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高中英语语法过关辅导课件-主谓一致


(十四)主谓一致
英语中,主语的单复数形式决定着谓语动词的单复数形式。 主谓一致必须遵循以下三条原则:语法一致原则、意义一致原则、 就近一致原则。 1.并列结构作主语时。 ▲由and连接的两个单数名词作主语时,谓语动词用复数。如: A young man and a girl want to go there.

★但如果在意义上指同一个人、同一件事

或同一个概念时,谓语
动词要用单数形式。如: A needle and thread was found on the floor. ▲当each...and each...;every...and every...;no...and no...;many a...and many a...结构作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。如:

No man and no animal is to be found on the moon.
Many a doctor and many a nurse is busy with their work. ▲由not only...but also...;either...or...;neither...nor...;or连接的 并列主语,谓语动词与就近的名词或代词保持一致。如: Either the players or the coach is responsible for the defeat.

▲当主语由as well as, along with, together with,rather than, no
less than, but, except, besides, in addition to, like, including等词连 接时,其谓语动词与前面的名词或代词保持一致。如:

An iron and steal works, with some satellite factories, is to be built
here. Tom, along with his friends, goes skating every Saturday.

2.百分数、分数作主语时。
当百分数、分数后面加名词或代词时,要根据这个名词或代词 来决定其谓语动词的单复数形式。如果是复数名词或代词,谓 语动词用复数;如果是单数名词(或不可数名词)或代词,谓语动 词用单数。如:

Fifty percent of the students in our school are girls.
Threefourths of the surface of the earth is sea. 3.不定代词作主语时。

▲不定代词each, another, the other, either, neither和由some, any,
no, every+one或thing构成的复合代词作主语时,谓语动词用单 数形式。如:

Neither of us has gone through regular training.
Nobody wants to go there,does he? Something has been done to end the strike. ▲all作主语表示人时,谓语动词用复数;表示物时,谓语动词用 单数。如:

All is well that ends well.
All are eager to reach an agreement. 4.表示“全体”、“部分”等意义的词作主语时。

▲当主语是most, the rest, the last, the remainder等时,其谓语一
般应遵循意义一致的原则:如果of后面的名词是单数,则用单 数;如果of后面的名词表示复数,则用复数。如: Three of us will go, the rest are to stay here. After the big fire, the remainder is nothing.

5.“the+形容词/过去分词”作主语时。 ▲当“the+形容词/过去分词”表示一类人或事物时,谓语动词用


数;如果指某一抽象概念时,谓语动词则用单数。如: The sick here are very well cared for.

The true is to be distinguished from the false.
6.形式为复数、意义为单数的名词作主语时。 ▲表示时间、距离、金额、重量、计量、空间、体积等意义的复 数名词作主语,谓语动词常用单数形式。如: Eight hours of sleep is enough.

Ten pounds was missing from the till.

7.number;many a...等作主语时。 ▲the number of...(……的数目)作主语时,谓语动词用单数;而a

number of...(许多……)作主语时,谓语动词用复数。如:
The number of mistakes is surprising. ▲many a, more than one+单数名词构成的短语,尽管意义上是

复数,但谓语动词仍用单数形式。如:
Many a comrade has that kind of opportunity. 8.集体名词作主语时。 ▲有生命的词,如:cattle, police等作主语时,谓语动词用复数形 式。如:

The police are investigating the crime.

9.“one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中的主谓一致。 ▲在“one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中,定语从句中谓语动 词 的单复数应由它修饰的先行词的数来决定。如: This is one of the rooms that were damaged in the fire. ▲在“the only one of+复数名词+定语从句”结构中,定语从句 的 谓语动词应用单数形式。如: Mary is the only one of the youngest girls who plays in the band. 10.从句、动词不定式、ing形式作主语时。 ▲在“主系表”结构中,如果以what从句作主语,表语又是单数, 主句的谓语动词一般用单数;如果表语是复数,主句的谓语动词 一般用复数;动词不定式、ing形式作主语时,谓语动词一般用 单数。如: What caused the accident is a complete mystery.

过关落实
1.A survey of the opinions of experts ______ that three hours of outdoor exercise a week ________ good for one’s health. A.show;are B.shows;is C.show;is D.shows;are 解析:“a survey”作主语,谓语动词用单数;表时间,距离, 金钱的可数名词复数作主语,谓语动词也用单数。 答案:B 2.We live day by day,but in the great things,the time of days and weeks ________ so small that a day is unimportant. A.is 答案:A B.are C.has been D.have been 解析:主语是“the time”,故谓语动词用单数。

3.The company had about 20 notebook computers but only
onethird ________ used regularly.Now we have 60 working all day long.

A.is

B.are

C.was

D.were

解析:此处onethird 指one third of 20 notebook computers,故为复数;与now相对,用过去时。

答案:D
4.Most of what has been said about the Smiths ________ also true of the Johnsons.

A.are


B.is

C.being

D.to be

解析:主语为“大部分对Smith 夫妇的说法”,看成单数,谓

动词用is。
答案:B

5.A poet and artist ________ coming to speak to us about Chinese
literature and painting tomorrow afternoon. A.is B.are C.was D.were

解析:a poet and artist指一个人,既是诗人,也是艺术家。 答案:A

6.The father as well as his three children ________ skating on the
frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter. A.is going B.go C.goes D.are going

解析:主语仍为the father,单数形式;as well as his three
children作句子的状语,不影响谓语动词的单复数。 答案:C

7.________ of the land in that district ________ covered with trees and grass. A.Two fifth;is B.Two fifth;are C.Two fifths;is D.Two fifths;are 解析:表示分数时,分子大于一,分母(序数词形式)加s;主语 为land,不可数,故谓语动词用单数。 答案:C 8.Every possible means ________ to prevent the air pollution,but the sky is still not clear. A.is used B.are used C.has been used D.have been used 解析:every possible means每一种可行的方式;means单复数 同形,此句中为单数;表示“每种办法都用过了”,用现在完成 时 的被动语态。 答案:C

9.As a result of destroying the forests,a large ________ of desert
________ covered the land. A.number;has C.number;have B.quantity;has D.quantity;have

解析:a large number of 不修饰不可数名词;a large quantity of+不可数名词,谓语用单数。 答案:B 10.He is the only one of the students who ________ the winner of scholarship for three years. A.is 答案:D B.are C.have been D.has been 解析:有the only修饰先行词,其后的定语从句中谓语用单数。

11.The population of China ________ over 1.3 billion and eighty
percent of its population ________ peasants. A.is;are 动 词用单数,如果有分数或百分数修饰时,谓语用复数。 B.are;is C.is;is D.are;are

解析:population表示“人口”。当表示人口数为多少时谓语

答案:A
12.Grey as well as his two companions ________ leave ________ Paris tomorrow.

A.are to;for
C.is to;to

B.is to;for
D.are to;to

解析:句中主语是Grey,单数,故谓语也用单数;leave for

sp.,动身去某地。
答案:B

13.Either your parents or your elder brother ________ to attend the meeting tomorrow afternoon. A.are B.have C.is D.had

解析:either...or...遵循就近一致的原则,因your elder

brother为单数,句中谓语也用单数。
答案:C 14.30% of the cattle ________ thin,but the rest ________ fat. A.are;are B.is;is C.is;are D.are;is

解析:句中主语分别为the cattle/the rest of the cattle,即“牛/余下的牛”,是可数名词复数,故谓语用复数。 答案:A

15.The writer and actor ________ invited to give us a report on plays in China. A.were C.was B.have been D.has

解析:the writer and actor指一个人(既是作家也是演员), 谓语动词应为单数。 答案:C


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