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构词法及练习


高中英语构词法讲解与练习 一.类别 英语构词法主要有:合成法,转化法,派生法,混成法, 截短法和词首字母缩略法。 二.定义 1.转化法 英语中,有的名词可作动词,有的形容词可作副词或动词,这 种把一种词性用作另一种词性而词形不变的方法叫作转化法。 1) 动词转化为名词

② 某些形容词如 old, young, poor, rich, wounded, inj

ured 等与 the 连用,表示一类人,作主语时,谓语用复数如下,如: The old in our village are living a happy life.

2.派生词 前缀 含义 词根 dislike (不喜欢) fair (公平) legal (合法的) unfair (不公平) illegal (非法的) 派生词 dis不 like

(喜欢) unilinimirnonen不 不;无 不;非 非 不;非 无;非 使

① 很多动词可以转化为名词,大多数情况下,意思没有多 大的变化,如: Let's go out for a walk. ② 有时意思有一定变化,如: He is a man of strong build.他是一个体格健壮的汉子。 ③ 有的与一个动词和不定冠词构成短语,表示一个动作,如: Let's have a swim. 2)名词转化为动词 ① 很多表示物件,如 Did you book a seat on the plane? ② 身体部位,如: Please hand me the book. ③ 某类人的名词可以用作动词来表示动作,如: She nursed her husband back to health. ④ 某些抽象名词也可作动词。如: We lunched together. 3)形容词转化为动词 有少数形容词可以转化为动词。如: We will try our best to better our living conditions. 4)副词转化为动词 有少数副词可以转化为动词。例如: Murder will out.(谚语)恶事终必将败露。 5)形容词转化为名词 ① 表示颜色的形容词常可转化为名词,如: You should be dressed in black at the funeral.

correct(正确的 incorrect (不正确的) possible (可能的 impossible (不可能的) regular (规则的) irregular (不规则的) smoker (烟民 non-smoker 不吸烟者) courage (勇气) head (头) encourage (鼓励) forehead (前额) international (国际

for- 前;预先

inter- 在……之间 national (国家的) 的) kilo千 meter (米)

kilometer (千米)

micro- 微量的; 微小的 computer (计算机) microcomputer (微 机) midmis在…中间 autumn (秋天) mid-autumn (中秋) 错误地 understand (理解) misunderstand (误解) overhead (在头顶

over- 在…上,过分;超过 head (头) 上的) re再;重;又 半 build (修建) circle (圆)

rebuild (重建) semicircle (半圆)

seimi-

一、构成名词的后缀: 1.后缀-er / -or 表示 ―…的人; 供做…的 物‖, 如: islander, bottle-opener, thinker, writer, learner, passenger, designer, photo copier 2.后缀–ist 表示 ―做…的人; …家; …主义者‖, 如: communist 共产 主义者, Marxist 马克思主义者, socialist 社会主义者, pianist 钢琴 家, typist 打字员, journalist 记者 3.后缀–ism 表示 ―…主义; ..学说; …行为; …状态‖, 如: socialism

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社会主义, Marxism 马克思主义, tourism 旅游业 4.后缀-ness, 如: darkness, carelessness, gentleness, kindness, business, sadness 5.后缀-ing, 如: sightseeing, feeling, painting, finding, saving, earning, meaning, tra ining, belonging, greeting 6.后缀–tion, 如: invitation, invention, pronunciation, composition, contribution, collection, situation 7.后缀–sion, 如: expression, impression, procession, permission 8.后缀–ment, 如: government, movement, development, equipment, announcement, punishment, treatment 9.后缀–ship 表示 ―…的状态; …的技能; …术‖, 如: friendship, partnership 伙伴关系, seamanship 航海术, hardship 困 苦, readership 读者群, scholarship 会员身份, ownership 所有制 10.后缀–hood 表示身份, 资格, 时间, 集体, 状态, 如: brotherhood 兄弟般的关系, likelihood 可能性, neighborhood 邻里, childhood 童年时代, boyhood 少年时代, girlhood 少女时代 11.后缀–ity, 如: reality 现实, ability 能力, activity 活动, possibility 可能性, regularity 正规, nationality 国籍, disability 残疾, minority 少数 12.后缀–ence, 如: difference 区别, existence 存在, silence 沉 默, occurrence 事件, reference 提及, conference 会议 13.后缀-ance, 如: appearance 出现, performance 表演, acceptance 接受, assistance 帮助, distance 距离 14.后缀-ure, 如: pleasure 快乐, failure 失败, exposure 暴 露, closure 关闭, mixture 混合, gesture 姿势 15.后缀–ess 表示女性或雌性, 如: hostess 女主人, mistress 主 妇, lioness 雌狮子, waitress 女服务员 16.后缀–th, 如: truth 真理, strength 力量, length 长度, growth 成 长, depth 深度 17.后缀–al, 如: removal 除去, survival 幸存, proposal 建议, trial 试验, approval 承认 18.后缀–ant 表示 ―做…事的人或物‖, 如: accountant 会 计, applicant 申请者, consultant 请教者, servant 服务员, assistant

助手, expectant 期待者 19.后缀–ee 表示 ―受…者,…行为者‖, 如: employee 受雇者, payee 收款人, referee 受委托者, appointee 被任命者 20.后缀–eer 表示 ―与…有关者, 从事…者‖, 如: volunteer 自愿 者, profiteer 不当得利者, racketeer 诈骗者 21.后缀-ful 表示 ―满量‖, 如: basketful 一篮, handful 一 把, houseful 满屋子 22.后缀–ese 表示 ―…的人, …语‖, 如: Japanese, Cantonese 广东 人, Vietnamese 越南人, Viennese 维也纳人 二、构成形容词的后缀: 1.后缀–ful 表示―充满…的, 有…性质的‖, 如: careful, useful, helpful, hopeful, powerful, painful, merciful 2.后缀–less 表示―无; 不做; 能‖, 如: careless, hopeless, fatherless 丧父的, harmless, rainless, countless 无数的, speechless 无言的 3.后缀–able 表示―能够; 适于…; 值 得…‖, 如: eatable, acceptable, laughable 可笑的, comfortable 4.后缀–ible 表示―可(被)…的; 能…的‖, 如: responsible 有责任 的, permissible 可允许的, divisible 可分的, possible 可能的 5.后缀–ic 表示―与…有关的; 像…的; 由…产生的‖, 如: heroic 英 雄的, historic 有历史意义的, atomic 原子的, energetic 精力旺盛 的, electric 电的 6.后缀–ive 表示―拥有…的性质; 有…的倾向‖, 如: inventive 发明 的, imaginative 富有想象力的, sensitive 敏感的, effective 有效 的, expressive 表情丰富的 7.后缀–ous 表示―具有…的; 多…的; 有…特性 的‖, 如: various, nervous, continuous 连续的, poisonous 有毒 的, anxious, mountainous 多山的, dangerous, courageous 英勇的 8.后缀–y 表示―有…的; 由…构成, 似…的; 有点的‖, 如: healthy, wealthy, rainy, windy, silky, greedy, smelly 有臭味的 9.后缀–ly 表示―像…的; 有…性质的; 反复发生的‖, 如 : friendly, motherly 母亲似的, manly 在男子气的, monthly 每月的 10.后缀–ant 表示―有…性质的‖, 如: important, distant, ignorant 无 知的 11.后缀–ent 表示―…的态‖, 如: different,

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independent, impatient, frequent 经常的, excellent 极好的 12.后缀–en 表示―由…制的‖, 如: wooden, woolen 羊毛的, golden

拿大的, Australian 澳大利亚的, Mexican 墨西哥 的, American, European 欧洲的 三、构成动词的后缀:

(1)合 成 名 词 构成方式 名词+名词 名词+动词 名词+动名词 名词+及物动词+er/or 名词+介词+名词 动词+名词 动名词+名词 现在分词+名词 形容词+名词 副词+动词 介词+名词 金的 13.后缀–ern 表示方向, 如: western, eastern, northern, southern 14.后缀–al 表示―像…的; 与…有关的‖, 如: personal, electrical 电 的, cultural, natural, national 15.后缀–ish 表示―似…的; …的‖, 如: selfish 自私的, childish 似孩 童的, foolish 16.后缀–like 表示―像…的‖, 如: childlike 孩子般天真的, godlike 上帝般的, lifelike 栩栩如生的 17.后缀–ary 表示―与…有关的; …的‖, 如: revolutionary 革命 的, imaginary 虚构的, momentary 瞬间的, primary 首要 的, ordinary 普通的 18.后缀–ed 表示―有…的; 特有…的‖, 如: skilled 有技术 的, talented 有天赋的, wooded 林木茂密的 19.后缀–some 表示―易于…的, 有…倾向的; 产生… 的‖, 如: lonesome 寂寞的, handsome 英俊的, tiresome 讨厌 的, fearsome 可怕的, burdensome 沉重的 20.后缀–an 表示―…的, 与…有关的, …风格的‖, 如: Canadian 加 例词 weekend 周末 daybreak 黎明 handwriting 书法 pain-killer 止痛药 editor-in-chief 总编辑 typewriter 打字机 reading-room 阅览室 flying-fish 飞鱼 gentleman 绅士 outbreak 爆发 afternoon 下午

1.后缀–ize / -ise 表示―使成为, 使能够, 作…处理‖, 如: realize 实 现, industrialize 工业化, mechanize 机械化, nationalize 使国有 化, revolutionize 使革命化, modernize 使现代化 2.后缀–ify 表示―使成为…的; 使…化‖, 如: beautify 美化, terrify 使惊吓, electrify 电气化, magnify 放大 3.后缀–en 表示―使有, 使得‖, 如: strengthen 加强, deepen 加 深, darken 使变黑, shorten 使变短, fasten 扎牢 lengthen 4.后缀–ate 表示―使, 作为…‖, 如: activate 使活动, motivate 激 发, liberate 解放, separate 分开, hibernate 冬眠 四、构成副词的后缀: 1.后缀-ly, 如: really, simply, happily, publicly, happily, lastly, lately, excitedly 2.后缀–ward 表示方向, 如: upward, inward, westward, homeward, backward

3.合成法

(2)合 成 形 容 词 构成方式 名词+形容词 名词+现在分词 名词+to+名词 名词+过去分词 数词+名词 数词+名词+形容词 数词+名词+ed 动词+副词 形容词+名词 形容词+名词+ed 形容词+形容词 形容词+现在分词 例词 snow-white 雪白的 English-speaking 讲英语的 face-to-face 面对面的 man-made 人造的 one-way 单行的 two-year-old 两岁的 five-storeyed 五层的 see-through 透明的 high-class 高级的 noble-minded 高尚的 light-blue 浅蓝色的 good-looking 相貌好看的

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副词+形容词 副词+现在分词 副词+过去分词 副词+名词 介词+名词

ever-green 常青的 hard-working 勤劳的 well-known 著名的 fast-food 专门提供快餐服务的 downhill 下坡的

截短法,即将单词缩写,词义和词性保持不变,主要有截 头、去尾、截头去尾等形式。 1)截头 telephone→phone aeroplane→plane omnibus→bus

(3)合 成 动 词 构成方式 名词+动词 形容词+动词 副词+动词 例词 sleep-walk 梦游 white-wash 粉刷 overthrow 推翻

2)去尾 mathematics→maths co-operate→co-op examination→exam kilogram→kilo laboratory→lab taxicab→taxi

(4)合 成 副 词 3)截头去尾 构成方式 形容词+名词 形容词+副词 副词+副词 介词+名词 介词+副词 例词 hotfoot 匆忙地 everywhere 到处 however 尽管如此 beforehand 事先 forever 永远 influenza→flu refrigerator→fridge prescription→scrip 5.混合法(混成法) 混合法, 即将两个词混合或各取一部分紧缩而成一个新词。 后半部分表示主体;前半部分表示属性。 news broadcast→newscast 新闻广播 (5)合 成 代 词 构成方式 代词宾格+self 物主代词+self 形容词+名词 例词 herself 她自己 myself 我自己 anything 任何东西 television broadcast→telecast 电视播送 smoke and fog→smog 烟雾 helicopter airport→heliport 直升飞机场 6.首尾字母缩略法 首尾字母缩略法,即用单词首尾字母组成一个新词。读音主要 有两种形式,即各字母分别读音;作为一个单词读音。 (6)合 成 介 词 构成方式 副词+名词 介词+副词 副词+介词 4.截短法(缩略法) 例词 inside 在……里面 within 在……之内 into 进入 very important person→VIP (读字母音)要人;大人物 television→TV (读字母音)电视 Testing of English as a Foreign Language→TOEFL 托福 Public English Test System --- PETS 三.巩固练习 I.单项选择

1. That man was ________enough not to tell the manager that he would not do the job. A. care 第 4 页 共 30 页 B. careful C. careless D. carelessness

2. The soldier died for saving the child,so his________ is heavier than Mount Tai. A. die B. dead C. died D. death

15. My TV is out of order. Can you tell me what is the________news about Iraq War? A. lately B. latest C. later D. latter

3. The child looked ____at his brother who was badly wounded. A. sadly B. sadness C. sadly D. sad

16. The Great Wall is more than 6000 li in ________. A. longer B. length C. long D. longing

4. He is an expert at chemistry. We all call him a ________. A. chemistry B. chemical C. chemist D. physician

17.To my ________,I passed the exam easily. A. joy B. joyful C. joyless D. joyness

5.The three- ________chair isn‘t suitable for a young child. He may fall off. A. legging B. legged C. legs D. leged

18. Canada is mainly an________country. A. English-speaking C. spoken-English B. speak-English D. English-spoken

6. Stephenson became the______railway engineer in the world. A. lead B. leader C. leading D. leadership

19. How________ he is! He is always acting________.He is really a ________. A. foolish;foolishly;fool C. foolish;fool;fool B. fool;foolish;fool D. foolishly;foolish;fool

7.When the teacher praised him for working out the maths problem,Jack looked________about at his classmates. A. proud B. proudly C. pride D. pridely

20. The necklace that she lost is very expensive. It‘s of great ______. A. valuable B. value C. valueless D. unvaluable

8.To everyone‘s _____,the girl finished the job quite well. A. satisfied B. satisfactory C. satisfying 9.—What are you doing here? —Oh,my teacher asked me to write a passage about ________in English. —You can write________passage in English? A. 600 words;a 600-words B. 600-word;a 600-words C. 600 words;a 600-word D. 600 words;a 600-words D. satisfaction

21. There were________fish in the river in South America. A. in danger B. danger C. dangerous D. dangerless

22.The letter ―b‖ in the word ―doubt‖ is________. A. sound B. silent C. silence D. sounded

23. The child looked at me________. A. stranger B. strangely C. strange D. strangeless

24.The black people were against slavery and fought for their________bravely. A. free B. freely C. freedom D. frees

10. No one should enter the spot without the______of the police A. permit B. permission C. permitting D. permittence

11. You must come with us to the police ________.Our head is waiting for you. A. headquarters B. headline C. headmaster D. headache

25. What you said sounded________ but in fact it was untrue. A. reasonable B. reasonful C. reasonless D. unreason

26. We have to learn ________technology from other countries. A. advance B. advancing C. advantage D. advanced

12.Letting that animal escape was no accident ; you did it _______.A. intend B. intention C. intentionally D. intentional

27. The children live in a village ________.They come here almost every day. A. nearby B. near C. nearly D. near by

13. The shop owner welcomed all the guests with a_______smile. A. practice B. practice C. practical D. practiced

14. The________ordered him to pay a $100 fine. A. judger B. judgment C. judgeD. judgement

28.Mr Black is an ________in the army,not an ________in the government. You can not easily find him in his________. A. official;officer;office 第 5 页 共 30 页 B. officer;office;official

C. official;official;official

D. officer;official;office

4.However, most of our ideas about the futures are really very short-sighted, perhaps we can see some possibilities for the next fifty years. But the next hundred? the next thousand…? 5. Don‘t listen to his nonsense. A. foolish talk; meaningless words B.beautiful words C. clever talk; meaningful word 6.She clocked 23.5 seconds in the women‘s 200-metre finals. 7.The mountain areas in the south are heavily forested. 8.As they walked along they saw the fog thickening and he thickness of the fog made them unable to see anything. 9.The guest was exceptionally received. 10.Because of the storm, the valley was impassable. 11.In most cases you can transplant a tree successfully at any time. 12.When a wise person misuses his wisdom, he will do great harm to society. 13.If you can spare two or three hours a day, break them up

29.You‘d better give up smoking if you want to keep ________. A. health B. healthy C. healthily D. healthier

30.________ speaking,I didn‘t do it on purpose. A. Honestly B. Honest C. Honesty D. Dishonest

31.It sounds like a good plan,but there are some________difficulties in carrying it out. A.practiced B.practical C.practice D.practicing

32.His father possesses a________factory,which does most of the pollution to this river. A.paper-make B.paper-making

C.papers-made D.paper-made 33.Marx left his homeland for some________reasons. A.politically B.politics C.political D.politician

34.It‘s____to persuade him to give up smoking.He‘s very stubborn. A.possible B.possibly C.impossible D.impossibility 35.Dan caught two________birds in the wood last week and they are still________in the cage. A.alive;live B.live;live C.live;alive D.alive;alive

into some periods to avoid brain overload. 14.The athlete cheated in the Olympic Games by taking some forbidden drugs. His behavior was a dishonor to his country. 15.Exhibition officials said that a person bitten by one of these snakes would need at least 80ml of an anti-poison medi cine to be saved. 16.Iran quake leaves city flattened. 17.. When men and women lived by hunting 50,000 years ago, how could they even begin to picture modern life? 18.. The aging of population will affect American society in many ways----education, medicine and business. 19.. …Lions are opportunists. They prefer to eat without havi ng to do too much work. … If another animal has made a kill, they will drive it off and take the kill for themselves. By describing lions as ―opportunist‖ in the first paragraph, the author means to say that lions____.

36.The doctor said that the old man‘s condition was_____and that they had tried their best. A.hope B.hoped C.hopeful D.hopeless

37.Ann felt so________that she could hardly open her eyes. A.sleepy B.asleep C.sleep D.sleeping

38.We stood there________at the________sight. A.frightened;frightful C.fright;frightening B.frightening;frightful D.frightful;fright

39.The doctor‘s advice________him from drinking and smoking. A.encouraged II.词义猜测 The colors of Hawaii in summer are unforgettable. 1.Our soldiers won a decisive victory in the battle. 2.That country is underdeveloped and the living conditions are rather low. 3.Colourful wall-paper would brighten(up)the room. B.couraged C.encouragement D.discouraged

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A. are cruel animals

B. are clever animals

highly developed senses. Drops in air pressure(压力) produce an effect on small animals in many ways. Mice and deer are good weather indicators. The word―indicators‖in paragraph I probably means . A. maps B.services C.signs D.stations

C. like to take advantage of other animals D. like to take every chance to eat 20.. Some children are natural-born bosses. They have a strong need to make decisions, manage their environment, and lead rather than follow. …―Examine the extended family, and you‘ll probably find a bossy grandparent, aunt, uncle or cousin in every generation. It‘s an inheritable trait,‖ said Russell Barkley, a professor… The underlined phrase ―inheritable trait‖ in Paragraph 2 means ___.

30. The house can house many people. 31. The machine can can a can of fish in five seconds. 32. With your nothing-can-be-done attitude, you can‘t hope to achieve anything. 33.Can you can a can in a can as a canner can can a can? Canners can can what they can can but can not can things that can't be canned

21. He was performing before a packed home and his technique was unbelievable, his tone was wonderful and his audience deeply loved him. 22. However, most of our ideas about the future are nearly very short-sighted. Perhaps we can see some possibilities for the next fifty years. 23. Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? 24 It's a quiet, comfortable hotel overlooking (俯瞰) the bay in an uncommercialized Cornish fishing village on England's most southernly point. 25. Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well – designed tools and equipment will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward ( 别 扭 的 ) hand positions. 26. We live in a technological society where most goods are mass-produced by unskilled labor. Because of this, most people that craft (手艺) no longer exists. 27. The other teams, disappointed, were on the bus heading home. 28. I had first known she was wrong, that her anxiety had clouded her judgment. 29. When people want to know about the weather, they usually go to there radios, TVs, newspapers, or to the Internet. However, you can also find many weather signs among wildlife, because of their

19. With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence. 20. The advance of science is unstoppable. 21. A: Are you having breakfast or lunch? brunch. 22. Yesterday I spent the whole day papering the walls. 猜测词义题 一.2012 年高考大纲中关于阅读理解的要求: 要求考生读懂 熟悉的有关日常生活话题的简短文字材料,例如公告、说明、 广告以及书、报、杂志中关于一般性话题的简短文章。考生应 能: 1、理解主旨要义; 2、理解文中具体信息; 3、根据上下文推断生词的词义; 4、作出简单判断和理解; 5、理解文章的基本结构; 6、理解作者的意图和态度。 二.在阅读理解中,猜测词义、句义题的特点是:对生词、短 语、指示代词和句子意思的考查。 常用设问形式: 1. The underlined word"..."refers to (means) ____. 2. Which of the following words can take the place of the word"..."? 3. Which of the following has the closest meaning B: Oh, I am having

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to...(paragraph...)? 4. The word ―…‖ is most likely to mean ______. 5. What do you think the expression ―…‖ stands for? 三.猜测词义题目类型 1. 对考纲外生词的猜测 2. 对考纲内熟词新义的猜测 3. 对句义的猜测 4. 考查代词 四.常用解题方法 1. 释义法: 定义或释义关系,常由定语从句或 is, be called,be known as, be defined as 等词汇或破折号来表示;或由 that is (to say), in other words, to put it another way 引出一些具体的解释性 的短语解释生词。 2. 对比关系:常用 but, however, yet, otherwise, while, though, on the one hand…on the other hand, for one thing…for another thing, instead of 等。 3. 因果关系:常用关联词 because,as,since,for,so,thus, as a result, so, so … that, such … that, therefore 等表示前因后果。 4. 举例法:常用 such as, like,for example, for instance 等引出 例子,可根据例子隶属的类别归纳出总称词即词义。 5. 重述: or, that is ( to say ), in other words, to put it another way 6. 同义词、 反义词: 由 and 或 or, like, similarly, as …as, the same as 等连接的两个词构成同义关系;表转折关系的词常有如 but, while, however, instead of, rather than, unlike, yet, otherwise, though, on the contrary 等。 7. Word Formation 构词法: 词根是单词最基本的部分, 表达单 词的基本含义。在词根前或后加上前缀或后缀,可以用来引申 或转变原词的意义。中学高频词缀: super- (超) 小的 , 微小的 ) micro- (极微小的) mini- (极 ......

的常识将生词推测出来。 因此平时多了解英美国家的风俗习 惯,宗教信仰,社会生活等,可以帮助加深对文章的理解。 9. 代词替代法:一般来讲,代词的指代的内容多在这一句话的前 后句中。找到指代的内容后把它放在那个代词的位置上,看一 看这句话是否下前后的内容一致, 后再判定它是否为正确答案。 总结:猜测句子含义题涉及选材背景、句型结构、文章主旨、 作者观点态度等方面。联系主旨,整合上下文信息是解这类题 的关键。 首先,要确认所要求猜测句义的句子在文中的位置; 其次,审读题干,确认猜测点。 第三,整合上下文信息,确认猜测点与语境之间的关系。 第四,猜测句子的大致意思。最后,比较选择项,确定答案。 所谓―词不离句,句不离章‖讲的就是对于词语或句子的正确理 解依赖于一定的情景。猜测生词义或句意时, 一定要认真读懂 与生词密切相关的前后句子,进行合情合理的推测,排除肤浅 的表义,选择蕴含在其中的深意。 小试身手: Can you guess the meanings of the following words? 1. He is a resolute man. Once he makes up his mind to do something, he won‘t give it up halfway. A. strong B. firm C. kind D. clever

2. The official asked the man what his occupation was. The man told him that he worked as an engineer. A. job B. study C. name D. interest

3. The old woman has a strange habit to keep over 100 cats in her house. Her neighbors all call her an eccentric lady. A. 爱猫的 B. 古怪的 C. 闲不住的 D. 动物保护主义者 4. In many countries there are two financial extremes, from penury to great wealth. A. 便士 B. 温饱 C. 赤贫 D. 虚弱

re- (再,反复 )

mis-(误,恶) im-(不) un-(不,非) in-(不,非)non(不, 非) -able (能…的 ) -less (不, 无) -wards (向) (内部的,里面的) 资格;权力;性质) co-(共同) inner-

5. Mrs. Smith is loquacious while her husband is the silent type. A. lovely B. talkative C. active D. shy

sino-(中国) -ship(身份;

6. Those newcomers were not used to the life in the suburbs which was so different from that inside the city. A. town B. capital C. countryside D. house

trans-(超越;转换) , -hood(状态;性

质;时期)anti-(反;防) 8. 生活常识:根据自身的直接或间接的经验,或运用自己已有

7. This boy is not stupid, on the contrary, no one could be more

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intelligent. A. 勤奋的 B. 愚蠢的 C. 聪明的 D. 调皮的

youngest, until the situation is changed by a new arrival. 63. The underlined part ― in a different family‖ means ―________‖. A. in a different family environment B. in a different family tradition C. in different family crises D. relaxingly (4) 2012 天津卷 D 篇 D. in different families You are given many opportunities in

8. As you are receiving my note by e-mail, it‘s wise to remember how easily this wonderful technology can be misused, sometimes unintentionally, with seriously bad results. A. unpurposely B. purposely C. jokingly

9. Because of the shortage, some people say unqualified pilots are being allowed to fly planes. They fear the number of crashes will skyrocket. A. increase greatly C. happen immediately 高考真题: (1) 2012 辽宁卷 B 篇 Astronauts on shorter shuttle missions (使 B. appear suddenly D. decrease greatly

life to choose to be a victim or creator. When you choose to be a victim, the world is a cold and difficult place. ―They‖ did things to you which caused all of your pain and suffering. ―They‖ are wrong and bad, and life is terrible as long as ―they‖ are around. 51. What does the word ―they‖ in Paragraph 1 probably refer to? A. People and things around you. C. Creators and their choices. (5) 2011 湖北卷 B 篇 B. Opportunities and problems. D. Victims and their sufferings.

命) often work very long days. Tasks are scheduled so tightly that break times are often used to finish the day‘s work. This type of schedule is far too demanding for long missions on the International Space Station (ISS). ISS crewmembers usually live in space for at least a quarter of a year. They work five days on the two days off to mimic the normal way they do things on Earth as much as possible. 60. What does the word ―mimic‖ in Paragraph 1 probably mean? A. Find B. Copy C. Change D. Lose

Howling, interestingly, is a contagious

behavior.When one wolf starts to howl, very likely others will follow.This is often seen to occur in the morning, as if wolves were doing some sort of ―roll call‖ where wolves all howl together to report their presence. 58.―Howling… is a contagious behavior‖(in the last paragraph) means_______. A.howling is a signal for hunting B.howling is a way of communication C.howling often occurs in the morning D.howling spreads from one to another (6) 2009 湖北卷 A 篇 One day in 1918, my Uncle Milton

(2) 2012 浙江卷 A 篇

Easter (复活节) is still a great day for

worship, candy in baskets and running around the yard finding eggs, but every year it gets quite a bit worse for bunnies. And no, not because the kids like to pull their ears. The culprit is climate change, and some researchers found that rising temperatures are having harmful effects on at least five species of rabbit in the US. 42. The word ―culprit‖ is closest in meaning to ______. A. criminal B. judge C. victim D. producer

received his draft notice. My grandparents were very upset. But my mother, at the age of 10, felt on top of the world about her soldier brother going off to war. Realizing how he was regarded by his little sister and all of her friends, my uncle bought them all service pins, which meant that they had a loved one in the service. All the little girls were delighted. ks5u 52. The underlined phrase ―draft notice‖ means ―______‖. A. order for army service C. letter of rejection (7)2008 湖北卷 B. train ticket for Europe D. note of warning Parents who find older children bullying

(3) 2012 湖北卷 D 篇

How is it that siblings(兄弟姐妹)

can turn out so differently? One answer is that in fact each sibling grows up in a different family. The firstborn is, for a while, an only child, and therefore has a completely different experience of the parents than those born later. The next child is, for a while, the

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younger brothers and sisters might do well to replace shouting and punishment by rewarding and giving more attention to the injured ones. It‘s certainly much easier and more effective. 67. According to the passage, the underlined word ―bullying‖ is closest in meaning to―_______‖. A. helping (8)2008 湖 北 卷 B. punishing C. hurting D. protecting

1. 2006年全国卷 I

B

poured from the back of car. I stopped and wondered what I should do. … 61. The words ―took off‖underlined in paragraph 2 mean _______ A. turned offf B. moved off C. put up D. set up 2. 2006年北京卷 B

One morning a few years ago, Harvard

President Neil Rudenstine overslept. For this busy man, it was a sort of alarm: after years of non-stop hard work, he might wear himself out and die an early death. 73. The ―alarm‖ in the first paragraph refers to ―_______‖. A. a signal of stress C. a sign of age B. a warning of danger D. a spread of disease because Dad was unable to work. I had no money for school supplies and often couldn‘t even buy food for dinner. I would sit in class feeling completely lost, the teacher‘s words muffled as I tried to figure out how I was going to manage.… 61. What can we learn from the underlined sentence? A. Kerrel couldn‘t understand her teacher. B. Kerrel had special difficulty in hearing. C. Kerrel was too troubled to focus on the lesson. D. Kerrel was too tired to hear her teacher‘s words. 3. 2006年上海卷 C…

(9)2008 湖北卷 Downing the last drop of an expensive famous brand H2O as well as remembering to throw the empty bottle in the recycling bin, makes you feel pretty good about yourself, right? It shouldn‘t. Even when the bottles are recycled, there are all kinds of other consequences of swallowing bottled water, says Melissa Peffers, the air-quality program manager for Environmental Defense. 77. In the first paragraph, the underlined sentence ―It shouldn‘t.‖ suggest that people _______. A. shouldn‘t feel pleased with finishing the water in the bottle B. shouldn‘t feel good about drinking an expensive brand H2O C. shouldn‘t be content with just recycling empty bottles D. shouldn‘t be satisfied with drinking only bottled water (10) 2008 湖北卷 ―My parents‘ generation never had bottled

Analyzing the law of the talion---an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth---William Ian Miller presents an original thinking over the concept of ―pay back.‖ 73. The word ―talion‖ in introducing the book Eye for an Eye is probably a concept of______. A. medicine B. trade C. avenging D. striving 4. 2006年天津卷 C -born bosses.They have a strong need to make decisions, manage their environment, and lead rather than follow. … Examine the extended family, and you‘ll probably find a bossy grandparent, aunt, uncle or cousin in every generation. It‘s an inheritable trait,‖ said Russell Barkley, a professor…

water,‖ says Isabelle Silverman, an Environmental Defense legal adviser. She has made a commitment to going bottle free. ―You don‘t need to fetch it home from the store, and it‘s cheaper,‖ she adds. 79. The underlined part ―going bottle free‖ (in Para. 4) means ―_______‖. A. making bottled water free B. abandoning bottled water

means _____.

C. recycling use water bottles D. providing free water contained 第 10 页 共 30 页

5. 2006年湖南卷 E

mathematical minds, including a French woman scientist who made a major advance in working out the problem, and...

such important magazines as partisan Review, she appeared as the symbol of American cultural life, trying hard to follow every new development, Sontag walked at the latest edges of world culture.

Which of the following best explains the meaning of the word "baffle" as it is used in the text? A. To encourage people to raise questions . B. To cause difficulty in understanding.

_____. A. was a symbol of American cultural life B. developed world literature, film and art C. published many essays about world culture D. kept pace with the newest development of world culture 6. William Shakespeare said. ―The web of our life is of a mingled yarn ( 纱 线 ) , good and ill together.‖ The underlined word ―mingled‖ in the last paragraph most probably means A.simple B.mixed C.sad .

C. To provide a person with an explanation. D. To limit people's imagination 10、 Kate was perplexed. She couldn't understand why Nadia did not like to speak. Then she realized that ... The underlined word "perplexed" probably means A. puzzled B. angry C. shocked D. serious

11、Finally, although some social science majors may still find it more difficult than their technically trained classmates to land the first job, recent graduates report that they don't regret their choice of study .The underlined word "land " in the last paragraph probably means A. keep for some time C. immediately start B. successfully get D. lose regretfully

D.happy

7. A child‘s birthday party doesn‘t have to be a hassle: it can be a basket of fun, according to Beth Anaclerio, an Evaston mother of two, ages 4and 18 months. What does the underlined word ―hassle‖ probably mean? A. a party designed by specialists B. a plan requiring careful thought C. a situation causing difficulty or trouble D. demand made by guests 8、After the construction work was completed in late 1997, a review of movements in nearby walls showed that the building was in better shape than had been thought before and the safety limit was raised to 35 millimetres before any action needs to be taken. What does the word "review" mean? A. observation C. discussion. B. description D. re-examination.

12.I had always traveled to Malaysia by plane or car, so this was the first time I was on a train. I did not relish the long train journey and had brought along a dozen magazines to read and reread. I looked about the train. There was not one familiar I sighed and sat down to read my Economics. Which of the following words can best take the place of the word ―relish‖ in the second paragraph? prepare for D. carry on A. choose B. enjoy C.

13. ―I would never have said to my mom, ?Hey, the new Weezer album is really great. How do you like it?‘‖ says Ballmer. ―There was just a complete gap in taste.‖Music was not the only gulf. From clothing and hairstyles to activities and expectations, earlier generations of parents and children often appeared to move in separate orbits. The underlined word gulf in Para.3 most

9 、 In 1963 a schoolboy came across the world's greatest mathematical problem: Fermat's Last Theorem( 定 理 ).First put forward by the French mathematician Pierre de Fermat in the seventeenth century ,the theorem had baffled and beaten the finest

probably means _________. A. interest B. distance C. separation D. difference

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14.When something goes wrong,it can be very satisfying to say, ―Well, it‘s so-and-so‘s fault.‖ or ―I know I‘m late,but it‘s not my fault;the car broke down.‖ It is probably not your fault,but once you form the habit of blaming somebody or something else for a bad situation,you are a loser. You have no power and could do nothing that helps change the situation. However, you can have great power over what happens to you if you stop focusing on whom to blame and start focusing on how to remedy the situation. This is the winner‘s key to success. The underlined word ―remedy‖ in Paragraph 1 is closest in meaning to ______ . C. improve D. consider

19.A poll of 1000 parents surveyed said their top concern was their daughters‘education. Girls tend to outperform boys in their education, and this may lead schools to assume all girls will do better than boys in study. The word ―outperform‖ A. get along well with C. do better than means ___.

B. fall behind

D. compete with

20.China‘s consumer price index (CPI), a measure of i nflation (通 货膨胀), rose by 0.6 percent since January 2009. The release of these numbers caused talk about possible inflation. How to translate the underlined word? A. 释放 B. 减轻 C. 发布 D.解除

A. avoid B. accept

9.When Andrea Peterson did her first teaching job, she faced the daunting task of creating a music program with almost no money for equipment or supplies . The underlined word ―daunting‖ means _______. A. challenging B. interesting C. creative D. easy-going

根据上下文推测各题中划线词的词义。 (1). John drives too fast,and he often drives in the middle of the street.He doesn't watch what the other cars are doing.He is a reckless driver. A.very careful C.very harmful B.very careless D.very harmless

15.Of course, the benefit of oxen is not limited to plowing. In fact, they are seen as ―boats on land‖ for their ability to carry loads. The words ―boats on land‖ underlined in Paragraph 2 refer to __ A. animals for carrying goods B. creatures for pulling plows C. treasures of the folk culture D. tools in the farming economy 17.Some family names were made by adding something to father‘s name. English- speaking people added –s or –son . For example, the Johnsons are descendants of John. A later generations B friends and relatives D. later sponsors

(2). The weather in Hawaii is always mild.It is pleasant and warm.There is usually a light wind to cool the air. natural D.rainy (3). A computer is a complex machine.It is not simple. A. simple B. complicated C. beautiful D. expensive (4). Children like to play with water.After it rains,they will walk in every puddle they can find. A. rainful C.snow B.water sitting in the street D.a small river B . very hot A.not

C. not too hot or too cold

C. colleagues and parterners

(5). Chicken pox can be very serious for a child who is not in good health . The child develops red spots , and feels hot and uncomfortable.A healthy child gets well quickly. A.a kind of animal B.a kind of food

18.My dad often developed the photos himself in our basement. I remember helping him. All the lights had to be turned out while we transferred the negatives from one pan to the other. It was a lot of fun for a small boy. What‘s the Chinese meaning of ―negatives‖? A.负的 B. 底片 C. 消极的 D. 拒绝的

C.a kind of childhood disease D.a lack of pure water

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(6). Ali showed the class a picture of him, his wife,and their baby.Pierre's family has lived in the east of Canada for two hundred years.Their ancestors came from France. A.family members from a long time ago B.grandparents and their grandchildren C. parents, grandparents and great-grandparents D.family members all living at the same time (7). Some Africans carve beautiful human and animal figures out of wood.They sell their carvings to stores and museums. A.draw B.beat C.heat D.cut

(16). Mr. Brown is an amateur photographer. He is an engineer. But in his free time he likes to take pictures.A. as a hobby B.for money C.as a job D.as work

(17). This small Christmas tree is made of plastic.It is not a real tree.It is artificial. A. beautiful B. not natural D.in an art museum

C. for a special holiday

(18). Some people like to keep a journal.They write in it every day. They write about what they did, what happened, and what they thought. A.a magazine about scientific research C.a sports magazine B.a textbook

(8). When an army officer gives a command, his men and women must fo1low it. A.comma B.order C.question D. present

D.a notebook about their daily activities (19). The kiwi lays the largest eggs in the world. The strange thing about the kiwi is that it cannot fly.

(9). The offspring of a pair of birds leave the nest when they are big enough to fly. A.children B.ancestors C.generations D.mates

A· a kind of fish C. a kind of rock

B.a kind of cat D.a kind of bird

(10). There is a stack of papers on Mr. Green‘s desk. A.piece B.balance C.mixture D.pile

(20). When the hurricane hit the coast, it blew down buildings and trees. A· the dry season C. high water B.a huge truck D.a powerful windstorm

(11). Please give me your recipe for this cake, so I can make it too. A.a dish C.a meal B.directions for cooking D.directions to your house

(12). The weather in Xiamen is hot and humid. A desert is dry. A.wet B.dry C.cold D.windy

(21). Whales and elephants are gigantic animals.No other animals can compare with them in size. A. small B.land C.sea D.huge

(13). Before a baby learns to walk, it has to crawl on the floor. A.walk on two feet B.fly

(22). Hundreds of years ago wild animals ranged over the continent of Europe. A. a kind A. lived and traveled C· ran B. arranged

C.sit in a chair D.move on the hands and knees (14). The scalp covers the head. Hair grows out of it. of hat B.the color of hair D.the skin on the head

D. made a loud sound

C.a cloth over the head

(23). After we paid the bill for our dinner we left a tip for the waiter. A· the very end of something C· information B.money for good service

(15). It is a mystery why some people can learn language very easily and others have great difficulty. A.something easy to understand B.something no one understands C.something beautiful D.something terrible

D. piece of advice

(24). Bananas, tomatoes, and potatoes are in the produce department of a supermarket. A. fruit and vegetable 第 13 页 共 30 页 B. crops

C. make or grow

D.agriculture

A.place in which you can see many mobile homes. B.mountain where you can get a good view of the valley. C.town which happens to be near the Banff National Park. D.restaurant where you can ask for some special kinds of food. 9. Another habit which can slow your reading is called subvocalization. In this case your lips do not move, but you will ―hear‖ each word in your head as you read silently. 4.根据对比关系猜测词义;当句中含有 but, however, yet, however, though, although, on the other hand, instead ,while, unlike, instead, rather than, on the contrary, in contrast with, despite, in spite of, 等表示转折意义的词时,前后句含有对比意 义,据此可以猜测生词词义。 1.Andrew is one of the most supercilious men I knew. His brother, in contrast, is quite modest. 2. Written language tends to be static, while spoken language constantly changes. 3. A child‘s birthday party doesn‘t have to be a hassle; it can be a basket of fun. What does the underlined word ―hassle‖ (paragraph 1) probably mean? (2002 年 NMET) A.a party designed by specialists B.a plan requiring careful thought C.a situation causing difficulty or trouble D.a demand made by guests 4.One idea about business is that it can be treated as a game of perfect information. Quite the reverse, business polite, life itself is games which we must normally play with very imperfect information. A. Quite right. C. Most unlike. B. Time enough. D. Just the opposite.

(25). Scientists predict that there will be 6.8 billion people in the world in the year 2015. A.study the future C.study the past B.say what will happen in the future D.say what happened in the past 阅读猜测词义十种方法 在阅读中,我们会经常遇到一些生词,需要根据上下文猜测它 们的词义。此类问题考查考生紧扣原文,根据上下文语境判断 单词、短语或短句意义的能力。 3.根据定义或解释猜测词义 这类定义或解释通常由生词后的同位语(从句)或定语从句引 出。 例:The modern age of medicine began with the stethoscope, an instrument for listening to a patient‘s heartbeat and breathing (1)Yet, shopkeepers may have to spend extra hours to deal with problems, such as shoplifter, who always take away things from the shop without paying for them. (2)The best football, basketball and tennis players can become professional that means they will have a career in sports and will get money when they play. (3)Kleptomania is an illness of the mind that gives a person the desire to steal. (4) The word ―lefty‖ means a person who uses his or her left hand for writing, eating and other jobs. ( 5 ) Doctors recommended that everyone exercise every day, particular those who spend many hours doing sedentary activities like reading, typing or sewing. (6 )A person who has the SARS (非典型肺炎)may have symptoms like coughing and a high temperature. 7. .Do you know what a ―territory‖ is ? A territory is an area that an animal ,usually the male, claims(声称)as its own. 8. Here is The Pines ,whose cook has developed a special way of mixing foreign food such as caribou ,wild boar ,and reindeer with surprising sauces . (2004 年福建 According to the passage ,The Pines is a .

5. Unlike the Unite States where many different nationalities make up the population, Japan‘s population is quite homogeneous. 6. Thousands of people got stuck in lifts. But no one panicked, we passed the time telling stories. 7. Most of us agreed; however, Gary dissented. 8. He is homely, not at all as handsome as his brother.

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9. In the past the world seemed to run in an orderly way. Now, however, everything seems to be in a state of turmoil. 3.根据因果关系猜测词义 原因的表示法 A. 并列连词: for, so B. 从属连词:because, since, now (that), as, so / such…that C. 介词短语:because of, on account of, as a result of, as a consequence of, thanks to , owing to, due to, for this reason, D. 动词短语 account for, result in+结果,result from +原因, lead to, cause, bring in, bring about E. 副词: therefore, thus, consequently, accordingly F.介词:for (doing) sth 1. I found I was paying too much attention to the job and thus sacrificing my study time. 2. It rained, so the football match was postponed. 3. …feel that since you are my superior , it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do . A.full of respect B.too confident and rude

5. Not every historic mansion, church, battle site, theatre and other public halls can be preserved. 6. We should, therefore, learn to choose our words carefully and use them accurately, or they will make our speech silly and vulgar. 7. Their friends laughed at them, and my sister felt wretched, very unhappy. 8. Before the main business of a conference begins the chairman usually makes a short preliminary(i. e. introductory)speech, or make a few preliminary remarks. In other words, he says a few things by way of introduction. 9.Most women in China ---educated and illiterated, urban and rural, the young and old-----work to earn an income in addition to maintaining their roles as housewives and mothers. 10. It will be very hard but also very brittle―that is , it will break easily.

5.根据同义词、近义词猜测词义 这类同义词、近义词或反义词往往有 and, or 等信息词作暗示。 1. In our competitive world of today, examinations have a highly selecting or filtering role. 2. The new tax law supersedes, or replaces, the law that

C.lacking in experience D.too shy and quiet 4.Since I could not afford to purchase the original painting, I bought a replica. An inexperienced eye could not tell the difference. 5. Pruning is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots,or young leaves.(2005 年江西卷) 4.根据同等关系猜测词义 表示同等关系的信息词有:and, or, namely, that‘s to say, in in other words, to be called, to mean, refer to, that is (to say), or, like, similar, to put it another way, to be precise 等。 1.His secret for a living and healthy life has been well publicized---no alcohol, no cigarette and no anger. 2. Pantomime refers to a short play in which no words are spoken. 3. Mr. Smith loves to talk, and his wife is similarly loquacious. 4. Millions of animals die each year on Us roads, the Highway administration reports. In fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat exist in the Us today. The main reason? Roadkill.

Was in effect last year. 3. Mother was tall, fat and middle-aged. The principal of the school was an older woman, almost as plump as mother, and much shorter. 4. Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? 6.根据经验或常识猜测词义 有时需要根据中学生应具备的基本知识或常识作出合理的推测 1. The heat of sun warms some ocean water. The surface of the water evaporates, forming a cloud of warm, wet air that moves upward. 2. Mrs. Kreamer, a victim of smoke, was unconscious(失去知觉 3. When a doctor performs an operation on a patient, he usually gives an aesthetic to make him unconscious, because he does not

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want his patient to feel pain or to know what is happening to him. 4. .Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold. 7. 根据上下文猜测词义 俗话说,―词不离句,句不离文‖。特定的上下文往往是推测词 义不可忽视的重要因素。 (1)A deaf and dump guy went into a hardware store to ask for some nails. (2) The climate of the west coast is the most moderate in Canada, summers are cool and fairly dry and winters are mild, cloudy and wet. Even in mid-winter, the temperature is usually above freezing. (3)All the houses in the city collapsed during the earthquake. (4)For people who live within a stone’s throw from the office to be late to work is unforgivable. (5)The conflagration was so fierce that with just a few second one could see towering flames where the house had stood and the smoke which filled the sky could be seen for miles and miles. 6. The pupils assembled in front of the school hall. They came together to listen to the headmaster announce the result of the sports meeting. 7. If you are capable of working twelve hours a day without a rest, and if you can engage in physical exercise for hours without seeming to get tired, then you are indefatigable. 8. If he thinks he can invite me out, he is all wet. I don‘t like to be with him. eating C. happy D. mistaken 9. (06 湖北卷 A) the users tell us no company produces a better product for language learners at all levels Ring for more information, or order at www. audiomagazine. com. We guarantee that you have nothing to lose if it's not for you; let us know within 6 weeks and we will completely reimburse you. 59. What does the underlined part reimburse you probably mean? A. Return the money you paid. B. Change the product you bought. C. Offer you a free repair. 8. 根据举例猜测词义 D. Guarantee you the quality.

这类信息词有 such as, for example, for instance, like especially, include, consist of, specially 等短语。 1. Today young couples who are just starting their household often spend lots of their money on appliances, for instance,

washing-machine, fridge and colour TV sets. 2. Most of us learn very young in life to control basic drives such as thirst and hunger. 3. Some ships carried cargo such as coal, oil and military supplies(军用物资),while others carried only passengers. 4. Many United Nations emloyees are polyglots: Mr.Simpson, for example, speaks five languages fluently. 5. The largest player---Shanghai Bashi Tourism Car Rental Center offers a wide variety of choices---Deluxe Sedans, Minivans, Station Wagons, Coaches, Santana Sedans are the big favorite. 6. When writing an article, we often use similes, such as ―brave as a lion‖ and ―quick like lightning‖. 7. The course gives you chances to know great power polities between nation states. It will provide more space to study particular issues such as relationship among countries in the European Union, third world debt, local and international disagreement, and the work of such international bodies as the United Nations, the European Union, NATO, and the World Bank. 9. 根据标点符号猜测词义 这类标点符号通常为括号、冒号、破折号、逗号等。 例:You can take any of the periodicals: The World of English, Foreign Language Teaching in School, or English Learning. 10.构词法 在猜测词义过程中,我们还可以依靠构词法方面的知识,从生 词本身猜测词义。 1. Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex schools? 2. It's a quiet, comfortable hotel overlooking (俯瞰) the bay in an uncommercialized Cornish fishing village on England's most southerly point.

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3. Good tool design is important in the prevention of overuse injuries. Well – designed tools and equipment will require less force to operate them and prevent awkward(别扭的)hand positions.(2005 年北京卷) 4. We live in a technological society where most goods are mass-produced by unskilled labor. Because of this, most people that craft (手艺) no longer exists. (2004 年浙江卷) 5. The other teams, disappointed, were on the bus heading home. 6. I had first known she was wrong, that her anxiety had clouded her judgment. 练习 1..…Students who perform poorly on the exam are left feeling that it is all over. The low test score, they think, will make it impossible for them to get into a good college. And without a degree from a prestigious university, they fear that many of life‘s doors will remain forever closed.… 66.―A prestigious university‖is most probably A.a famous university C.a traditional university B.a technical universtiy D.an expensive university

Susan Miller Secretary Dear Susan, Please forward this message to students of my history class. 64.What does the underlined word ―forward‖ mean? A. Explain . B. Send. C. Take. D. Read.

6. A mosquito is a small flying pest that thrust the skin and then drink blood. 7. A person who is skilled at making or repairing wooden objects is called a carpenter. 8. Semantics, the study of the meaning of words, is necessary if you are to speak and read intelligently. 9.His uncle is a zoologist, an expert who does research on animals. zoologist 10. Some organizations of United Nations prefer to take on Polyglots as their workers—those who can understand as well as speak many languages. 11.A calendar is a timetable of the days, weeks, months of a certain year. 12.She had a lesion on her arm that would not stop bleeding. A.a piece of skin C.a bone B. an injury D.a piece of cloth

2. It will be very hard but also very brittle―that is , it will break easily. 3. The herdsman , who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year。 4. James Oliver, psychologist, has created his own ―time management matrix (模式)‖. He writes a list of things to do and then organises them into categories: things that have to be done straight away, other things that it would be good to do today, things that are important but haven‘t got to be done immediately and things that are less urgent but that he doesn‘t want to forget. 74.The word ―categories‖ in paragraph 2 most probably has the same meaning as― ‖. A. groups B. portions C. items D. areas 5. Dear all, Please read Professor Hume's email about his next lecture on Rosa Parks.

13.In summer the weather is very hotsometimes it causes a dry period ,in other words, drought. 14.He knows a famous cardiologist. A cardiologist is a doctor who specializes in heart diseases. 15.The penguin is a kind of sea bird living in the south pole. It is fat and walks in a funny way. Although it cannot fly, it can swim in the icy water to catch the fish. 16.Down from the sky came a dark funnel-like(漏斗状的)cloud. This dark cloud reached the ground all of a sudden. This terrible tornado—a wind which went round and round as fast as 500 miles an hour and picked up everything in its path, such as large trees, cars and even houses.

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18.According to a report published on the British medical magazine, The Lancet, a study of 10 German mobile phone users found that when they turned on their phones, their blood pressure goes up. This word ―The lancet‖ is most probably___ A. the name of a magazine C. the name of the hospital D. the title of a medical report 19. Though Tom's face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. 20.John usually wastes a lot of money on such useless things;his wife, however, is very thrifty. 21.In the world, some are well off while others are poor. 22. Although people in many countries consider raw meat a delicacy(美味), we Chinese people seldom eat any meat that is uncooked. 23. Unlike his sister, who is a warm, interested person, John is apathetic to everyone and everything. 24.In the northern regions the winters are generally cold and humid, and the summers hot and dry. 25. The big farms are getting bigger while the small ones are slowly dwindling. 26. At forty-two he was in his prime and always full of energy. B. the name of a person

36.The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken . Sometimes the weakness was permanent. So the player could never play the sport again. A going on for a long time C not very strong B that may be permitted D in a bad condition

37.That museum is so immense that it will be impossible to see all the exhibits in one day. A .very large B. crowed C. noisy D. good

38. Birds fly with their wings, and they pick up their foods, and then eat them with their beaks and they use their claws for tearing, seizing, pulling or holding objects. 39.The flowers in the vase withered because they had no water. 40.It‘s really cold out tonight. My hands are practically numb. 41. The snake slithered through the grass. 42.The door was so low that I hit my head on the lintel. 43.Metal contrasts as it becomes cool. 44.One of symptoms caused by the peculiar illness is a high fever. 45.Fishes live in water and have fins which help them to swim. Most fishes have slimy skins covered with scales, so it is difficult to get firm hold of them. 46. Tom can‘t play tennis now because he can‘t find his white sneakers. A.Money B. bowls C. shoes

27.Are people born intelligent or stupid? 28.Not every car, bus, jeep or other kinds of vehicle can be made in this factory. 30.The proprietor or the owner of the store is a big man. 31. She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 32.The river is so turbid that it is impossible to see the bottom even when it is shallow. 33. John asked the bank for a small loan so that he could repair his house. 34.That old man was so decrepit that he could hardly walk. 35.She felt miserable, for her parents both died weeks ago.

47. Jane is usually prompt for all her classes,but she arrived in the middle of her first class A.late B.on time C.pleased

48 . Tom saw an owl last night but it flew away when he got near. A.a bird B.an animal C.the sun

49. Archaeology is the study of the buried remains of ancient times, such as houses, pots, tools and weapons. A. 地理学 B. 生态学 C. 心理学 D. 考古学

50.When everyone agrees on a decision, the decision is unanimous. A. 无效的 B. 一致通过的 C. 匿名的 D.有价值的

51. Though Mr. Smith has been general manager for just 3 months, he has already made much greater achievements than his predecessors. A. 上级 第 18 页 共 30 页 B. 前任 C. 同事 D. 下级

52.The football game was getting more and more exciting, however, the old lady was still as dozy as she usually was. A. 昏昏欲睡的 B. 亢奋的 C. 欣喜若狂的 D. 麻木的

66.On the farm they mainly raise poultry, such as chickens, ducks and geese, both for their eggs and their meat. 67.Some armed policemen have to wear bullet-proof Vests, a piece of clothing that can protect their chests and that are used to stop bullets or a vest which cannot be passed through by bullets.

53. All his attempts to unlock the door was futile, because he was using the wrong key. A. 成功的 B. 徒劳的 C. 有效的 D. 匆促的

68.A magnet is a piece of iron or steel which can pull other pieces of iron to itself, and a magnet is sometimes used by some people to find their lost bits of iron from the places where it‘s difficult for them to find them without a magnet. 69.The Olympic Oath is repeated by all the contestants during the beginning exercises. ―We swear that we will take part in the

54. She did not hear what you said because she was completely engrossed in her reading. A. 心不在焉的 B. 紧张的 C. 全神贯注的 D. 睡意浓的 55. The farmer is the most important person in the movie.He is the hero. A.英雄 B.主角 C.偶像 D.象征

Olympic games in loyal competition, respecting the regulations which govern them and desirous of participating in them in the true spirit of sportsmanship for the honor of our country and for the D.不省人事 glory of sport.‖ This oath is taken when ___________. A. the contests begin B. the contests are over

56. John smoked one of his father‘s cigars and now he is sick. He made his bed, now let him lie in it. A.自作自受 B. 卧病在床 C. 祸不单行

57. As soon as a boy reaches the age of twenty-one, he ought to be able to stand on his own legs. A.自爱 B.自尊 C.自立 D.自强

C. he players prove their sportsmanship D. there is glory in the sport 70.Analyzing the law of the talion---an eye for an eye, a tooth for a

58.I'm a resolute man. Once I set up a goal, I won't give it up easily. A. frighten B. brave and careless C. firm D. angry

tooth---William Ian Miller presents an original thinking over the concept of ―pay back.‖ The word ―talion‖ in introducing the book Eye for an Eye is probably a concept of______. A. medicine B. trade C. avenging D. striving

59.One who is destitute has a great need for food and clothing. A.very tall B.very poor C.very rich 60. Just for fun, they decided to try a very circuitous country road instead of the more direct highway. A.Direct B.indirect C.straight

6. Some children are natural-born bosses. They have a strong need to make decisions, manage their environment, and lead rather than follow. …

61.Since he rejected the advice his teacher gave him,he failed in the exam. A.took B.refused C.made

62..The fresh trout is very cheap, but I don‘t know how to cook it. A.fish B.fruit C.apple bossy grandparent, aunt, uncle or cousin in every generation. It‘s an inheritable trait,‖ said Russell Barkley, a professor… 44. The underlined phrase ―inheritable trait‖ in Paragraph 2 means ____. A. inborn nature B. developed character

63.When you throw a little stone into a still pond, you will see a ripple spread in rings on the surface of water. 64. It rained heavily. That‘s why the football match was postponed. 65. Tom is lazy while his brother is industrious.

C. accepted theory

D. particular environment

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important magazines as partisan Review, she appeared as the symbol of American cultural life, trying hard to follow every new development, Sontag walked at the latest edges of world culture. 71. The underlined sentence in Paragragh 1 means Sontag __. A. was a symbol of American cultural life B. developed world literature, film and art C. published many essays about world culture D. kept pace with the newest development of world culture

所以掌握了一些基本的词汇和词缀,我们就可以猜测出很多词 的意义。 【试一试】 (1) underwear (4) forget-me-not 1. 猜测下面合成词的词义: (2) he-goat (5) well-designed (8) mass-produced (3) editor-in-chief

(6) underdeveloped (7) end-of-term (9) serious-looking 2. 转化法练习: (1) The road narrows gradually (10) time-saving

阅读理解之词义猜测 一、考试要求: 词义猜测是应用英语的重要能力,也是高考

(2) To get there, they had to journey over a desert. (3) She clocked 23.5 seconds in the women?s 200-meter finals. (4) These products show a new high in China?s science and technology. (5) The dog nosed out a rat. 3. 派生法练习 (1) 根据前缀猜测词义

阅读理解中必考的题型。同学们应通过本专题巩固并加强训练 通过构词、定义、同位、对比、因果、常识、同义、反义及语 境等确定词义的技能。 二、词义猜测命题特点和趋势: 命题者着重考查考生利用同义或反义关系、构词法、语法和语 篇文脉等理解生词的能力。 1. 要求根据阅读材料所提供信息,结合高中生应有的常识和经 验,正确判断生词、词组的含义或成熟词在特定语境中表达的 具体含义以及一些句子的意思。 2. 代词复指理解题也是猜

( 05 江 西 卷 E 篇 ) Do you have any strong opinion on co-educational or single-sex 划线词义为: His anti-slavery policy had set millions of black free and his strength and wisdom had peace and reunion. ―reunion‖here means________. A. coming back again C. meeting someone again (2) 根据后缀猜测词义 (05 广东卷 E 篇)It?s a quiet, comfortable hotel overlooking (俯 瞰) the bay in an uncommercialized Cornish fishing village on 划线词义为:_____________ B. becoming one again D. seeing someone again guided the nation through the war to schools?

测词义的常考类型。用―逻辑关系梳理法‖ 、 逆向寻踪法‖ 理清 人物及事物之间的逻辑关系是关键所在。 三、应试策略 由于猜测词义题涉及题材背景、句子结构、文

章主旨、作者的观点态度等,因此联系主旨、整合上下文信息 是解答这类题的关键。命题者在出这类题时惯用常规词义来麻 痹考生,同学们要特别注意熟词生义,切不可脱离语境主观臆 断。我们必须熟练掌握的猜测词义的方法有: (一)根据构词法判断词义 1. 三种构词法,即合成、转化、派生,是我们猜测词义需掌握 的基本方法。 合成法: 通过构成合成词的每个单词的含义猜测和领会其含义; 转化法:通过一个词的本意猜测出它转化后的意思,常见的是 名词和动词、 形容词和动词以及形容词和名词之间的相互转化; 派生法:由一个词根加前缀( prefix)或后缀(suffix)构成词 的方法称为派生法。一般来说,前缀改变词义,后缀改变词性。

England?s most southerly point. (3) 结合前缀和后缀猜测词义

prehistoric_____________unthinkable__________。 (4) 有些词根并不是单词,如:coordinate; compose 等,在这种 情况下,词缀,尤其是前 缀能帮助我们结合上下文猜到词义。 如: They made a journey through the extensive desert 。其中 extensive 是生词,但我们知道 ―ex- ‖ 是 ―向外的‖ 意思,结 合后面的 desert, 我们可以猜到该词是向外延伸的意思, 进一步

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我们可以猜出它的确切含义是―一望无垠的‖ 。 根据派生法猜测下列句子中划线词的含义。 1. Saddam is the deposed president of Iraq. A. welcomed everywhere B. hated by everybody D. fit for his office

words, namely, say, i.e. 等 例 1:Red had the longest wavelength; that is, the distance between each wave is longest in red light than in any other color.

例 2:The football player was penalized for his rudeness and the punishment was a good lesson for him. (4) 同位语 构成同位关系的两部分之间常用逗号连接, 有时也使用破折号,

C. removed from a high position

2. Can you understand the inscription on the tomb? A. words written by cutting into the surface B. names of famous people C. explanation D. main idea

冒号,分号,引号和括号 等。 例 1:Dr. Baker is a member of an agricultural mission, a group of experts on better farming methods.

3. A train is immobile when it _________. A. speeds along C. move silently B. doesn?t move

D. goes backward

例 2( :05 浙江卷 B 篇) In fact, only about 80 ocelots, an endangered wild cat, exist in the U.S. today. (5)修饰限定式 饰信息来猜测词义。 例 1: The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a D. gives off year. 例 2: The man is a tramp, who goes from place to place and does no regular work. 例 3:The floor was so cluttered with many toys that Mom had difficulty walking to the door. 2. 中语境 (1) 对比关系:有些表示转折关系的连词、介词短语和副词等使 前后的意思构成对比。我们可以利用这种对比关系,判断生词 的含义。常用的词有:although; even though/if; while; but; yet; however; instead; rather than; unlike; far from; on the other hand; unfortunately 等。 例 1:The main point of the plan is clear to 从定语从句或状语从句提供的限定或修

4. Because of the storm, the valley was impassable. A. not beautiful to look at C. full of water B. not easy to pass

D. more beautiful

5. Boiling water emits steams. A. has B. covers C. becomes

(二)根据语境判断词义 这是提高阅读速度和理解率必备的判断断词义的能力。语境可 能是一个句子、几个句子、甚至一个段落或通篇文章。我们可 分别将其称为小语境、中语境和大语境。 1. 小语境 (1) 定义式 常用的词有: be, mean, deal with, be

considered, to be, be called, define, represent, refer to 等。 例 1 : Mark Twain was not the author?s real name; it was a pseudonym. 例 2:Mechanized farming means the use of modern machinery on farms. (2) 例举式 等。 例 1:Newly-married young people often spend some of their money on appliances, for instance, washing-machines, refrigerators and televisions. 常用词有:for example, for instance, such as, like

me, but the details are still hazy. 例 2:Unlike her gregarious sister, she is a shy, quiet person who does not like to go to parties or to make new friends. 例 3: Though Tom?s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. 例 4:If you agree, write ―yes‖ ; if you dissent, write ―no‖ . (2) 同义关系和平行关系:作者在写文章时,为避免重复,同一 概念常用不同的同义词。 这种同 义关系为我们猜词带来了方 similarly;

例 2:Doctors suggest that everyone should exercise every day, especially those who do sedentary and sewing. (3) 重述式 常用词有: and, or, similarly, that is (to say), in other work like reading, typing

便。常用词:and; or; not only…but also…; besides;

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likewise; in the same way, like, just as, also, as well as, in other words 或用分号引出相同 或类 似的词。 另外在特定的情况下,

our life is of a mingled yarn (纱线) ,good and ill together.‖ The underlined word ―mingled‖in the last paragraph most probably means A. simple . C. sad D. happy

作者经常通过一连串同一类型或同一范畴的词语来表达 其思 想。 如果有一生词在这一系列的同一范畴的词语中,可以通过这些 词语的特征和语义范围推 断出生 词的词义范围。

B. mixed

例 2:He is a resolute man. Once he makes up his mind to do something, he won‘t give it up halfway.

例 1: Doctors believe smoking detrimental to your health; they also regard drinking harmful. 例 2:The new tax law supersedes, or replaces, the law that was in effect last year. A. supervise B. review D. start to enforce

例 3:That museum is so immense that it will be impossible to see all the exhibits in one day. 3. 大语境 在阅读中, 如果通过小语境或中语境还不能猜出

该词的词义,可扩大语境来理解该词的 词义。 例 1: Annie?s mother died when she was eight years old. Two years later, her father disappeared, never to be heard from again. Annie

C. take the place of

(3) 因果关系:在句子或段落中,若两个事物现象之间构成因果 关系, 可以根据这种逻辑 关系推测生词词义。 常见的提示词有: because,as,since,for,so,thus,as a result,therefore 等。 例 1:When some kind of pain killer was brought out recently, researchers found that the colors turned the customers off because they made the product look weak and ineffective. The underlined part ―the colors turned the customers off‖ means that the colors_____. A. attracted the customers strongly B. had weak effects on the customers C. tricked the customers into shopping D. caused the customers to lose interest 例 2: (05 上海卷 B 篇)I feel that since you are my superior, it would be presumptuous of me to tell you what to do .‖ The

and her brother were sent to an orphanage. 例 2:A very snobbish woman met George Bernard Shaw, the famous English play writer, at a garden party one afternoon. She

was the sort of woman who was only interested in people who were rich and famous, and she was very eager to have Shaw as a guest in her own home so she could show him off to her friends. 四、实战演练 Passage 1 2010 福建 B 篇

Forget Twitter and Facebook, Google and the Kindle. Television is still the most influential medium around. Indeed, for many of

the poorest regions (地区)of the world, it remains the next big thing——finally becomes globally available. And that is a good thing, because the TV revolution is changing lives for the better. Across the developing world, around 45% of families had a TV in 1995; by 2005 the number had climbed above 60%. That is some way behind the U.S., where are more TVs than people, and where people now easily get access to the Internet. Five million more families in sub-Saharan Africa will get a TV over the next

word ―presumptuous‖ in the middle of the passage is closest in meaning to ― ‖ . B. too confident and rude D. too shy and quiet

A. full of respect C. lacking in experience

five years. In 2005 , after the fall of the Taliban(塔利班),which had outlawed TV, 1 in 5 Afghans had one. The global total is another 150 million by 2013——pushing the numbers to well beyond two thirds of families. Television?s most powerful effect will be on the lives of women. In India, researchers Robert Jensen and Emily Oster found

(4) 根据替代、说明、描述等关系猜测词义 :在句子或段落中, 我们可以利用熟悉的词语, 根据语言环境所表示的关系推断生 词词义。 例 1: (05 江苏卷 E 篇)William Shakespeare said, ―The web of

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that when TVs reached villages, women were more likely to go to the market without their husbands? approval and less likely to want a boy rather than a girl. They were more likely to make decisions over child health care. TV is also a powerful medium for adult education. In the Indian state of Gujarat, Chitrageet is a popular show that plays Bollywood songs with words in Gujarati on the screen. Within six months, viewers had made a small but significant (有意义的) improvement in their reading skills. Too much TV has been associated with violence, overweight and loneliness. However, TV is having a positive influence on the lives of billions worldwide. 60. The underlined ‖.

rang of things. We never introduced ourselves. I was concerned that he might have no money and not be able to afford something to eat. So as I rose to go back to the counter and buy a second cup of coffee, I asked, ―My I get you something?‖ ―A coffee would be nice.‖ Then I bought him a cup of coffee, We talked more, and he accepted another cup of coffee, Finally, I rose to leave, wished him well, and headed for the exit. At the door I met one of my friends. He asked, ―How did you get to know Mr. Galbreath?‖ ―Who?‖ ―The man you were sitting with. He is chairman of the Board of Churchill Downs.‖ I could hardly believe it. I was buying, offering a free breakfast, and feeling pity for one of the world?s richest and most powerful men! My few minutes with Mr. Galbreath changed my life. Now I try to treat everyone with respect, no matter who I think they are, and no matter another human being with kindness and sincerity. 56. What does the underlined word ―disheveled‖ mean? A. Unfriendly. B. Untidy. C. Gentle. D. Kind.

word ―outlawed‖ in paragraph 2 probably means ― A. allowed B. banned C. offered D. refused

61. Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage? A. Americans used to get access to the Internet easily. B. The world?s TV sets will total 150million by 2013. C.45% of families in the developing countries had a TV in 2005. D. Over two thirds of families in the world will have a TV by 2013. 62. The author intends to .

A. stress the advantages of TV to people?s lives B. persuade women to become more independent C. encourage people to improve their reading skills D. introduce the readers some websites such as Google 63. What would be the best title for the passage? A.TV Will Rule the World B.TV Will Disturb the World D.TV Will Remain in World

57. The author bought coffee for the old man because A. he thought the old man was poor B. he wanted to start a conversation C. he intended to show his politeness D. he would like to thank the old man 58. How did the author probably feel after he talked with his friend? A. Proud. B. Pitiful. C. Surprised. D. Regretful

C.TV Will Better the World Passage 2 (2010 重庆 A 篇)

One morning more than thirty years ago, I entered the Track Kitchen, a restaurant where everyone from the humblest(卑微的) to the most powerful came for breakfast. I noticed an empty chair next to an elderly, unshaven man, who looked somewhat disheveled. He was wearing a worn-out hat and was alone. I asked if I might join him. He agreed quietly and I sat down to have my breakfast. We cautiously began a conversation and spoke about a wide

59. What is the message mainly expressed in the story? A. We should learn to be generous. B. It is honorable to help those in need. C. People in high positions are not like what we expect. D. We should avoid judging people by their appearances.

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Passage 3

2010 江苏 A 篇

excellent swimmer and John Lightfoot was probably a fast runner or a good dancer. Some family names were made by adding something to the father?s name. English-speaking people added –s or –son. The Johnsons are descendants of John; the Roberts family?s ancestor was Robert. Irish and Scottish people added Mac or Mc or O. Perhaps all of the MacDonnells and the McDonnells and the O?Donnells are descendants of the same Donnell. 56. Which of the following aspects do the surnames in the passage NOT cover? A. Places where people lived. B. People?s characters. C. Talents that people possessed. D. People?s occupations. 57. According to the passage, the ancestors of the Potter family most probably _______. A. owned or drove a cart C. made kitchen tools or contains B. made things with metals D. built houses and furniture

Usually, when your teacher asks a question, there is only one correct answer. But there is one question that has millions of current answers. That question is ―What?s your name?‖Everyone gives a different answer, but everyone is correct. Have you ever wondered about people?s names? Where do they come from? What do they mean? People?s first names, or given names, are chosen by their parents. Sometimes the name of a grandparent or other member of the family is used. Some parents choose the name of a well-known person. A boy could be named George Washington Smith; a girl could be named Helen Keller Jones. Some people give their children names that mean good things. Clara means ―bright‖ ; Beatrice means ―one who gives happiness‖ ; Donald means ―world ruler‖ ; Leonard means ―as brave as a lion‖ . The earliest last names, or surnames, were taken from place names. A family with the name Brook or Brooks probably lived near brook (小溪); someone who was called Longstreet probably lived on a long, paved road. The Greenwood family lived in or near a leafy forest. Other early surnames came from people?s occupations. The most common occupational name is Smith, which means a person

58. Suppose an English couple whose ancestors lived near a leafy forest wanted their new-born baby might be named _______. A. Beatrice Smith C. George Longstreet B. Leonard Carter D. Donald Greenwood son to become a world leader, the

who makes things with iron or other metals. In the past, smiths were very important workers in every town and village. Some other occupational names are: Carter — a person who owned or drove a cart; Potter — a person who made pots and pans. The ancestors of the Baker family probably baked bread for their neighbors in their native village. The Carpenter?s

59. The underlined word ―descendants‖ in the last paragraph means a person‘s _____. A. later generations C. colleagues and partners Passage 4 2010 四川 A 篇 B. friends and relatives D. later sponsors

I grew up in a house where the TV was seldom turned on and with one wall in my bedroom entirely lined with bookshelves, most of my childhood was spent on books I could get hold of. In fact, I grew up thinking of reading as natural as breathing and books unbelievably powerful in shaping perspectives (观点) by creating worlds we could step into, take part in and live in. With this unshakable belief, I, at fourteen, decided to become

great-great-great-grandfather probably built houses and furniture. Sometimes people were known for the color of their hair or skin, or their size, or their special abilities. When there were two men who were named John in the same village, the John with the gray hair probably became John Gray. Or the John was very tall could call himself John Tallman. John Fish was probably an

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a writer. Here too, reading became useful. Every writer starts off knowing that he has something to say, but being unable to find the right ways to say it. He has to find his own voice by reading widely and discovering which parts of the writers he agrees or disagrees with, or agrees with so strongly that it reshapes his own world. He cannot write without loving to read, because only through reading other people?s writing can one discover what works, what doesn?t and, in the end, together with lots of practice, what voice he has. Now I am in college, and have come to realize how important it is to read fiction (文学作品). As a law student, my reading is in fact limited to subject matter—the volume (量) of what I have to read for classes every week means there is little time to read anything else. Such reading made it all the clearer to me that I live in a very small part in this great place called life. Reading fiction reminds me that there is life beyond my own. It allows me to travel across the high seas and along the Silk Road, all from the comfort of my own armchair, to experience, though secondhand, exciting experiences that I wouldn't necessarily be able to have in my lifetime. 41. What can be inferred about the author as a child? A. He never watched TV. B. He read what he had to.

C. What do I read? D. When do I read? Passage 5 2010 新课标 D 篇 There were smiling children all the way. Charily they knew at what time the train passed their homes and they made it their business to stand along the railway, wave to complete strangers and cheer them up as they rushed towards Penang. Often whole families stood outside their homes and waved and smiled as if those on the trains were their favorite relatives. This is the simple village people of Malaysia. I was moved. I had always traveled to Malaysia by plane or car, so this was the first time I was on a train. I did not particularly relish the long train journey and had brought along a dozen magazines to read and reread. I looked about the train. There was not one familiar face. I sighed and sat down to read my Economics. It was not long before the train was across the Causeway and in Malaysia. Johore Baru was just another city like Singapore, so I was tired of looking at the crowds of people as they hurried past. As we went beyond the city, I watched the straight rows of rubber trees and miles and miles of green. Then the first village came into sight. Immediately I came alive; I decided to wave hack. From then on my journey became interesting. I threw my magazines into the waste basket and decided to join in Malaysian life. Then everything came alive. The mountains seemed to speak to me. Even the trees

C. He found reading unbelievable. D. He considered reading part of his life. 42. The underlined word ―voice‖ in the second paragraph most probably means ―________‖. A. an idea B. a sound quality

were smiling. I stared at everything as if I was looking at it for the first time. The day passed fast and I even forgot to have my lunch until I felt hungry. I looked at my watch and was surprised that it was 3:00 pm. Soon the train pulled up at Butterworth. I looked at the people all around me. They all looked beautiful. When my uncle arrived with a smile, I threw my arms around him to give him a warm hug (拥抱). I had never done this before. He seemed surprised and then his weather-beaten face warmed up with a huge smile. We walked arm in arm to his car. I looked forward to the return journey. 66. The author expected the train trip to be 第 25 页 共 30 页

C. a way of writing D. a world to write about 43. What effect does reading have on the author? A. It helps him to realize hi s dream. B. It opens up a wider world for him. C. It makes his college life more interesting. D. It increases his interest in worldwide travel. 44. Which of the following can be the best title of this text? A. Why do I read? B. How do I read?

A. adventurous

B. pleasant

C. exciting

D. dull

of the aircraft happens to block your way. When you travel by car or train a unclear image of the countryside constantly dirties the windows. Car drivers, in particular, are forever forces to go on and on: they never want to stop. Is it the lure of the great motorways, or what? And as for sea travel, it hardly deserves mention. It is perfectly summed up in the words of the old song: ―I joined the navy to see the world, and what did I see? I saw the sea. ‖ The

67. What did the author remember most fondly of her train trip? A. The friendly country people. B. The mountains along the way

C. The crowds of people in the streets. D. The simple lunch served on the train. 68. Which of the following words can best take the place of the word ―relish‖ in the second paragraph? A. choose B. enjoy C. prepare for D. carry on

typical twentieth-century traveler is the man who always says ―I?ve been there.‖ You mention the remotest, most attractive place-names in the world like El Dorado, Kabul, Irkutsk and someone is bound to say ?I?ve been there? — meaning, ?I drove through it at 100 miles an hour on the way to somewhere else. ? When you travel at high speeds, the present means nothing: you live mainly in the future because you spend most of your time

69. Where was the writer going? A. Johore Baru. C. Butterworth. B. The Causeway. D. Singapore.

70. What can we learn from the story? A. Comfort in traveling by t rain. B. Pleasure of living in the country. C. Reading gives people delight. 模拟训练 Passage 1 D. Smiles brighten people up.

looking forward to arriving at some other place. But actual arrival, when it is reached, is meaningless. You want to move on again. By traveling like this, you stop all experience; the present is no longer a reality: you might just as well be dead. The traveler on foot, on the other hand, lives constantly in the present. For him, traveling and arriving are one and the same thing: he arrives somewhere with every step he makes. He experiences the present moment with his eyes, his ears and the whole of his body. At the end of his journey, he feels a delicious physical tiredness. He knows that sound. Pleasant sleep will be his: the reward of all true travellers. 1. Anthropologists label nowadays ―Legless Man‖ because _____. A. people forget how to use his legs B. people prefer cars, buses and trains C. lifts prevent people from walking D. there are a lot of transportation devices 2. What does the underlined sentence ―When you travel at high speeds‖ mean? A. people?s focus on the future B. a pleasure C. satisfying drivers? great thrill

The past ages of man have all been carefully labeled (贴标签; 被 称 为 ) by anthropologists ( 人 类 学 家 ). Descriptions like ―Palaeolithic Man‖ , ―Neolithic Man‖ , etc., neatly sum up whole periods. When the time comes for anthropologists to turn their attention to the twentieth century, they will surely choose the label ―Legless Man‖ . Histories of the time will go something like this: ―In the twentieth century, people forgot how to use their legs. Men and women moved about in cars, buses and trains from a very early age. There were lifts in all large buildings to prevent people from walking. This situation was forced upon earth dwellers (居住 者) of that time because of miles each day. But the surprising thing is that they didn?t use their legs even when they went on holiday. They built cable railways, ski-lifts and roads to the top of every huge mountain. All the beauty spots on earth were destroyed by the presence of large car parks.‖ The future history books might also record that we were deprived (剥夺) of the use of our eyes. In our hurry to get from one place to another, we failed to see anything on the way. Air travel gives you a bird?s-eye view of the world – or even less if the wing

D. a necessity of life

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3. Why does the author say ―we are deprived of the use of our eyes‖in the second paragraph? A. People won?t use their eyes B. In traveling at high speed, eyes become useless. C. People actually can?t see anything on his way of travel. D. People want to sleep during traveling. 4. What is the purpose of the author in writing this passage? A. Legs become weaker. B. Modern means of transportation make the world a small place. C. There is no need to use eyes. D. The best way to travel is on foot. Passage 2 I WAS BORN and raised in the shadow of the Capitol, in Washington, D.C., as were my parents and my mother?s parents. Our row house was on a tree-lined street just blocks from the building that was the heart of the federal legislative branch. When I was a child, in the 1940s, friends and I would pack a lunch or ride a streetcar to the Capitol. If we roller-skated, we hid the skates in the bushes in the park across the street before entering the building. I knew every corner of the Capitol. We?d play hide-and-seek and pretend we saw ghosts in the halls and stairways. I don?t know how we got away with it.I remember the beautiful ladies? rooms, with their marble floors and sinks. I pretended that I was a fine lady in them. In those days, you could walk around the Capitol

Once war was declared, some things changed in the nation?s capital. Because of concerns that Washington might be attacked, as London had been, everyone prepared. Kids at my elementary school wore dog tags, and each of us was fingerprinted. My father, a pipe worker, became a civil defense warden(民防 队员). During an air raid, his job was to turn off any leaking gas. Since he always had a cigarette in his mouth, maybe that was not a good choice, but he had a gas mask and flashlight hanging in the rafters of our basement…the mask looked like a monster in the ceiling. My 15-year-old brother was a junior civil defense warden. During air- raid drills, he knocked on doors and asked people to put out their lights. I remember huge searchlights that crisscrossed the skies during the drills, looking for enemy planes. 1. From the passage, we can understand that _______. A. The writer attended the meeting in House of Representative B. The writer?s family lived in Washington D.C. for generati ons C. American citizen, except children, could never enter the Capitol D. The writer?s father had a gas mask to prevent him from smoking 2. When the writer said ―I was born and raised in the shadow of the Capitol‖ (1st paragraph), she most probably meant that ______. A. she spent her childhood in an area near the Capitol B. she grew up under the pressure of the Capitol C. the Capitol had some bad influence on my childhood was born and brought up secretly in the Capitol D. she

dome( 圆顶屋 ), which was a little scary for me. I loved the wonderful paintings and statues and the subway rides to the Senate Office Building. It was like an amusement ride. I even used to sit in the gallery of the U.S. House of Representatives — until I became bored with all the talk and went on another adventure. Whenever I ran up the steps to the huge bronze doors of the Rotunda, I would look back to the world below like a hero. As soon as the doors were opened, the sense of history surrounded me, and I knew it was someplace special. Those were lucky days, when an American citizen could wander in the Capitol and be a part of history.

3. By telling the

childhood experience, the passage suggests that ________. A. the writer is a daughter of a member of Representatives. B. the Capitol used to be open to the public in history. C. London was attacked during the war, as well as Washington. D. the writer?s father and brother joined the army during the war. 4. What is the writer?s attitude towards the things that changed in the nation?s capital? A. neutral Passage 3 Misery and setbacks are not always as terrible as one imagines. B. positive C. negative D. ironic

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Hard times can offer new ways of looking at life that would otherwise never be known. And, if you are a writer, this can be the source of much of your success. Popular British author,

state from too much comfort,‖he once wrote. On June 9th, 1870, aged 58, Dickens died, leaving one unfinished work.The words on his tombstone read: ―He was a sympathizer( 同 情 者 ) to the poor, the suffering and the oppressed(受压迫者), and by his death, one of England?s greatest writers is lost to the world.‖ 1. The book that called public attention to Dickens was ______. A. The Pickwick Papers C. A Tale of Two Cities B. Oliver Twist D. David Copperfield

Charles Dickens? (1812-1870) family could hardly make ends meet(入不敷出). They could only afford to send one of their six children to school. Dickens was not that child. His parents chose to send a daughter, who had a talent for music, to an academy. Then at the age of 12, Dickens? life took another turn for the worse. His father, a clerk, was placed in prison for unpaid debts. And, being the oldest male left at home, Dickens took up work at a factory. His horrible experience there became the fuel for his future writing. His father was freed three months later and inherited (继承) a small amount of money. Dickens was then sent to school. From 1836 to 1837, he wrote a monthly series of stories. Thus the Pickwick Papers (《匹克威克外传》), came into being, which brought fame to the 23-year-old man. Throughout his career, Dickens covers various situations in his novels. He wrote about the miserable lives of the poor in Oliver Twist ( 《雾都孤儿》 ) , the French Revolution in A Tale of Two Cities, and social reform in Hard Times ( 《艰难时世》 ). He also wrote David Copperfield ( 《大卫· 科波菲尔》 ), a book thought to be based on his own life. ―I do not write bitterly or angrily: for I know all these things have worked together to make me what I am," he once said. His difficult childhood did indeed shape the person he became, as well as his writing career. There are shades of young Dickens in many of his most beloved characters, including David Copperfield and Oliver Twist. Like the author, all these characters come from poor beginnings and are able to rise above their setbacks and achieve success. ―Minds, like bodies, will often fall into an ill-conditioned

2. The phrase ―shades of‖ in bold means ―_____‖. A. various shapes of C. different experiences B. situations of D. reminders of

3. How did Dickens see his childhood? A. He felt grateful for it. B.He felt it a pity that things weren?t in his favor. C. He loved writing about it. D. He chose to forget the bitterness about it. 4. From the story, we can see Dickens? attitude towards an easy life is ______. A. to enjoy it B. to hate it D. to work hard for it

C. not to indulge in (沉湎于) it Passage 4

People who drink alcohol earn more at their jobs than non-drinkers, according to a US study that highlighted ―social capital(社交资本)‖ gained from drinking. The study concluded that drinkers earn 10–14 percent more than teetotalers, and that men who drink socially bring home an additional seven percent in pay. social capital,‖ said Edward ―Social drinking builds Stringham, an economics

professor, ―Social drinkers are outgoing, building relationships, and keeping in contacts, which results in bigger paychecks.‖ The researchers said the most likely explanation is that drinkers have a wider range of social contacts that help provide better job and business opportunities. ―Drinkers may be able to socialize more with clients and co-workers, giving drinkers an advantage in important relationships.

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Drinking may also provide individuals with opportunities to learn people, business, and social skills.‖ They also said these conclusions provide arguments against policies aimed at controlling alcohol use in university and public places. ―Not only do anti-alcohol policies reduce drinkers? fun, but they may also decrease earnings,‖ the study said, ―One of the consequences of alcohol restrictions is that they push drinking into private behavior. By preventing people from drinking in public, anti-alcohol policies ignores one of the most important aspects of drinking: increased social capital.‖ The researchers found some differences in the economic effects of drinking among men and women. They concluded that men who drink earn 10 percent more than non-drinkers and women drinkers earn 14 percent more than non-drinkers. However, unlike men, who get a 7 percent income increase from drinking in bars, women drinkers who visit bars frequently do not show higher earnings than those who do not visit bars. 1. The underlined word in Paragraph 2 refers to ____ A. women drinkers C. non-drinkers B. co-workers D. men-drinkers

D. Drinkers may be provided more opportunities. Passage 5 Writing being largely a self-taught occupation, texts on how to get about it — though great in number— seldom are of much use. You try, and fail. Then try again. Until at last, if you have some gift for it, the failures become less frequent, or at any rate less apparently. It is this ability to cover up one?s defects that is finally regarded as accomplishment or achievement. Along the way there are the discouragements of unkind criticism, outright rejection, troublesome insecurity and irregular inability to meet debts. It is uncommon, therefore, to come across a book containing advice of much practical value for anyone toying (漫不经心地考 虑) with the dangerous idea of staring on a writing life. A friend recently lent me such a book, however — one I wish I?d had the luck to read years ago, and which I would recommend to any young person devoted to making a career of words. It is the autobiography (自传) of the English novelist Anthony Trollope, first published in 1883, the year after his death. Needing some means to support himself, Trollope at age 19 worked as a junior clerk in the British postal service. He was at his

2. What?s the best title of the passage? A. Income Differences Between Drinkers And B. To Build Social Capital, Drink! C. Anti-alcohol Policy is Not Reasonable D. Drinking Helps Increase Income 3. What?s NOT the consequence of anti-alcohol policy ? A. More people drink in private. B. There are less alcohol in universities. C. Drinkers? income increased because they spend less money on drinking. D. Drinkers get less fun from drinking. Non-drinkers

desk at 5:30 each morning to write for three hours. And he remained in the mail service 33 years, long after reputation and prosperity had come to him. Now, what of his advice in his works? 1. For safety?s sake, arm yourself with some other skills, some other line of work to fall back on (求助). That way, failure at writing, though the disappointment may appear, will not mean ruin. 2. Do not depend too much on inspiration. Writing is a craft, which Trollope compared to the craft of shoemaking. The shoemaker who has just turned out one pair of his work sets to work immediately on the next pair. 3. Have a story to tell, but, more important than that, people with characters who will speak and move as living creatures in the reader?s mind. Without memorable

4. What can we infer from the result of the study? A. To build social capital, you have no choice but to drink. B. Drinking is a good and common way to increase social capital. C. Drinkers build wider social contacts.

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characters, story alone is nothing. 4. Meet your deadlines. Life is endlessly ―painful and troublesome‖ for writers who can?t finish their work on time. 5. Do not be carried away by praise. And, above all, do not be injured by criticism. 6. Understand the risks of writing for a living. ―The career, when successful, is pleasant enough certainly; but when unsuccessful, it is of all careers the most painful.‖ 1. This passage mainly discusses .

actually anything else you can think of. In one sense, these ―how-to‖ sites represent a part of the growing world of online learning.These FAQs (Frequent Answers and Questions), many of which still circulate (go round continuously), took a special subject and explained it to complete novices.

But, ―how-to‖ sites take the FAQ idea in a somewhat different direction by addressing subjects that aren?t necessarily associated with discussion forums. These sites take the style of a written tutorial and a tone of friendly advice. Possibly the biggest and best known of these sites is learn2. com (www. learn2. com). It offers nearly 1,000 free tutorials and adds new ones frequently for a job

A. the difficulties and risks of making a career of words B. the uselessness of instructions contained in writing guidebooks C. the autobiography of the 19th century English novelist Anthony Trollope D. sound advice provided in Anthony. Trollope?s autobiography 2. From the context we can figure out that the underlined word ―defect‖ in Paragraph 3 A. advantage B. fault means C. truth . D. disadvantage .

interview. At ehow. com (www. ehow. com) you can learn how to train for your first marathon, how to buy a vacation home, or how to make a movie in eight steps. 1. The purpose of the passage is to _________. A. say how to learn new courses by the Internet B. introduce new websites to citizens C. help you to solve any difficulty you meet with . D. bring new means to learn something new 2. The underline word ―novices‖ probably means ____. A. people without experience C. hosts of ―how-to‖sites B. people with rich experience D. beginners of ―how-to‖sites

3. According to the author, writing

A. is basically a self-taught occupation and no instructions on how to deal with it are of any practical use B. is a ―trial and error‖process and it does not count whether you have the gift for writing or not C. for a living is the most pleasant of all careers, full of praise and enjoyment D. sometimes provides good hopes of winning public praise and escaping poverty 4. From the passage we may infer that the author is most probably A. an instructor of writing C. an educator Passage 6 Let us say there is something you don?t know how to do. In the past if you were determined to learn, you might have called friends or relatives, taken a night class or walked down to the local library for a research term . But now a host of websites are springing up to provide free practical advice on these subjects and B. a writer D. a publisher

3. From the passage we may guess that _____. A. ―how-to‖sites are specially designed for the disabled B. a deaf person can teach himself at home by visiting ―how-to‖ sites C. it is pleasant to listen to the advice on ―how-to‖sites D. you can just click your mouse at home to question anything 4. If you have no tent when you decide to go camping, you may ____. A. visit some site else C. visit www.ehow.com B. visit www.learn2.com D. go to the tourist company

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