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第十五节 特殊句式、倒装与省略


II.预习思考题: 1. 强调句的基本结构是什么?你了解其变式和特殊句式吗? 2. 倒装结构的作用是什么?分为哪几种? 3. 你了解其他的特殊句式吗? III.主干知识

1.强调句型的基本结构: (即必须满足三要素) It is/was + 被强调部分 + that/who + 其他部分 ⑴ ⑵ ⑶ 例如: ⑴ It was yesterday that I realized my fault. ⑴ ⑵ ⑶ ⑵ Was it because of the rain that he was late? ⑴ ⑵ ⑶ ⑶ I wonder when it was that he left. ⑵ ⑴ ⑶ 【提示】: ①强调句的判断方法是:去掉 It is/was 和 that/who 后句子仍然完整。否则,不是强调句。 It is not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do that benefits our work most.(2011.陕西高考) →Not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do benefits our work most. ②被强调部分是时间和地点状语时,不用 when 或 where 而也要用 that. It was in the park that Tom lost his watch. ③强调谓语动词时在其前面加 do/does/did. He did write to you last week. 2.强调句变式与特殊形式

①变式是指强调句型的疑问句形式以及疑问句作宾语。试比较: It was yesterday that he realized his fault. →was it yesterday that he realized his fault? →when was it that he realized his fault? →I want to know when it was that he realized his fault. ②特殊形式是指对 not until…的强调。试比较: it was not until I came here that I realized this place was famous for not only its beauty but also its weather.(2012.湖南高考) →I didn’t realize this place was famous for not only its beauty but also its weather until I came here.

在写作时为了强调或结构的需要, 句子常采用倒装语序, 即句子谓语的全部或一部分置 于主语前面。分为完全倒装、部分倒装。可概括为五大基本句型:NAOSH 句型一:N 代表 none,neither,nor, not ,never, hardly, little. seldom 等否定词, 以及由 no 构 成的否定短语如 at no time, by no means 等置于句首的部分倒装。 Never have I heard a better voice. Not a single song did she sing at the party. Not only is he smart, but he’s hardworking. Not until he went through real hardship did he realize the love we have for our families is important.(2013.福建高考) 句型二:A 代表 as/though,表示“虽然,尽管” , 引导让步状语从句时用部分倒装

由 as 或 though 构成的让步结构
Child as he is, he has developed a lot of practical soft wares. Hard as he tried, he couldn’t get the car going. Young as he is, he’s been to many places. Unsatisfied though he was with the payment, he took the job just to get some work experience. (2009.重庆高考) 【提示】 :此结构由三要素构成如下: n./adj./adv. + as 或 though + 主语 + v. ⑴ ⑵ ⑶ 句型三:O 代表 only, “only + 状语”置于句首时,句子用部分倒装 Only in this way can we finish it on time. Only when he apologizes for his rudeness will I speak to him again.(2013.江西高考) 【提示】 :only 修饰主语时,句子用正常语序。如: Only Joe knows how to unlock the safe. 句型四:S 代表 so/such, so/such…that…结构中,当 so/such 位于句首时,其后的句子用部 分倒装 So precious is time that we cannot afford to waste it. So sudden was the attack that the enemy had no time to escape.(2009.山东高考) 句型五:H 代表 here, there ,now, then, out , in , up, down , away, on the wall, in the room 等 表示地点、时间或方位的副词或介词短语置于句首时, 句子用完全倒装 Come on! There goes the bell. Down jumped the burglar from the above. The door burst open and in came a gang of robbers, gun in hand. Now comes your turn.

【提示】 :①部分副词及副词短语位于句首时,采用完全倒装语序。 方位副词 及短语 趋向副词 时间副词 ① here, there ② North of the city, in front of, from the house 等 out, in, up, down, off, away 等 now, then

但是代词作主语时,用正常语序,如: Here it is. You may keep it as long as you like. ②表语位于句首,采用倒装语序。 Gone are the days when we used the “foreign oil”. 其他倒装句式 1. He can ride a bike, so can I. You can’t do that. Nor can I. 语气 肯定 句 否定 句 结 构 意义 也 也不 so + 助/ 系/ 情 + 主语 neither/ nor + 助/ 系/ 情 + 主语

2.虚拟语气中的倒装 Were I you, I would do the work better. Should there be a flood, what should we do? Had it not been for him, I would not have made it. 【提示】 :虚拟条件句的谓语有 were, had, should 等时,可省略 if,然后把系动词/助动词/ 情态动词提前。 三、省略句 1.状语从句的省略 He never speaks unless (he is) spoken to. All the photographs in this book, unless (they are ) stated otherwise, date from the 1950s.(2012.陕 西高考) 【提示】 :在状语从句中,如果主从句主语一致或从句主语是 it,且从句中含有 be 动词,可 以将从句的主语和 be 动词一起省略。 2.不定式的省略 I asked him to see the film, but he didn’t want to. The driver wanted to park his car near the roadside but was asked by the police not to.(2013.新课 标) 【提示】 :在动词不定式结构中,为了避免重复,常常省略不定式结构中的动词只保留 to. 但是如果承前省略的不定式中含有 be 或 have 时,be 和 have 不能省。例如: ①----Are you a doctor? ----No, but I used to be. ②----He hasn’t finished the work. ----But he out to have.

介词 with 以及动词 have, make, leave 和感官动词 see, hear, find 等引导的复合结构都是写 作中较为常用的。如:

1. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise going on. 2. You should understand the traffic rule by now. You’ve had it explained often enough. 3. He stole out, leaving his friends uneasy. 4. I find it hard to communicate with him.

I. 用正确的词汇填写空白 1. It was not until she took off her dark glasses _____ I realized she was a film star. 2. ______ is you rather than your classmate ______ are to blame. 3. ______ two exams to worry about, I have to work really hard this weekend. 4. If you do not go to school tomorrow, ______ will I. 5. Strange _______ it might sound, his idea was accepted by all the people at the meeting. 6. _____ he to leave today, he would get there by Friday. 7. __________ it rain tomorrow, we would have to put off the visit. 8. ______ sudden was the attack that the enemy had no time to escape. 9. _______ by working hard can you achieve success in the future. 10. Such is the influence of TV _______ it can make a person famous overnight. II.使用特殊句式补全下列空白 1. Seldom _________________ (我们听到) such fine singing from school choirs. 2. He slept well _______________________ (窗户开着). 3. Not until I began to work ______________ ___________ (我才意识到) how much time I had wasted. 4. No sooner _______________________(她妈妈刚离开) home than the little girl stole out. 5. _______________________ (他们不仅带来)snacks and drinks, but they also brought cards for entertainment. 6. He raised his voice to ________________ ______________ (使自己被别人听见). 7. Don’t leave _____________________ (自来水流淌) while you brush your teeth. 8. _____________________ (尽管他是个小学生), he can often come up with practical ideas. 9. __________________ (警察跳下来) from the third floor. III.按照要求用特殊句式升级下列句子

1.Time is so precious that we can’t afford to waste it.(用倒装句改写句子)
______________________________________________________________________________ 2.I can not only keep in touch with my friends and family through my cell, but also almost all information can be gathered on the internet.(用倒装句改写句子) ______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ 3.If I had worked hard at school, my life today would be quite different.(用倒装省略来改写句 子 ______________________________________________________________________________ 4.As the College Entrance Examination is approching, many students feel stressed and anxious.(用强调句改写句子) ______________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 5.When we realize the importance of protecting the environment, the world will become more beautiful.(用 only +状语放在句首改写句子)

______________________________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ IV.阅读下列一段文字并回答问题 What can you do if you think you may be a textaholic? The key is to get your life back in balance. Make sure you resist the urge to answer every message you receive, and consider leaving your mobile phone behind occasionally when you go out. Most importantly, make a point of spending quality time with friends and family, and make time to re-learn the art of face-to-face conversation instead of conducting your relationships by means of text messages. Not only will you save time and money, but you may also rediscover the pleasure of true communication. (节选 2011 山东高考) 1. What is the main idea of passage? (no more than 8 words) ______________________________________________________________ 2. Explain the underlined sentence in the passage. __________________________________________________________________________ V.美化下文中的划线句子使文章语言结构更美(注意特殊句式的应用) Ladies and gentleman, I feel it a great honor to have a chance to give a speech here, talking about fog and haze weather. ①In recent years, fog and haze weather has` occurred a lot in some areas of China. It has done great harm to our daily life. ②Many traffic accidents happened just because of the fog and haze weather. Besides,more and more citizens have to go to see the doctor beause of the serious disease caused by the fog and haze weather. Now that we have realized the great harm caused by the fog and haze, we should take measures to reduce fog and haze weather. ③The government should suggest people go to work or school with the public transportation, such as the bus and the underground. Also more trees should be planted. As for me, I will go to school by bike or on foot. ④We can enjoy a healthy and wonderful life in this way. 1._____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 2._____________________________________________________________________________ 3._____________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________ 4._____________________________________________________________________________

I.填入合适的词 Group One
1.It is Mary who often ____ (help/helps) me with my English. 2.It is I that ____ (be) against you. 3.It is the boy students of Class Two who ____ playing football on the playground

Group Two
1.It __________(一定是) Peter who has let this secret out. 2.It was on the day ________ he joined the Party _______ he was killed. 3. It is true______ he once went to America. 4.She looks sad. Could you please tell me ________ that prevents her from being as happy as

before? A. what it is

B. it is what

C. how it is

D. it is how

II. 直击高考 高考写作真题:注意特殊句式结构完成句子并背诵 Group One
1.直到那时我才意识到语言的力量是强大的,不管是积极的还是消极的。 Not until then ________________ words can be powerful in both positive and negative ways.(四川—真题) 2.我不仅会阻止随地扔垃圾、吐痰行为,并且随时有可能时我还可以帮忙清理路边垃圾 Not only ___________ keep from littering or spitting anywhere, but also __________help clean up the roadside litter whenever possible.(广东—真题) 3.它不仅让我们接近大自然,繁重的工作之余给我们带来轻松,同时它也可以增进我们之间 的友谊。 Not only ___________get us close to nature and give us relaxation from heavy school work, it also promoted the friendship among us. (江西—真题)

Group Two
1.他们认为只有这样我们才能更好的理解并记住那些教学材料。 (四川—真题) They think only in this way __________ understand and memorize the teaching material better. 2.只用那时我才意识到像打扫房间这样的小事有多么重要。 (广东—真题) Only then ____________realize how important such a little thing as cleaning the house was. 3.只用用这种方式他们才能变得独立,才能真正的成功。 (福建—真题) Only ______________ can they grow up to be independent and become truly successful. 4.只用当我们做到言行一致的时候我们才能在希望完成的事情中更有意义。 (江苏—真题) Only when we match our words with actions ______________________in whatever we hope to accomplish.

Group Three 1.尽管我很累,但我从未感觉如此幸福过。 ______________________, I never felt so happy. 2.总之,成功很重要,失败也是。 In a word, success is important and _____________________. 3.一些孩子都忙于自己的事情腾不出时间给父母。
______ busy with their own business are some children _____they have no time for their parents.

Also, ___- let me know if you need further information.

III.按要求翻译句子 1. 直到她摘下墨镜我才认出她是一位著名的影星。(not…until…) 一般句式: ____________________________________________________________ 倒装句式: ____________________________________________________________ 强调句式:____________________________________________________________ 2. 过马路时一定要当心。(强调谓语动词) _________________________________________________________________ 3.他一到家就开始准备晚饭。(no sooner…than) __________________________________________________________ 4.他一进屋就开始下雨了。(hardly…when)

__________________________________________________________ 5.只有人人努力我们的社会才能更加温暖和谐(only+状语的倒装) ___________________________________________________________________