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Unit


Unit 1 Live in Harmony

Text A I Forgive You

1. Why does the author say that forgiveness is a universal necessity for relationships? Because the author believes no human

relationship can survive without forgiveness. 2. According to the author, who really needs to forgive? It’s those of us who’ve been most hurt that really need to forgive.

3. Like cancer, bitterness can destroy its host. Is this a metaphor or simile? What is bitterness compared to? What about “the oxygen of forgiveness” in Para1? It’s a simile. Bitterness is compared to cancer. The oxygen of forgiveness is a metaphor. Here forgiveness is compared to oxygen, a gas which is vital to our survival.

4. Translation: Whoever seeks revenge should dig two graves. 复仇者必自毙。

TRUE OR FALSE
1. It is unnecessary and impossible for those who have been (F ) seriously hurt to forgive. 2. If you have decided to forgive someone, you’d better do it (T ) as early as possible. 3. When you forgive the person who has hurt you, he will always be happy about it. ( F )

4. We’ll always suffer from the feeling of being hurt if we don’t forgive. ( T )

1. You will help someone unconditionally once, but will not keep doing so? Yes. No. 2. A lot of people are unworthy of being helped? Yes. No.

3. A lot of people don’t take you seriously.

Yes.
No. 4. You will reward to the one who has helped you? Yes.

No.

5. You try to make friends with those who always oppose you? Yes.

No.
6. There are also times that you are hypocritical(虚伪的)? Yes. No.

7. You will burst into temper one day towards those who always bully you? Yes. No. 8. Among your peers, you are claimed to be the one who have the final say? Yes. No.

9. You like those who are frank and direct, but you don’t like yourself to be so? Yes. No.

10. Once you are deceived by a person, you will never believe him any more?
Yes. No.

forgiveness
?

He begged her forgiveness.
他恳求她的宽恕。

?

She beleaguered him with pleas for forgiveness.
她缠着他要求宽恕。

?

But it all begins with forgiveness, because to heal the world, we first have to heal ourselves.
但是这一切都从宽恕开始,因为要拯救世界我们必须首 先拯救自己。

CF: forgive & excuse
这两个动词均有“原谅”之意。 forgive 指尽管某人做错了事情,但是你不再生气,不再 责怪他了,一般指原谅或者宽恕比较严重的错误。 excuse 指原谅一些不是很严重的错误,比如莽撞、失礼 等小过失。

Directions: Fill in the blanks. 1. She was 2. A wife 3. Please
_______ excused

for coming late. unfaithful husband.

________ forgives an

4. They

excuse ______ forgive ______

my bad handwriting.

their enemies.

good-tempered: adj. pleasant, kind, and not easily made angry Minnie was always good-tempered and agreeable. Collocations: lose one’s temper keep one’s temper 好脾气的 good-tempered 性情温和的;脾气好的 sweet-tempered 脾气温和的 even-tempered 性子急的;易怒的 hot-tempered 坏脾气的,易怒的 ill-tempered
quick-tempered short-tempered bad-tempered

性子急的;脾气急躁的 脾气坏的;易怒的 坏脾气的

grammar 普遍文法 ; 通用文法 ? Universal Pictures 环球影业 ? NBC Universal 美国国家广播环球公司 ? universal law 普遍规律;普遍法则 ? universal suffrage 普选权 ? universal language 通用语言;世界语; 人人都理解的事物 ? universal love 普遍的爱;泛爱(基督教)
? Universal

universal

? Social

development suggests universal exploration. 社会的进步促使人类做出对宇宙空间的探索。

? First

of all we should make primary education universal. 首先我们应普及初等教育。 theory of relativity won for him universal

? Einstein's

esteem. 爱因斯坦的相对论赢得了全世界对他的崇敬。

ironically: adv.

used when talking about a situation in which the opposite of what you expected happens or is true
Ironically, his cold got better on the last day of his holiday.

root out ? 1. They root out every part of the building.
他们在全楼进行了搜查。
?

2. Bridges over railroad tracks root danger out in crossing.
铁轨上空的天桥排除了穿行中的危险。

?

3. I managed to root out a copy of the document.
我好不容易才找到了文件的副本。

?
?

4. Do you think it is possible to root out crime?
你认为可以根除犯罪吗?

5. Selection will root out such organism.
自然选择将把这些物种消灭掉。

cripple: v.
1. damage sth. badly so that it no longer works or is no longer effective

The industry is being crippled by high interest rates.
Asia’s economy was crippled by inflation.

通货膨胀曾使亚洲经济陷于瘫痪。
罢工使工厂陷于瘫痪。 The strike crippled the factory. 2. hurt sb. badly so that they cannot walk properly She was crippled in the car accident. 她在车祸中致残。

cling: v. continue to believe or do sth., even though it may not be true or useful any longer For the moment I cling to the idea that there are a relatively small number of students left. 他坚定地认为她有治愈的希望。 He clung to the hope that she would be cured. Collocation: cling to the hope / belief / idea, etc.

heal: v.
1. if a wound or a broken bone heals or is healed, the flesh, skin, or bone grows back together and becomes healthy again A sprain usually takes longer to heal than a broken bone.

我胳膊上的伤已经愈合了。
The wound on my arm has healed.

2. if an argument or disagreement between people heals or you heal it, the people stop arguing or disagreeing The disagreement among the family members healed over with time.
家庭成员之间的不和随着时间的流逝而消失。

CF: treat, heal & cure 这三个动词均有“治疗”之意。 treat指通过用药、住院、手术等来治疗疾病。 heal着重治疗的效果,多指外伤的愈合,也可以 指精神上的创伤的治愈。 cure也着重治疗的结果,多指治愈内科疾病,也 可用来指消除某种不良的影响。 1. The dentist is _______ treating my teeth. cured him of pneumonia. 2. Penicillin _____ 3. The cut on his finger ______ healed quickly. 4. The new treatment ______ cured his skin disease.

heals all sorrows. 5. Time _____

put: v.
say or write sth. using words in a particular way When women joined the organization, it “took on a new look”, as the news report put it.

It was a matter of balance, as one teacher put it.

core: n. the most important or central part of sth.

The core of the book focuses on the period between 1660 and 1857.
问题的关键是债务。 Debt is at the core of the problem.

Collocations:
the core of the problem core curriculum

shallow
Shallow Hal 情人眼里出西施 ; 靓妹你在哪儿 ? shallow end 浅端 ; 泳池浅端 ? shallow sea 浅海 ? shallow trap 浅陷阱 ? shallow fog 浅雾 ? shallow discharge 表面放电 ? shallow dam 挡板 ; 隔板 ? Shallow Graves 浅墓穴 ? Shallow Ground 地表
?

Only the shallow know themselves. 只有肤浅的人了解自己。 ? I’m not that shallow. 我才没那么肤浅呢。
? ?

It not only shows how people lived at the time is also of great interest to natural scientists because the waters around it are so shallow. 它不仅向人们展示了在那个时代人们是怎样的生活而 且自然科学家对它也十分地感兴趣,因为它周围的水 域很浅。

.…like cancer, bitterness can destroy its host.
Is this a metaphor or a simile? What is bitterness compared to?

It’s a simile. Bitterness is compared to cancer.

initial
After initial logarithmic progress growth plateaued sharply. 初期的上升进程之后,发展陡然平稳下来。 ? So based on initial impressions, what does this program do when you run in it? Yeah? 所以根据初步的印象,如果你们运行这个程序,它会做 什么?啊?
?

?

When their initial lure had played out, the pioneers of the West found other attractions to induce them to stay on. 这些西部拓荒者的最初的诱惑力逐渐消失之后,他们又 转而寻找别的兴趣诱使他们继续留下。

one-off: adj. happening or done only once, not as part of a regular series
In fact the whole exercise was fairly straight forward, except for one problem which required a one-off solution.

confrontation: n. a situation in which there is

a lot of angry disagreement between two people or groups Julia had stayed in her room to avoid any more confrontation. They sense this may develop into a confrontation between teachers. Pattern: confrontation with / between

resentment: n. a feeling of anger because sth. has happened that you think is unfair
Tom stared at the other boys with resentment.

She was filled with deep resentment at being passed over for promotion.
Collocation:

feel / harbour / bear resentment

CF: resentment & offence
这两个名词均有“愤怒、怨恨”之意。 resentment 指因受到侮辱或自尊心受到伤害而 产生的怨恨。例如:

She cherished a deep resentment towards her employer for having denied her a promotion. Everyone feels resentment at being treated unfairly.
offence 指因为言语或者行为而感到生气,语气 没有resentment强烈。例如:

I hope you will not take any offence at my words.

tackle v. try to deal with a difficult problem It took twelve fire engines to tackle the blaze. There is more than one way to tackle the problem.
解决这个问题有许多方法。

The question set by the teacher was so difficult that the pupils did not know how to tackle it.

innocent: adj. not guilty of a crime Can you provide any evidence that he was innocent of the crime?
你能提供证据证明他没有犯罪吗?

Pattern: innocent of

functional: adj. designed to be useful rather than beautiful or attractive
These buildings are beautifully designed, not purely functional. Note: functional 的反义词 : decorative

peel: v. 1. if skin, paper, or paint peels, it comes off, usually in small pieces; lose an outer layer or surface The paper was peeling from the wall. The bark peels off. 2. remove the outer layer from sth.; remove the skin from fruit or vegetables Peel the label from the jar.
撕下这个瓶罐的标签。 请剥开这只香蕉。 Please peel this banana.

flaw: n. a mistake, mark, or weakness that makes sth. imperfect A flaw in the crystal caused it to shatter. Pattern: flaw in CF: flaw & defect

这两个名词均有“缺陷”之意。 flaw 表示存在或出现瑕疵,使某物不完美。例如:

The flaw in the weapon was its inability to fire rapidly. defect 常常表示一个缺陷非常严重,以 致完全妨碍了某种功能的发挥。 A defect in the fuel lines prevented the missile from blasting off.

at peace (with): a situation in which there is no war or fighting The country is at peace with its neighbors for the first time in years.

nurture: v. help a plan, idea, feeling, etc. to develop Reading aloud nurtures the love of books in children. It is important to nurture potential in your employees.

Forgiving puts you in control. However tough it is, the alternative is far worse. What does the alternative refer to?

Refusing to forgive and holding the resentment in your mind.

alternative: n. an alternative idea, plan, etc. is different from the one you have and can be used instead
We have no alternative but to go on. CF: choice, alternative & option
这三个名词均有“选择”之意。 choice 指从多样东西中选择,强调选择的自由度.

New stocks have just arrived, so the shop now has a large choice of goods. The blue one is my choice.
alternative多指在只有两种可能性或者行为方式之间 所作的选择,强调选择的范围受到限制。

You have the alternative of staying in high school or going to work.

CF: choice, alternative & option
option指在特定条件下作出的选择,常常侧 重于已经被权威等所授予的一种选择能力或 自由,强调选择的可能性。例如:

There are four options in our college.

我们大学里有四门选修科。 There are three options open to us.

Useful Expressions
physical and mental health 2. 彻底根除;根除 root out 3. 生根 take hold 4. 坚持 cling to sth. 5. ……的关键 the core of… 6. 脱口而出 roll off the tongue 7. 偏离了宽恕的真正含义 miss the whole point of forgiveness 8. ……的最初行为 the initial act of … 9. 一次性的行为 a one-off act
1. 身心健康

10. 不断的情感冲突

constant emotional confrontation constant emotional confrontation 11. 时间不会治愈创伤。 Time really doesn’t heal. 12. 运用宽恕的艺术 tackle the art of forgiveness

13. 随着时间的流逝 14. 不管喜欢不喜欢 15. 认真审视自己 16. 不隐瞒缺点地 17. 修复破裂的关系

18. 缓和局面
19. 迈出第一步

20. 记住??
21. 为他们,也是为自己 22. 不再生气 23. 心平气和地对待发生的事

as time rolls by like it or not take a long, hard look at ourselves warts and all heal broken relationships ease the situation make the first move keep…in mind for you just as much as for them let go of your anger be at peace with what happened

Parts Para 1 1~3

Main Ideas Why forgiveness is necessary for human relationships and for your own health and sanity?

2

4~10

You should act immediately and deliberately to forgive others although it is difficult to do so. At the same time, you should look back on your own warts and be aware of your own flaws.

3

Forgiving others can get a satisfying reaction. 11~15 No matter how the person responds to your effort, you will feel happy once you try to forgive him or her.

After Reading

As the proverb goes, “To err is human; to forgive, divine.” It’s inevitable for you to do something wrong to others or for others to do something wrong to you. You need to apologize to others or forgive others to maintain harmonious relationships. Do you know how to express your apology or forgiveness in English? Brainstorm with your group members and write down as many phrases or sentence patterns as you can.

Apology

I can’t tell you how sorry I am. I’m so sorry. It is all my fault. I’m sorry. I didn’t mean to hurt you. A thousand pardons for taking up so much of your time. I apologize for what I said just now. Please forgive me for having lost your letter. I hope you will forgive me. Oh, my fault. I (do) beg your pardon. Forgive me for doing ... I regret doing ... / that It’s wrong of me to do ... I owe you an apology for ... May I offer my sincerest apologies for (doing) ...?

Don’t think anymore about it.

It doesn’t matter at all. Don’t let it worry you.
I quite understand… Please don’t take it too hard. Forgiveness It’s not your fault. Forget it.

Well, it’s just one of those things. (这是常有 的事。)
It’s OK. That can happen to the best of us. (没关系。谁都会发生这种事。)

Group Discussion
As a college student, you are now living on campus. Have you ever experienced any of the following situations that may affect the harmony in your dorm? 1. A roommate often stays up late or even plays PC games overnight. 2. You need to study while a roommate is playing music loudly. 3. You need to sleep but a roommate has invited his / her friends over. 4. A roommate often has his / her date in the room, which makes the other roommates quite uneasy. 5. For some reason, you are isolated (孤立) by your roommates and you feel lonely. If you have experienced any of the above situations, tell your group members how you dealt with the situation(s). What do you think are the most important principles for living harmoniously with your roommates?

Proverbs and Quotations
1. Forgive and forget.
不念旧恶。 2. Forgive others but not yourself. 待人宽,对己严。 3. To err is human, to forgive, divine. 人谁无过,赎过者神。 己所不欲,勿施于人 5. Gold can?t be pure and man can?t be perfect. 金无足赤人无完人。

5. Mutual forgiveness of each vice, such are the gates of Paradise. — Black, British poet 相互宽恕对方的缺点,乃是通向天堂之门。 —— 英国诗人 布莱克 6. All men are liable to error; and most men are, in many points, by passion or interest, under temptation to it. — Locke, British philosopher 人都会犯错误,在许多情况下,大多数人是由于欲望或兴趣的 引诱而犯错误的。 —— 英国哲学家 洛克

“Any fool can criticize, condemn, and complain, but it takes character and self control to be understanding and forgiving.”
– Dale Carnegie, Motivational Expert 「任何傻子都会批评、责怪及抱怨,但理解 及原谅需要的是品德及自我控制。」 – 戴尔?卡内基 (励志专家)

“We must develop and maintain the capacity to forgive. He who is devoid of the power to forgive is devoid of the power to love.”
– Martin Luther King, Civil Rights Leader 「我们必须发展及维持原谅的能力,没能力 原谅的人就没有能力去爱别人。」 – 马丁?路德 (民运领袖)

“People can be more forgiving than you can imagine. But you have to forgive yourself. Let go of what’s bitter and move on.”
– Bill Cosby, Comedian 「人们比你想像的更容易原谅别人,但你必 需原谅自己,舍弃难过的事然后前进。」– 比尔?考斯比 (喜剧演员)

Forgive many things in others; nothing in yourself.
宽恕他人之种种;你罪无存。 ------Ausonius (奥索尼厄斯)

It is easier to forgive an enemy than a friend. 宽恕敌人比宽恕朋友容易。
----Madame Dorothée Deluzy (桃乐丝· 德路兹夫人)

He who forgiveth, and is reconciled unto his enemy, shall receive his reward from God; for he loveth not the unjust doers.
?

恕者,及与敌为和者,真主必赏之;盖行 不义者不得天宠者也。 -----Koran 《古兰经》

When you hold resentment toward another, you are bound to that person or condition by an emotional link that is stronger than steel. Forgiveness is the only way to dissolve that link and get free.
?

当你憎恨他人的时候,你就通过一条情感的链 条和那个人或状况连在一起了。而且这个链条 坚强如钢。宽恕是熔解这条链条解放自己的唯 一法门。 -------Catherine Ponder (凯瑟琳· 庞德)

?

In the long run, it's not a question of whether they deserve to be forgiven. You're not forgiving them for their sake. You're doing it for yourself. For your own health an well-being, forgiveness is simply the most energy-efficient option. It frees you from the incredibly toxic, debilitating drain of holding a grudge. Don't let these people live rent free in your head. If they hurt you before, why let them keep doing it year after year in your mind? It's not worth it but it takes heart effort to stop it. You can muster that heart power to forgive them as a way of looking out for yourself. It's one thing you can be totally selfish about.

?

?

长远的眼光来看,问题不在于他们是否值 得宽恕。你宽恕他们并非为他们着想,而 是为了自己。为了你自己的健康和和福利 而去宽恕,这是最省事的选择。它使你远 离愤懑所带来的极大毒害和精力消耗。别 让这些人免租金居住你的大脑。如果他们 曾经伤害你,为什么还年复一年地让他们 在你的心灵中继续为害?这不值得。也要 用心努力才能制止这一切。你可以集中心 力去宽恕,以便找回自己。这完全是一件 利己的事。

To forgive may be divine, but no one ever said it was easy. When someone has deeply hurt you, it may be rather difficult to let go. But forgiveness is possible and it can be surprisingly beneficial. People who forgive show less depression, anger, stress and more hopefulness. So let us follow the author’s advice and take the first step towards living in harmony!

Thanks for your attention!


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