定语从句在句中做定语，修饰一个名词或代词，被修饰的名词词组或代词即先行词。定语 从句通常出现在先行词之后，由关系词（关系代词或关系副词）引出。 关系代词有：who, whom, whose, that, which 等。 关系副词有：when, where, why 等。 注意：关系代词和关系副词处在先行词和定语从句之间，起着连接主从句、指代先行
词和在 从句中作句子成分的三重作用。 一、关系代词 that, which, who 引导的定语从句
关 系 代 词 that 在从句中 作主语或宾语 which 在从句中 作主语或宾语 who, whom 在 从句中分别作 主语或宾语 指物 指人 指物 例 句
1. A plane is a machine that can fly. 2. The noodles (that) I cooked were delicious. 1. Who is the man that is reading a book over there? 2. The girl (that) we saw yesterday was Jim’s sister. 1. They planted some trees which didn’t need much water. 2. The fish (which) we bought this morning were not fresh. 1. The foreigner who visited our class yesterday is from Canada. 2. The boy who broke the window is called Tom. 3. The person to whom you just talked is Mr Li. 4. Mrs Read is the person to whom you should write.
二、关系代词 whose 引导的定语从句
关系代词 whose 为关系代词 who 的所有格形式，用作名词的限定语，whose 引导的定语从句既可为限 制性的，也可为非限制性的。先行词既可为人，也可为物，whose 和它所修饰的名词在定语从句中可作主语 及动词或介词的宾语。 例如：This is the scientist whose name is known all over the world. The room whose window faces south is mine. He has written a book whose name I’ve forgotten. =He has written a book the name of which I’ve forgotten.
关 系 副 词 when 在从句中作时间状语 (可以转化为 in /on /at /during which) where 在从句中作地点状语 (可以转化为 in / at which) why 在从句中作原因状语 (可以转化为 for which) 例 句 October 1, 1949 is the day when (=on which) the People’s Republic of China was founded. I’ll never forget the year when (=in which) we worked on the farm. The hotel where (=in which) we stayed wasn’t very clean. I recently went to the town where (=in which) I was born. I’d like to live in a country where (=in which) there is plenty of sunshine. I didn’t get a pay rise, but this wasn’t the reason why (=for which) I left. The reason why (=for which) he was late was that he missed the train.
先把主句和定语从句分开，再找出定语从句所修饰的名词 /代词（即先行词） ，然后放入定语从句中，看看 这两者的搭配情况。 1）如果定语从句和该先行词可以直接相连，且在从句中充当主语/宾语/表语的话，则用关系代词。 This is the city (which/that) you visited last year. 2）如果定语从句和该先行词无法直接相连，必须另外多加上介词，并在定语从句中充当状语时，则使用关 系副词。 This is the city where you stayed last year. 选择： 1. Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 2. Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held. A. where B. that C. on which D. the one
1）定语从句有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性定语从句是先行词不可缺少的部分，去掉它主句意思往往不 明确；非限制性定语从句是先行词的附加说明，去掉了也不会影响主句的意思，它与主句之间通常用逗号 分开。例如： This is the house which we bought last month. 这是我们上个月买的那幢房子。（限制性） The house, which we bought last month, is very nice. 这幢房子很漂亮，是我们上个月买的。（非限制性） 2）当先行词是专有名词或物主代词和指示代词所修饰时，其后的定语从句通常是非限制性的。例如： Charles Smith, who was my former teacher, retired last year. 查理.史密斯去年退休了，他曾经是我的老师。 My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 我去年买的的那幢房子带着个漂亮的花园。 This novel, which I have read three times, is very touching. 这本小说很动人，我已经读了三遍。 3）非限制性定语从句还能将整个主句作为先行词, 对其进行修饰, 这时从句谓语动词要用第三人称单数。 He is working hard for the exam, which makes his parents happy. 说明：关系代词 that 和关系副词 why 不能引导非限制性定语从句。 4）as 引导的非限制性从句，常带有“正如”的意思，放于句首。which 引导的非限制性定语从句不可放于 句首。 as 常用的结构有：as we all know; as is well known to…; as is often the case; as is said/mentioned above; as has been said before; as I told you before; as is evident; as often happens; as can be seen; as is/was expected; as we expect; as I can remember 等。 As we know, smoking is harmful to one\'s health. 如我们所知，吸烟有害健康。 The sun heats the earth, which is very important to us. 太阳使地球暖起来，这对我们人类很重要。
1）“介词 + 关系代词”引导定语从句时，介词的宾语只能用 which（指物）和 whom（指人），即：介词 +which/whom。不能用 that 和 who。 This is the teacher from whom we’ve learned a lot. 这就是从他那里我们学了很多东西的老师。 2）有时介词也可放在从句的末尾，这时关系代词可用 which/that(指物)，who/whom/that（指人），也可以 省略。 The man (whom/who/that) you were talking to just now is my English teacher. 你刚刚和他谈话的那个人是我 的英语老师。 3）当定语从句中的谓语动词短语是固定搭配，不可分割时，那么动词短语中的介词不能前置。 This is the pen which I’m looking for. 这是我正在找的那支钢笔。
不能写成：This is the pen for which I’m looking. 4）引导定语从句的关系副词(when, where, why) 可以用“介词+关系代词”代替。 This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 这是我两年前住过的房子。 This is the house where I lived two years ago.
1）不用 that 的情况 a）引导非限定性定语从句时。例如： The tree, that is four hundred years old, is very famous here. （错误） b）放在介词之后时。 We depend on the land from which we get our food. 我们依赖土地获得食物。 We depend on the land that/which we get our food from. 2） 只能用 that 作为定语从句的关系代词的情况 a）在 there be 句型中，只用 that，不用 which。 b）在不定代词，如：anything, nothing, the one, all, much, few, any, little 等作先行词时，只用 that，不用 which. Finally, the thief handed everything that he had stolen to the police. 那贼最终把偷的全部东西交给了警察。 c）先行词有 the only, the very, the last, the same, the just 修饰时，只用 that。 d）先行词为序数词、数词、形容词最高级时，只用 that。. e）先行词既有人，又有物时。 f) 当先行词是疑问词 who, which,, what 或主句以这些词开头时。 Who is the girl that is standing under the tree? 3）当 those 作为先行词指人时，通常只能用 who 引导； Those who leave last should turn off the lights. 4）当先行词有 the same 修饰时，关系代词可以用 that, 也可以用 as,但意思不同 This is the same pen as I lost. 这本书和我丢的那本一模一样。 （the same ---as---相似物） This is the same pen that I lost. 这本书就是我丢的那本。 （the same---that---同一物） 5）当先行词是 the way（方式）时，定语从句用 that 或 in which 或省略 I don’t like the way that/in which/省略 you talked to your mother.我不喜欢你跟你母亲说话的方式。 6）当先行词有 so 或 such 修饰时，定语从句用 as 引导 This is such an interesting book as we all like. This is so interesting a book as we all like. 这是大家都喜欢的如此有趣的一本书。
1. He failed in the exam. ___It____ made his parents angry. He failed in the exam, __which___ made his parents angry. 2. He has two sons. Both of __them______ are teachers. He has two sons, both of ___whom_____ are teachers. 4. The earth is round. _It____ is known to all. The earth is round, _which/as____ is known to all. 5. _As_ is known to all, the earth is round.（定语从句在句首时只能用 as） _It_ is known to all that the earth is round. (that 从句是主语从句，it 作形式主语) 6. This is the reason _____why/for which__ he was late. This is the reason _____that/which//___ he gave.
一、用关系代词或副词填空。 1. He said this was the best article ________ had been written by the writer. 2. Where is the boy ________ arm was hurt by the window ________ glass is broken? 3. The first English novel ________ aroused his interest was a novel by Mark Twain. 4. Is there anything ________ you don’t understand? 5. Everything ________ can be done has been done. 6. The only problem ________ troubled him has already been solved. 7. That’s all ________ I want to tell you. 8. The student ________ won the first prize in the English contest is from our class. 9. This is the city ________ I have long waited to visit. 10. They work in a factory ________ makes radio parts. 11. Who ________ has seen the film doesn’t admire it? 12. The baby ________ she is taking care of looks healthy. 13. What’s that ________ was flashed in the sky just now? 14. Shanghai is no longer the city ________ used to be three years ago. 15. Such a film ________ was shown in the cinema yesterday is not suitable for children. 16. Don’t make the same mistake ________ the six blind men did. 17. The ruler ordered that anyone ________ refused to bow before him should be thrown into prison. 18. From practice we can learn much ________ cannot be learned from books. 19. This is the only step ________ we can take at the moment. 20. He spoke of the workers and the factories ________ he had visited. 二、单项选择。 1. The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. Which B. where C. what D. in which 2. Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke 3. This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed 4. Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded? A. which B. that C. when D. on which 5. That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when 6. The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which 7. Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working. A. where B. that C. which D. there 8. This is one of the best films _______. A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown C. that has been shown this year D. that you talked 9. Can you lend me the book ______the other day? A. about which you talked B. which you talked C. about that you talked D. that you talked
10. The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which 11. They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which D. that 12. The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old. A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom 13. It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. which D. whose 14. I'm interested in ______you have said. A. all that B. all what C. that D. which 15. I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what D. as 16. He isn't such a man ______he used to be. A. who B. whom C. that D. as 17. He is good at English, ______we all know. A. that B. as C. whom D. what 18. Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much. A. I went with B. with whom I went C. with who I went D.I went with him 19. I don't like ______ as you read. A. the novels B. the such novels C. such novels D. same novels 20. He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 21. The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. whom D. who 22. In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women. A. them B. which C. whom D. who 23. You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it. A. who;/ B./; whom C. whom;/ D./; who 24. I lost a book, ______I can't remember now. A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that 25. Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what 26. I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV. A. that B. which C. as D. it 27. I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together. A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when 28. The way ______he looks at problems is wrong. A. which B. whose C. what D./ 29. This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting. A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which 30. This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly. A. after which I have looked B. which I have looked after C. that I have looked after D. I have looked after 31. The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill. A. why; that B.that;why C. for that;that D.for which;what
32. He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam. A.that B.which C.for which D.who 33. That is not the way ______I do it. A. / B.which C.for which D.with which 34. I have two grammars, ______are of great use. A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which 35. I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few days ago. A. as was B. which was C. as were D. which 36. My neighbors used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them. A. who B. which C. that D. it 37. This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph. A. that B. which C. from that D. from which 38. He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done. A. that B. which C. who D. as 39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes. A. / B. why C. when D. whose 40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular. A. that B. which C. it D. though 三、将下列两句话合并成一句。 1. I can’t find the book.. I bought a book yesterday. _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. The girl is my sister. The girl is standing on the stage. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. The West Lake lies in Hangzhou. The West Lake is one of the most famous lakes in China. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. I don’t know that boy. The boy is in blue shirt. _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. My brother likes the singers. The singers write their own music. _____________________________________________________________________________ 6. The cat is mine. The cat is playing with a ball. _____________________________________________________________________________ 四、翻译。 1、这就是救了孩子生命的医生。 2、她就是我要介绍给你的新学生。 3、请递给我摆在桌上的那本书。 4、汤姆买的小说很有意思。 5、你能把昨天谈到的那本杂志借给我吗？ 6、那位教授是威廉斯他的女儿教你英语。 7、那辆坏了轮胎的自行车现在已经修好了。 8、正在弹钢琴的那位妇女是张小姐。 9、这是我看过的最好的一部电影。 10、我们要参观的第一个地方是北京图书馆 11、他是唯一可靠的人。 12、约翰正是她要见的人。 13、正在和汤姆谈话的人是谁？ 14、你买的那些书中哪一本容易读。