large(大的) nicer larger

以- le 结尾的双 able(有能力的) abler 音节词只加-r,-st 以一个辅音字母 big(大的) 结尾的闭音节单 hot 热的) 音节词,双写结 尾的辅音字母, 再加-er,-est bigger hotter

biggest hottest

"以辅音字母+y" easy(容易的) 结尾的双音节词,busy(忙的) 改 y 为 i,再加 -er,-est 少数以-er,-ow

easier busier

easiest busiest

clever(聪明的) cleverer cleverest narrower narrowest

结尾的双音节词 narrow(窄的) 未尾加-er,-est

其他双音节词和 important(重要的) 多音节词,在前 面加 more,most 来构成比较级和 easily(容易地) 最高级。 more easily most easily more important most important

2) 不规则变化

原级 good(好的)/ well(健康的) bad (坏的)/ ill(有病的) old (老的) much/many(多的) little(少的) far (远的)

比较级 better

最高级 best

worse

worst

older/elder oldest/eldest more less farther/further least farthest/furthest most

4.8 as + 形容词或副词原级 + as

1)在否定句或疑问句中可用 so… as。 He cannot run so/as fast as you.

2)当 as… as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。 as +形容词+ a +单数名词 as + many/much +名词 This is as good an example as the other is. I can carry as much paper as you can..

3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在 as 的前面。 This room is twice as big as that one. Your room is the same size as mine.

4) 倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ then + of This bridge is three times as long as that one. This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. Your room is twice the size of mine.

4.9 比较级形容词或副词 + than

You are taller than I.

They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine.

注意: 1)要避免重复使用比较级。 (错) He is more cleverer than his brother. (对) He is more clever than his brother. (对) He is clever than his brother.

2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 (错) China is larger that any country in Asia. (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia.

3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out.

4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。 比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia? Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? She is taller than her two sisters. She is the taller of the two sisters.

4.10 可修饰比较级的词

1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等

2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。

3)以上词(除 by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。

典型例题: 1) ---- Are you feeling ____? ---- Yes,I'm fine now. A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite 修饰原级,well 的比较级为 better.

2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected. A. more B. much more C. much

D. more much 答案:C. much 可修饰比较级,因此 B,C 都说得通,但 easier 本身已是比较级,不需 more,因此 C 为正确答案。

3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. A. the happiest time C. much happiest time 答案:D。 B. a more happier time D. a much happier time

4.11 many,old 和 far 1) 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词 many more +可数名词复数

2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。 My elder brother is an engineer. Mary is the eldest of the three sisters.

3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。 在美语中,father 表示距离,further 表示进一步。 I have nothing further to say.

4.12 the + 最高级 + 比较范围

1) The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。 形容词 most 前面没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。 It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 (错) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. (对) Tom is the tallest of the three brothers.

2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 注意: a. very 可修饰最高级,但位置与 much 不同。 This is the very best. This is much the best. b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。 Africa is the second largest continent.

3) 句型转换: Mike is the most intelligent in his class. Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class.

4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so… as"结构表示最高级含义。 Nothing is so easy as this. =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing.

4.13 和 more 有关的词组

1) the more… the more… 越……就越…… The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make.

2) more B than A 与其说 A 不如说 B less A than B He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work. 3) no more… than… 与……一样……,不比……多 The officials could see no more than the Emperor. no less… than… 与……一样……

He is no less diligent than you. 4) more than 不只是,非常

She is more than kind to us all.

典型例题 1)The weather in China is different from____. A. in America B. one in America C. America

D. that in America 答案:D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C 不能选。A 没有名词,后句成分不全,排除。B 和 D 中,B 中的 one 常 用来代替可数名词,而 that 可车以代替不可数或抽象名词,所以选 D。

2)After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before. A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as

答案 C. 此句意为"这个厂 1988 能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。 表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答 案为 C。 This ruler is three times as long as that one.

第五章 形容词和副词

( )1.The bridge is _____ for heavy trucks to pass through. A. very strong B. too strong C. Strong enough D. So strong ( )2.Try to make as _____ mistakes as possible. A. less B. little C. few D. a few ( )3.Jack has _____ friends. He likes to stay at home and play by himself. A. little B. a little C. few D. a few ( )4.He’s just as thin as you, but _____ than you . A. strong B. stronger C. more stronger D. the stronger ( )5.The flowers in the garden smell _____ A. nicely B. wonderfully C. well D. nice ( )6.Of all the students, John is _____ A. tall B. taller C. much taller D. the tallest ( )7.The _____ you read, the _____ progress you will make in your English studies. A. less, more B. less, less C. fewer, fewer D. more, less ( )8.Don’t worry. There’s still _____ time left. A. little B. a little C. few D. a few ( )9.The red dress is _____ than the green one. A. cheap B. the cheapest C. cheaper D. most cheap ( )10.Why not make a kite yourself ? You don’t need _____ for it. A. anything special B. something special C. special anything D. special something ( )11.The Chinese diet is considered to be _____ in the world. A. healthy B. healthier C. the healthiest D. perfect ( )12.This machine is as good as a new one but _____ expensive. A. much less B. more less C. more much D. much more ( )13.The young scientist decided to work _____ in the _____ forest. A. lonely, alone B. alone, lonely C. alone, alone D. lonely, lonely ( )14.—It’s cold and wet today, isn’t it? —Yes, it is. Hopefully tomorrow will turn out _____. A. good B. well C. fine D. rainy ( )15.The old man next door was found _____ in the living room . Maybe he died from a heart attack. A. dead B. die C. dying D. death ( )16.The _____ boy had been sent to hospital before his mother got back home. A. ill B. dangerous C. sick D. sleeping ( )17.She is _____ she can not reach the top of the blackboard. A. such a tall person that B. much shorter than C. as short that D. so short that ( )18.—What’s the matter with you ? —My stomach was a bit _____ last night. I didn’t know why. A. hurt B. painful C. pain D. hungry ( )19.Her voice became _____ and _____ and finally no one could hear what she said. A. weak, weak B. weaker, weaker C. weaker, weak D. weak, weaker ( )20.Both Tom and Henry are _____ than me. In fact, Tom is the _____ boy in our class and Henry is the second _____. A. taller , tallest, tallest B. taller , taller , taller C. tallest, taller, taller D. tallest, tallest, tallest ( )21.These apples are much _____ but they tastes as _____ as those. A. cheap, good B. cheaper, better C. cheaper, good D. cheap, the best ( )22.It’s _____ to have our class meeting. A. early enough B. enough early C. too early D. much early ( )23.Yesterday was _____ day of the year. A. a cold B. a colder C. the coldest D. the colder ( )24.John is _____ student in his class.

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A. a bright B. a brighter C. the brightest D. the brighter )25.Our life is getting _____. A. better and better B. more and more good C. the better and the better D. best and best )26. _____ the work is, _____ they feel. A. The more busy, the happy B. The busy ,the happy C. The more busy, the more happy D. The busier, the happier )27.The old man lived in a _____ house but he didn’t feel _____ A. alone, lonely B. alone, alone C. lonely, alone D. lonely, lonely )28.This is the _____ book that I want. A. very B. same C. just D. such )29.They had a _____ match yesterday. A. friend B. friendship C. friendly D. friendless )30.He made _____ mistakes in his composition. A. less B. least C. few D. the fewest )31.My father is _____ than _____. A. busier , mine B. busier , I C. more busy, I D. more busy, me )32.As he was so tired he soon fell _____. A. slept B. asleep C. sleep D. sleeping )33.Be quiet. Don’t wake the _____ baby up . A. asleep B. sleep C. sleep D. sleeping )34.I’ve _____ to tell you. Please listen to me carefully. A. something important B. important something C. nothing important D. important nothing )35.The flowers smell _____ A. nicely B. sweetly C. sweet D. well )36.I’m the _____ of the two children in our family. A. tallest B. taller C. more long D. longest )37.The Yellow River is the second _____ river in China. A. long B. longer C. more long D. longest )38.We were moved at the _____ news. A. excited B. excite C. exciting D. exciteing )39.He is a man of _____ words. He says very little. A. few B. a few C. little D. a little )40.Your box is _____ mine . A. four times as big as B. four times as bigger as C. as four times big D. as big as four times )41.I have never seen _____ film before. A. such good a B. so good a C. a such good D. a so good )42. After some years Mary is _____ and _____. A. more healthy, strong. B. healthier, stronger C. much more healthy , strongest D. even healthy, stronger )43. He is running very _____. A. quick B. quickly C. good D. fastly )44.It is a _____ bridge. A. 100 meter long B. 100 meters long C. 100-meter-long D.100-meters-long )45.What a _____ watch it is ! A. most beautiful B. more beautiful C. the most beautiful D. beautiful )46. _____ you study, _____ you know. A. More, more B. The more, the more C. The much, the much D. Much, much )47.He is _____ interested in English. He often works at it until _____ into the night.

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A. deep, deep B. deeply, deep C. deep, deeply D. deeply, deeply )48.I don’t think the dress fits her. It’s _____ large. A. too much B. much too C. even D. much )49.She sang _____ for them. A. beautifully B. beautiful C. wonderful D. beauty )50.There’s _____ rain this year than last year.. A. much B. plenty. C. more D. a lot of )51.We have not had _____ as this for a long time . A. so hot weather B. such hot weather C. so hot a weather D. such a hot weather )52.John did badly in the Sports Meet. I did even _____ A. worst B. more bad C. also badly D. worse )53.The _____ boy cried for help. A. fear B. afraid C. frightened D. terribly )54.Be quiet. listen to _____ sister. A. she and she’s B. her and her C. she and her D. her and hers )55.John is _____ of the three. A. young B. younger C. youngest D. the youngest )56.Jack doesn’t jump so _____ as his brother. A. high B. higher C. highest D. more high )57.The oranges taste _____. A. good B. well C. to be good D. to be well )58.This text is _____ than that one. A. easy B. easier C. easiest D. the easiest )59.There was _____ to weigh the elephant. A. nothing enough big B. big nothing enough C. nothing big enough D. big enough nothing )60.Waiting for the plane in the airport took _____ as the trip itself. A. as long B. so long C. so much D. as much )61.The pianos in the other shop will be _____, but _____. A. cheaper , not as better B. more cheaper, not as better C. cheaper, not as good D. more cheap, not as good )62.The film was _____ than I had expected. A. good B. very better C. more better D. much better )63.Who sings _____ of the four girls? A. best B. well C. good D. better )64. _____ will the swimming-pool be completed? A. How long B. How often C. How soon D. How far )65.It seems to me that he was too tried to walk _____. A. farer B. farther C. much far D. more far )66.From the above figures, we can see that computers are being used _____ than several years ago. A. much more widely B. much widely C. much wider D. more and more widely )67.December 23 is the _____ day in the year. A. longest B. shortest C. shorter D. longer )68.The earth is 49 times _____ the moon. A. size than B. the size of C. than D. bigger )69.It’s a pity that I didn’t think of ringing you _____. A. soon B. sooner C. early D. earlier )70.This is _____ what he wanted to say.

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A. at B. exact C. exactly D. rather )71.I don’t like tea and she doesn’t, _____. A. neither B. either C. too D. several )72.There’s a lot of food here, but we’ll need _____ more. A. some \ B. enough C. any D. several )73.I could _____ believe what he said yesterday . A. hardly B. hard C. not hard D. not hardly )74.As I have no pen, I have to use the pencil _____. A. too B. also C. instead D. instead of )75.Have you finished your homework _____? A. already B. still C. over D. yet )76.I can’t come tonight; it’s _____ impossible. A. much B. quite C. very D. rather )77.I remember meeting him _____ before. A. sometimes B. some time C. some times D. sometime )78.Which pen do you like _____ of the three? A. well B. good C. best D. better )79.Xiao Li speaks English as _____ as his teacher. A. fine B. nice C. good D. well )80.I run _____ of the three. A. most fastly B. most fast C. faster D. fastest )81.—Mum, I think I’m _____ to get back to school. —Not really, my dear. You’d better stay at home for another day or two. A. so well B. so good C. well enough D. good enough )82.Wait till you are more _____. It’s better to be sure than sorry. A. inspired B. satisfied C. calm D. certain )83.Professor White has written some short stories, but he is _____ known for his plays. A. the best B. more C. better D. the most )84.I am at least _____ age _____ Robert if I am not older than me . A. the same, as B. the same, with C. as same, like D. as same, with )85.Take it _____. Everything will be fine in a day or two. A. easy B. quiet C. calm D. light )86.You can see the tower _____. A. from far away B. far away from C. from far-away D. away from far )87.—What do you think of the magazine? —Oh, it’s _____ one I want to read. A. the just B. first C. the last D. the very )88.The price of the dress is _____. A. surprising B. best C. cheap D. large )89.The young man sat there smoking, _____ of sorrow. A. full B. was full C. fill D. was filled )90.Yom is going to buy a car in _____ future. A. near B. distant C. the near D. / )91. _____ students or teachers went to the cinema . A. No B. Not C. Both D. None )92.I’ll give you _____ information. A. further B. many C. another D. farther )93.I’m _____ they are _____ moved.

( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( ( (

A. sure, deep B. surely, deeply C. sure, deeply D. sure of, deeply )94.—Have you ever been to Beijing? —_____. A. Not yet B. Not ever C. Still D. Ever )95.I don’t think they will come tonight. It’s _____ impossible. A. very B. quite C. much D. most )96.It was hot yesterday, but it is _____ hotter today. A. especially B. very C. even D. extra )97.A few of them are against the plan, and _____ are for it. A. many more B. much more C. much D. plenty )98.Hefei is _____ the biggest city in Anhui. A. even B. quite C. by far D. much )99.I will talk to him about the matter _____ next week. A. sometimes B. sometime C. some time D some times )100.—How are you ? —_____, thank you . A. Quite well B. Quite good C. Very better D. Nothing )101.—It’s cold today. —_____ it is. A. That B. So C. Also D. Too )102.He cried, speaking _____. A. angry B. angrier C. angrily D. angriest )103.—How _____ was Tom driving when the police stopped him? —eight miles an hour. A. rapid B. long C. far D. fast )104.They are _____ little children that they can’t do it. A. such B. so C. too D. very )105.He knew _____ little French that he couldn’t make himself understood. A. such B. so C. too D. very )106.It rains more often in Shanghai than _____ A. Beijing B. it in Beijing C. that in Beijing D. in Beijing )107.We haven’t seen each other since _____. A. two years ago B. two years before C. two years later D. two years )108.Alice is _____ a kind girl. She is willing to help my study in English . A. very B. too C. so D. such )109.He is _____ not to notice this mistake. A. so care B. as careless so C. so careless D. so careless as

第五章 1.C 2.C 3.C 4.B 5.D 11.C 12.A 13.B 14.C 15.A 21.C 22.A 23.C 24.C 25.A 31.B 32.B 33.D 34.A 35.C

形容词、副词 6.D 7.B 8.B 16.C 17.D 18.B 26.D 27.D 28.A 36.B 37.D 38.C

9.C 19.B 29.C 39.A

10.A 20.A 30.C 40.A

41.B 51.B 61.C 71.B 81.C 91.A 101.B

42.B 43.B 44.C 45.D 46.B 52.D 53.C 54.B 55.D 56.A 62.D 63.A 64.C 65.B 66.A 72.A 73.A 74.C 75.D 76.B 82.D 83.C 84.A 85.A 86.A 92.A 93.C 94.A 95.B 96.C 102.C 103.D 104.A 105.B

47.B 57.A 67.B 77.D 87.D 97.A 106.D

48.B 49.A 50.C 58.B 59.C 60.D 68.B 69.D 70.C 78.C 79.D 80.D 88.A 89.A 90.C 98.C 99.B 100.A 107.A 108.D 109.D


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