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形容词和副词 一、考点聚焦 1、形容词、副词的作用与位置 形容词是用来修饰名词的,常被放在名词前作定语,或放在系动词后面作表语。而副词则用来修饰形容词、 动词,其他副词或者句子,一般位于形容词之前,动词之后或句子之首。以下属几种特殊情况,须牢记; (1)形容词短语作定语,定语后置。 a language difficult to master, a leaning tower a

bout 180 feet high (2)表语形容词(afraid、alike、alone、asleep、awake、alive 等)作定语,定语后置。如 a man alive。有 些表身体健康状况的形容词如 well、 faint、 ill 只作表语。 sick 既可作表语又可作定语, ill 如作定语意为 “bad” 。 (3)用作定语,修饰由不定代词 one、no、any、some 和 every 构成的复合词如 anything、something 等时, 通常后置。如: I have something important to tell you. (4)else 常用作疑问代词和不定代词的后置定语。 (5)enough、nearby 修饰名词前置或后置,程度副词一般位于形容词、副词前面,enough 修饰形容词、 副词时,必须后置。 (6)几个副词并列作状语时,其顺序较灵活,但一般是:方式→地点→时间。如: We had a good time together outdoors last Sunday. (7)频度副词如 often、always、usually 等在 be 动词后,行为动词前。 (8)副词作定语,定语后置。如: The person there is waiting for you. (9)几个并列的形容词作定语,其语序通常为:限定语(The、A)+ 描绘性形容词 + size(大小)+ shape (形状)+ age(年龄、时间)+ color(颜色)+ origin(国籍、来源)+ material(材料)+ purpose(目的) + 名词。如: a heavy black Chinese steel umbrella, the man’s first tow interesting little red French oil paitings (10)以-ly 结尾的词性辨析。 ①下列单词以-ly 结尾,但却是形容词而非副词:lively、lonely、lovely、deadly、friendly、ugly、silly、likely、 brotherly、timely 等。 ②表愿意(无-ly)和引申意(有-ly)的副词: deep 深 wide 宽广 high 高 low 位置低 deeply 深入地 widely 广泛地 highly 高度地 lowly 地位卑微 ③有无-ly 意义大不相同的副词: dead 完全,绝对 be dead asleep deadly 非常 be deadly tired pretty 相当 be pretty certain that? prettily 漂亮地 be prettily dressed close 近 Don’t sit close. closely 密切地 Watch closely! late 晚、迟 arrive late, come late lately 最近 I haven’t seen him lately(recently). 2、复合形容词的构成 (1)形容词 + 名词 + ed kind-hearted 好心的,white-haired 白发的 (2)形容词 + 形容词

red-hot 炽热的,dark-blue 深蓝的 (3)形容词 + 现在分词 good-looking 好看的,easy-going 随和的 (4)副词 + 现在分词 hard-working 勤劳的,fast-moving 快速转动的 (5)副词 + 过去分词 hard-won 得来不易的,newly-made 新建的 (6)名词 + 形容词 life-long 终生的,world-famous 世界闻名的 (7)名词 + 现在分词 peace-loving 爱好和平的,fun-loving 爱开玩笑的 (8)名词 + 过去分词 snow-covered 白雪覆盖的,hand-made 手工的 (9)数词 + 名词 + ed four-storeyed 4 层楼的,three-legged 3 条腿的 (10)数词 + 名词(名词用单数) ten-year 10 年的,two-man 两人的 3、形容词和副词的比较等级 (1)原级的构成和用法。 构成:形容词、副词的原级即本身。 用法:表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相等时,用“as + 原级形容词/副词 + as”的结构;表示双方 不相等时, 用 “not so(as) + 原级形容词/副词 + as” 的结构; 表示一方是另一方的若干倍时, 用 “倍数 + as + 原 级形容词/副词 + as”的结构。如: Xiao Wang is as tall as Xiao Yu. This building looks not so (as)high as that one. Miss Xu speaks English as fluently as you . This room is three times as large as that one. (2)比较级和最高级的构成。 掌握比较级和最高级的变化规则,熟记少数不符合规则的特殊形容词和副词。 (3)比较级的用法。 ①对方比较,表示一方超过另一方时,用“比较级 + than”的结构表示。如: This picture is more beautiful than that one. ②表示一方不及另一方时,用“less + 原级 + than”的结构表示。如: This room is less beautiful than that one. ③表示一方超过另一方的程度或数量时,可在比较级前加表示程度的状语,如 even、a lot、a bit、a little、 still、much、far、yet、by fay 等修饰。如: He works even harder than before. 注意:英语的比较级前如无 even、still 或 yet 等时,译成汉语时可用“较”或“?一些”或不译出,一般不 可有“更” 。如: She is better than she was yesterday Please come earlier tomorrow. 另注意:by far 通常用于强调最高级。用于比较级时,一般放在比较级的后面,如在前面,应在二者中间加 “the” 。如: He is taller by far than his brother.

He is by far the taller of the two brothers. ④表示一方随另一方的程度而变化时,用“the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语) ,the + 比较级(主语 + 谓语) ”的结 构(意为“越??越??” ) 。如: The harder he works, the happier he feels. ⑤不与其他事物相比,表示本身程度的改变时,用“比较级 + and + 比较级”的结构。如: The weather is getting colder and colder. The girl becomes more and more beautiful. ⑥某些以-ior 结尾的形容词进行比较时,用 to 代替 than。这些词有 inferior(劣等的,次的) 、superior(较 好的,优于??) 、junior(资历较浅的) 、senior(资格较老的) 、prior(在??之前)等。 He is superior to Mr.Zhang in chemistry. ⑦在比较从句中为了避免重复,我们通常用 that(those)、one(ones)代替前面出现的名词。that 指物,one 既 可指人又可指物。that 可代替可数名词单数和不可数名词,而 one 只能代替可数名词。 The book on the table is more interesting than that(或 the one)on the desk. A box made of steel is stronger than one made of wood. ⑧倍数表达法。 ( A )A is three(four, etc.)times the size(height, length etc.)of B.这座新楼是那座旧楼的四倍大 (高) 。 The new bui9lding is four times the size(the height)of the old one. 这座新楼比那座旧楼大三倍(高三 倍) 。 ( B ) A is three(four, etc.)times as big(high, long, etc.)as B. Asia is four times as large as Europe. 亚洲比欧洲 大 三 倍 。 ( C ) A is three (four, etc.)times bigger(higher, longer, etc.)than B. Your school is three times bigger than ours. 你们的学 校比我们的学校大三倍。用 times 表倍数通常用于三倍以上,两倍可以用 twice 或 double. (4)最高级的用法。 ①三者或三者以上相比,表示最高程度时,用“the + 最高级”的结构表示。这种句式一般常有表示比较范 围的介词短语。如: Zhang Hua is the tallest of the three. He works(the)hardest in his class. ②最高级可被序数词以及 much、by far、nearly、almost 、by no means、not quite、not really、nothing like 等词语所修饰。如: This hat is by far / much / nearly / almost / not nearly / by no means / not quite / nothing like the biggest. How much did the secon most expensive hat cost? ③表示“最高程度”的形容词,如 excellent、extreme、perfect 等,没有最高级,也不能用比较级。 ④形容词最高级修饰作表语或介词宾语的名词、代词时,被修饰的词往往省略。如: He is the tallest(boy)in his class. ⑤作状语的副词最高级前可以不加定冠词。如: Of all the boys he came(the)earliest. (5)形容词和副词前面使用冠词的情况。 ①形容词最高级前一般要加定冠词,副词最高级前可不加冠词。 ②形容词最高级前有时加不定冠词,或不加冠词,不表比较,表示“非常” 。如: He is a most clever young policeman.(a most=very) The film is most interesting.(most=very) ③表示两者间“较??的一个”比较级前加 the。如: who is the older of the tow boys? ④在“the + 比较级?,the + 比较级?”结构中。 ⑤在 same 前一般要加 the。 ⑥有些形容词前加 the 成为名词。如 the poor、the rich 等。

(6)由 as / so 组成的形容词或副词短语。 ① as much as + 不可数名词数量。 Each stone weighs as much as fifteen tons. She could earn as much as ten dollars a week. ②as many as + 可数名词数量 多达 I have as a many as sixteen referrence books. ③as early as 早在 As early as the twelfth century the English began to invade the island. ④as far as 远到;就??而知(论) We might go as far as (走到)the church and back. As far as I know(就我所知) ,he has been there before. ⑤may (might, could)as well 不妨、不如 Then you might as well stay with us here. ⑥as ? as can be 到了最??的程度,极其 They are as unreliable as they can be.他们极其不可信。 ⑦as ? as one can He began to run, as fast as he could. ⑧as ? as possible Just get them to finish up as quickly as possible. (7)几组重要的词语辨析。 ①very 和 much 的区别。 (A)可分等级的形容词和副词前使用 very 不用 much。(B)表示状态的过去分词前 用 very。a very frightened boy, a very tired child, a very complicated problem, 一般的情况下,以-ing、-ed 结尾 的 分 词 多 用 much 、 very much / greatly 等 修 饰 。 如 : We were greatly shocked by the news about Tom. I was much amused by Jack’s attitude。(C)已转化为形容词的 现在分词前用 very 。如: very interesting / worrying / exicting 。 ( D ) too 前用 much 或 far, 不用 very 。 You are much / far / a lot too nice. 另 外 , 在 too many / much, too few / little 前 用 far 。 There ’ s far too little opportunity for adventue these days.We ’ ve got far too many eggs and far too few egg cups. ( E ) 关于原级形容词要记住下列固定的修饰结构: ( a ) 修 饰 绝 对 意 义 的 形 容 词 , 一 般 不 用 very, 而 用 quite completely、 well、 entirely。 如: quite wrong(mistaken, sure)、 completely dead、 quite impossible、 quite perfect 等 。 ( b ) 修 饰 以 a- 开 头 的 形 容 词 , 多 有 特 殊 的 修 饰 词 : quite alone, very much alone, wide awake, fast asleep, very much afraid。(c)修饰一些特殊形容词的修饰语有: be well worth, much the same, freezing cold, quite different, terribly cold / frightening。 ②so ? that ? 与 such ? that ? 的区别。 so + 形容词 / 副词 + that ? so + 形容词 + a(n)+ 单数可数名词 + that ? so + many / much / little / few + 名词 + that ? such + a(n)+ 形容词+单数可数名词 + that ? such + 形容词 + 不可数名词 + that ? such + 形容词 + 复数名词 + that ? 注意:下列结构中只能用 so 不可用 such,当名词前有 many、much、little、few 等表示“多、少”的词修饰 时,如 so much progress、so many people、so little food、so few apples 等。但当 little 表示“小”时用 such。 如 : These are such little boys that they can ’ t dress themselves. 下 列 so a diffcult problem,so difficult problems, so hot weather。 ③其他几组词的辨析。 (A)ago、before:ago 表示以现在为起点的“以前” ;before 指以过去或将来的某时刻 so 的 用 法 是 错 误 的 :

为起点的“以前” 。泛指“以前”用 before 而不用 ago。 (B)already、yet、still:already 表示某事已经发生; yet 表示期待某事发生;still 表示某事还在进行,主要用于肯定句。 (C)too、 also、 either:too 和 also 用于肯定句, too 多用于口语, also 多用于书面语, either 用于否定句。 (D)good、 well:与 good 不同的是,well 作形容词,只能在系动词后作表语,表示“身体状况好” ,也作副词修饰动词。 (E)quick、fast:作形容词皆表“快” 。fast 多指运动的物体,含持续的意思。quick 多指一次动作的敏捷、突然, 而且持续的时间较短。(F)real、true:形容词表“真的” 。real 强调真实存在的而不是幻想的,在句中常作定 语;true 指与事实标准和实际情况相符合,在句中作表语或定语。(G)hard、difficult:均表“困难” ,但 hard 通常指体力上困难;difficult 则指智力或技能上的困难,困难程度大于 hard。它们都可作定语和表语。 选择填空 1. It is generally believed that teaching is ___________it is a science.(NMET 2001) A.an art much as B.much an art as C.as an art much as D.as much an art as 解析:答案为 D。本题可从考查形容词的同级比较点入手。在同级比较 as?as 句式中,如果 as 后面的形容 词作定语且其所修饰的名词前有不定冠词时,该冠词须置于形容词之后,即形成“as + 形容词 + a / an + 单 数可数名词 + as”结构。这道题在名词专题中也有解析,不同的是观察视角不同,应注意培养发散思维。 2. It is always difficult being in a foreign country, __________if you don’t speak the language.(NMET 2000) A.extremely B.naturally C.basically D.especially 解析:答案为 D。本题考查副词的词义辨析。注意掌握词语的准确含义,结合语境进行分析。A 项意为“极 端地” ;B 项意为“自然地” ;C 项“基本上” ;D 项“尤其,特别地” 。根据句意“如果你不会讲(它的)语 言,在国外你就总会困难重重”可知答案。 3. Professor White has written some short stories, but he is ______known for his plays.(NMET 1998) A.the best B.more C.better D.the most 解析:答案为 C。本题考查副词的比较级和最高级。要把握句式之间的联系,抓住句子的隐藏信息,结合 语境进行分析。根据句意,句中 but 后应有一词组 be well known for?。同时,应注意到前后两个分句把 professor White 的短篇小说和戏剧进行了对比,故应用 well 的比较级。 三、专项训练 形容词 1.This dictionary is_______of the two books. A.thicker B.thickest C.thick D.the thicker 2._______the hotel is,_______the service should be. A.The more expensive;the more better B.More expensive;the better C.The more expensive;the better D.More expensive;more better 3.-Do you enjoy listening to records? -I think records are often_______actual performance. A.as good as or better than an B.as good or better than a C.like good or better than an D.as good as any other 4.I’ll get there by six,if_______. A.not sooner B.no sooner C.not more quickly D.no quick 5.The bananas taste_______and sell_______. A.good;good B.well;well C.good;well D.well;good 6.Your plan proved_______. A.correctly B.to correct C.to be corrected D.correct

7.Wait!I have_______to tell you. A.something of use B.useful something C.something usefully D.something useful 8.The experiment is_______to be done again. A.worth B.worthy C.worthy of D.worth of 9._______as the maths problems is,I can work it out. A.Difficult B.Difficulty C.Difficulties D.Though difficult 10.My brother is_______a teacher,he is also a writer. A.no more than B.more than C.not more than D.less than 11.Now the prisoner felt_______without her family nor her friends. A.much more alone B.far more alone C.very more lonely D.even more lonely 12.-What can we do with the remaining money? -We’ve got to be_______and buy only what we need. A.really B.true C.practical D.practised 13.This is_______beautiful city I’ve ever visited. A.the most B.very C.the very D.a most 14.I felt so_______that I fell_______at once. A.sleepily;asleep B.sleepy;asleep C.sleepless;asleep D.sleepy;sleeping 15.You’d better keep the door_______and the window_______at night. A.shutting;opening B.shut;opening C.shut;opened D.shut;open 16.Mary is a_______pretty girl and Tom is a_______naughty boy. A.rather;rather B.fairly;fairly C.fairly;rather D.rather;fairly 17.Alice is_______,although she’s not nearly as old. A.as tall as she B.as tall as her C.as tall as hers D.tall as her 18.The music sounds_______. A.sweet and beautifully B.sweetly and beautiful C.sweetly and beautifully D.sweet and beautiful 19.The twins look very_______. A.like B.alike C.same D.likely 20.My brother is three years_______than I. A.smaller B.less C.younger D.elder 21.We have to wait for the_______notice. A.further B.father C.far D.farer 22.Open your eyes_______notice anyone entering the room. A.widely B.wide C.more wide D.more widely 23.The sun is believed to be_______the moon. A.very bigger than B.more brighter than C.much larger than D.more bright than 24.Africa is the second_______continent in the world. A.large B.larger C.more large D.largest 25.This kind of bike is cheaper than_______kind of bike in the shop. A.other B.any other C.another D.any of the bikes 26.This new type of TV set is very thin,and it is______than a one-hundred-page book.

A.no thinner B.no thicker C.not thinner D.less than 27.Mike is still_______with his work as he was when I saw him last. A.more careful B.the most careful C.as careful D.as carefully 28.-Are you going to the football game? -No,the tickets are_______for me. A.terrible expensive B.so much expensive C.far too expensive D.highly expensive 29.We still love our teacher_______. A.deep B.dear C.deeply D.high 30.Yesterday I bought a jacket but it was_______small. A.a little too B.too little C.very too D.too very 31.Last night we met with_______rain on our way home from our factory. A.a quite heavy B.too heavy a C.such heavy a D.a so heavy 32.The lecture was so_______that all the people in the hall were_______. A.moving;exciting B.moving;excited C.moved;moving D.moved;moved 33.After the flood,no house in the village_______. A.was left B.left standing C.remained standing D.was remained stood 34.The accident is_______fresh in my memory than when it happened. A.little B.a little C.no less D.more 35.I think this is_______I can do for you. A.bestly B.the best C.better D.good 副词 1.This one is_______too large,give me a smaller one. A.fairly B.very C.so D.rather 2.Don’t go out because it is raining_______. A.deeply B.thickly C.strongly D.heavily 3.You’ll be late for school if you don’t put on your clothes_______. A.quickly B.fast C.soon D.rapidly 4.Have you returned him the book_______? A.still B.yet C.also D.too 5.Prices for the new type DVD can run_______500 to 1000 dollars. A.so highly to B.so high as C.as high as D.as highly as 6.This is the best film I have_______seen. A.always B.never C.often D.ever 7.There is only a little time left.We had to run_______to catch the plane. A.hard B.hardly C.strongly D.well 8._______we get up before 10 o’clock. A.Never B.Seldom C.Sometimes D.Always 9.He used his car_______for going to the shops. A.most B.almost C.nearly D.mostly 10.Your grandmother is_______to need a doctor. A.too ill B.ill enough C.so ill D.enough ill 11.He said the TV set was_______than he wanted. A.fairly larger B.rather larger C.rather large D.fairly large

12.I don’t know him_______to ask for help. A.well enough B.good enough C.enough surely D.enough well 13.The speaker said_______nothing worth listening to. A.almost B.nearly C.hardly D.mostly 14.John_______told his teacher all about the matter. A.maybe B.probably C.possibly D.perhaps 15.Of all our school activities,I like dancing_______. A.most B.best of all C.best D.all the best 16.Our physics professor went_______two days ago. A.to abroad B.in abroad C.to the abroad D.abroad 17.-Where is Li Ping? -He is working_______. A.upstairs B.in upstairs C.at the upstairs D.for the upstairs 18.Smoking is so bad for his health that he doesn’t smoke_______. A.no longer B.no more C.any longer D.any more 19.We must leave at once,_______we’ll miss the train. A.so B.then C.otherwise D.and 20.We don’t know much about mathematics_______. A.too B.neither C.also D.either 21.He is_______thinking of how to make more money. A.always B.usually C.often D.ever 22.What do you know the strike broke_______for? A.up B.out C.down D.on 23.It is_______that his article is_______perfect. A.sure;very B.right;rather C.certain;quite D.exact;fairly 24.-Is the bus stop far from here? -It’s a quarter’s walk,_______. A.more and more B.and so on C.all together D.more and less 25.The sports shoes are_______for me. A.a little too small B.a little small to C.too small a little D.too a little small 26.-Do you regret paying five hundred dollars for the painting? -No,I would gladly have paid_______for it. A.twice so much B.twice as much C.as much twice D.so much twice 27._______,the medical team is made up of twelve doctors. A.Altogether B.Entirely C.Completely D.Wholly 28.I don’t often get sick,but_______I do catch cold. A.here and there B.again and again C.now and then D.over and over 29.When you drive home,you can’t be_______careful. A.very B.too C.so D.only 30.Though he failed in the experiment,_______he didn’t give up. A.but B.and yet C.yet D.still


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