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grammar 过去分词作定语和表语


1.作定语

过 去 分 词

2.作表语 3.作宾补 4.作状语

The Past Participle used
as Attribute and Predicative

Discovering Useful Structures P4
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es in the reading passage where the past participle is used as attribute and predicative. 1) John Snow told the astonished people in Broad Street. (Attribute) 2) He found it came from the river polluted the dirty water from London. (Attribute) (Predicative) 3) He become interested in the two theories. 4) Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood
(Predicative)

过去分词作定语

1.English is a widely used language. 2.He threw away the broken cup. 3.This is one of the schools built in 1980s. 4.Prices of daily goods bought through a computer can be lower than store prices.
1.位置:单个过去分词作定语,常放在被修 饰词的前面;过去分词短语作定语,常放在被 修饰词的后面。

2. 语法功能:过去分词或过去分词短语 作定语时,其功能相当于一个定语从句。 ? spoken English = English which is spoken ? terrified people = the people who are terrified ? an organized way = a way that is organized ? affected area 灾区 = the area which is affected

stolen culture relics = culture relics that had been stolen the book recommended by the teacher = the book which was recommended by the teacher printed articles = articles that are printed

Past Participle as the Attribute
1. terrified people 2. reserved seats 1. 2.

Past Participle as the Predicative

3. polluted water
4. a crowded room 5. a pleased winner 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

3.
4. 5. 6. children who look astonished 7. a vase that is broken 8. a door that is closed 9. the audience who feel tired 10. an animal that is trapped

Past Participle as the Attribute
1.terrified people 2.reserved seats

Past Participle as the Predicative 1.people who are terrified 2.seats that are reserved

3.polluted water 4.a crowded room
5.a pleased winner

3.water that is polluted 4.a room that is crowded
5.a winner that is pleased
6.children who look astonished 7.a vase that is broken 8.a door that is closed 9.the audience who feel tired

6. Astonished children 7.a broken vase 8.a closed door 9.the tired audience

10.a trapped animal

10.an animal that is trapped

?

polluted water = water which is polluted ? reserved seats = the seats which were reserved ? trapped animal = the animal which was trapped
及物动词的过去分词表示“结束了的被 动动 作”或者没有一定的时间性,只表示“被动关 系”。

?

boiled water = water which has boiled ? fallen leaves = the leaves which have fallen ? risen sun = the sun which has risen
不及物动词的过去分词不表被动, 只表示动作发生在谓语动词之前,含 有“动作完成,动作结束”之含义。

Exercise
written by the farmer (一本农民 The book ___________________ 写的书) is very popular. built last year The building __________________( 去年建 的楼房) now collapsed in the Wenchuan earthquake. discussed at the meeting yesterday The problem __________________________ (在昨天会议上讨论的) was very difficult to solve. broken by that naughty boy The window _________________________ 被那个顽皮男孩打破的) is being repaired.

过去分词

作定语
A in 776 B.C. did not The Olympic Games,___ include women players until 1912. A. first played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing
①过去分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关 系且过去分词表示的动作已完成。

②现在分词作定语表示动作正在发生,与修 饰词是主谓关系。
③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。 first played in 776B.C. = which was first played in 776 B.C.

Consolidation
B through a 1. Prices of daily goods ____ computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying

3. Don’t use words, expressions or phrases ____ D only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known C. to be known B. having been known D. known

4. When I got back, I saw a message ____ to the door____ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A. pin, read B. pinning, reading C. pinned, reading D. pinned, read

2)作表语 表示主语的心理感觉或所处 的状态。许多动词的过去分词已经被 当作形容词使用。如:disappointed, excited, moved, puzzled, pleased, surprised, lost等。 The window is broken. 窗户碎了。 Don’t get so excited. 别这么激动。

II. 过去分词做表语(predicative)
1 过去分词(短语)作表语时,其作用相当于adj., 说明的是主语的状态 All the windows are broken. All hope is gone. This article is well written. He appeared more satisfied with my work.

常见作表语的过去分词有: disappointed, amused, frightened, excited, experienced, interested, confused, pleased, puzzled, satisfied, tired, worried等。

3.表示“感觉流露”的一些过去分词(如:interested, surprised, excited, frightened, shocked)和一些过去 分词(如dressed, drunk, devoted, lost, known)常用 作表语,表示状态.其中有些仅表示状态,毫无被动 意味。 ① How did the audience receive the new play? They got very excited. ② How did Bob do in the exams this time? Well, his father seems pleased with his results. ③ She was very disappointed to hear the result. ④ He’s quite experienced in teaching beginners.

作表语

Cleaning women in big cities usually get C ________by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay

该题考查分词作表语的用法。“to
pay sb. by the hour” 计时给某人报酬。 此题被动结构作表语。类似的有:get burnt, get hurt , get wounded.

1. The rooms are ____, C so you can’t move in. A. painted B. painting C. being painted D. to be painted

D 2. As soon as he entered the city, he ____. A. was losing B. got losing C. grew lost D. got lost 3. What he has done is really ____.Now C his parents are _____ him. A. disappointing; disappointed at B. disappointing; disappointed about C. disappointing; disappointed with D. disappointed; disappointing by

现在分词和过去分词做定语的区别
现在分词表示主动意义,过去分词表示被动意义. 现在分词表示正在进行,过去分词表示状态或完成.

a moving movie 感人的电影 a moved audience 被感动的观众 a frightening story 一个令人害怕的故事 a frightened child一个被吓坏了的孩子 developing countries 发展中国家 developed countries 发达国家 falling leaves 落叶(正在进行) fallen leaves 落叶(已经完成)

Standing 1.The child__________ over there is my brother.(stand) facing 2.The room __________south is our classroom.(face) written 3.The book __________by Lu Xun is very good.(write) completed 4.The road __________yesterday is leading to Tibet.(complete)

2 过去分词做表语与现在分词做表语的区别 ing作表语与-ed作表语有何区别? ?The result of the test is disappointing. ? I feel disappointed with the result of the test. The story is very interesting He is interested in the book. What a surprising result ! I am surprised at what he said.


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