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名词与主谓一致


名词与主谓一致
(一)分类

专有名词 国名地名人名 团体机构名称 可数名词 个体名词

普通名词 不可数名词 抽象名词 物质名词

集体名词

(二)转换 个体名词与抽象名词的相互转换

抽象化(抽象名词,不可数名词) in flower 开花 youth 青春 suc

cess 成功
物质名词与个体名词的相互转换

个体名词(可数) a flower 一朵花儿 a youth 年轻人 a success 成功的人或事

物质名词(不可数) iron 铁 glass 玻璃 chicken 鸡肉
抽象名词与个体名词的转换

具体化(个体名词,可数名词) an iron 熨斗 a glass 玻璃杯 a chicken 小鸡

抽象名词(不可数) in surprise 惊讶地 win success 获得成功 win honor 赢得荣誉

具体化(个体名词,可数名词) a surprise 一件令人惊讶的事 a success 一个(件)成功的人 (事) an honor 一个(件)引以为荣的 人(事)

Failure is the mother of success.失败是成 a failure 一个(件)失败的人(事) 功之母. have pity on sb. 怜悯某人 with pleasure 乐意 a pity 可惜的事情 a pleasure 乐事

可数名词有单数和复数的变化,而单复数的变化又分为规则变化和不规则变化两种。

分 变化方 类 法 单数名 词词尾 直接加-s

举 例

boy — boys

pen — pens

以 s, x , ch,sh 结 glass—glasses box—boxes watch—watches 尾的单 hes 词一般 特例:stomach — stomachs 加-es 以“辅音 字母+y” 结尾的 规 变“y”为 则 “i”再加 变 “-es” 化 以“o”结 尾的多 数加-s 以“f”或 “fe”结尾 的名词 复数形 式变“f” 或“fe”为 “v”, 之后 再加-es 改变名 词中的 元音字 母或其 他形式

brush—brus

baby—babies lady —ladies 注意:penny 的两种复数形式含义有所不同: pence(便士的钱数) pennies(便士的枚数)

zoos photos pianos kilos tobaccos 而下列名词的复数却要加-es: tomato — tomatoes potato — potatoes hero — heroes

radios

wife—wives self — selves 特例: handkerchief—handkerchiefs gulf—gulfs belief—beliefs

man-men woman-women

foot-feet goose-geese mousemice 特例:child-children

不 规 单复数 sheep deer means(方法) works(作品、工厂、著作) 则 相同 变 合成名 化 词变成 ●sons-in-law lookers-on passers-by story-tellers boy 复数的 friends 情况: ●grown-ups housewives stopwatches ●将主体 名词变 ●women singers men servants

为复数 ●无主体 名词时 将最后 一部分 变为复 数 ●将两部 分都变 为复数
在熟悉以上规则的基础上,特别注意以下几点: 1.注意以下名词数的概念 ① 以 s 结尾,仍为单数的名词(多为学科名词) physics, linguistics, mathematics, politics, statistics, news, the United States ② 集合名词:表示一类事物的集合或总称,没有复数形式 machinery, furniture, equipment, technology, luggage, baggage, homework, evidence ③ 单数和复数形式表达不同的意思 custom 风俗,习惯—customs 海关 good 好处,利益—goods 货物 fish 鱼肉—fishes 各种鱼 water 水—waters 水域 time 时间—times 时代 damage 损害—damages 赔偿金 time 时间—times 时代,次数,倍数 paper 纸—papers 试卷,文件 room 空间—rooms 房间 arm 手臂—arms 武器

④ 有些抽象名词有时以复数形式出现,表示具体化,意义发生变化或构成固定短语。 use one?s brains 动脑筋 make preparations 做准备 good manners 有礼貌 No pains, no gains.不劳无获。 possessions 所有物,财产 meet with difficulties 遇到各种困难 in high spirits 情绪高涨 Many thanks.非常感谢。 congratulations 祝贺 surroundings 环境

⑤ 有些物质名词以复数形式出现,表示数量之多,范围之广。 burst into tears 大哭起来 burn to ashes 烧成灰烬 miles of golden sands 绵延几英里的金黄色沙滩

⑥ 形式上虽是单数,但表示的是复数含义 people, police, cattle, staff, public, the+adj.(the rich 富人), the+ 分词(the wounded 伤员) 2.集体名词的数 family, team, audience, class, club, committee, crowd, group, enemy, cattle, government, majority, minority, part, people, police, public, staff 等集体名词注意其主谓一致, 一般来说, 视 为整体时作单数看待,侧重其成员时则作复数看待。 The enemy has suffered heavy losses. The enemy are in flight. 名词所有格的规则如下: ① 名词词尾加?s,如 the boy?s bag, men?s room。 ② 若名词已有复数词尾“s”,只加 “?”。如:the workers? struggle。 ③ 由 of 构成的所有格:无生命名词的所有格则必须用 of 结构。 如:a map of China,the end of this term,the capital of our country, the color of the flowers。 在熟悉以上规则的基础上,特别注意以下几点: 1.如果两个名词并列,并且分别有“?s”,则表示“分别有”;只有一个“?s”,则表示“共有”。 John?s and Mary?s rooms(分别拥有的房间) John and Mary?s room(共有的一间) 2.“?s”所有格的特殊表达形式 ① 用于表示时间、距离、价格、重量等的名词后。 today?s newspaper, five minutes? walk(drive),five pounds? weight, ten dollars? worth of apples。 ② 用于表示国家、世界、城市等地方的名词后。 the earth?s plant, the world?s population, China?s industry, New York?s parks。 ③ 表示店铺或某人的家时,常在名词所有格后省去 shop,house 等名词。 the tailor?s 裁缝店,the barber?s 理发店,go to the doctor?s 上诊所。 3.双重所有格:of +名词?s(或+名词性物主代词) a friend of Tom?s some/two students of mine

尤其是在表示赞扬、批评或厌恶等感情色彩时常常用这种结构。of 所修饰的名词前通常 有指示代词 that/this/these/those,但不能用 the。

That invention of hers belongs to the world.她的那项发明是属于全世界的。(表赞赏) 注意:当 of 之前的名词是 picture, portrait 等词时含义不同: This is a picture of my friend?s.这是我朋友收藏的一幅画。 This is a picture of my friend.这是我朋友的一张照片。 名词作定语是现代英语较为简洁的修饰语表达方式,根据习惯搭配可归为以下几类: 1.表示中心词的用途、功能、材料 stone figures 石像,shoe shop 鞋店,coffee cup 咖啡杯 2.表示中心词的时间、地点、称呼。 summer holidays 暑假,school education 学校教育,evening dress 晚礼服 注意:表具体的时间名词作定语,则要用所有格结构来表达。 yesterday?s news 昨天的消息 an hour?s drive 开车一小时的路程 3.表示中心词的类别、对象、身份。 bike key 自行车的钥匙,animal trainer 驯兽师,woman driver 女驾驶员 4.表示中心词的内容 computer studies 电脑学习,weather report 天气预报,film industry 电影工业 5.表示部 分与整体的关系 river banks 河岸,animal bones 动物骨头,cigarette ends 烟头 名词作定语时的特别注意点: ① 名词作定语时,一般用其单数形式,且不随后面的名词的单复数产生变化 two pencil boxes, girl friends, a seven-year-old boy 但是,少数的名词作定语却用复数形式。 sports shoes 运动鞋 a sales girl 女销售员 clothes shops 服装店 a greetings card 贺卡

② man 和 woman 作定语要注意其单复数形式的变化 a man doctor—men doctors; a woman engineer—women engineers ③ 名词作定语和所有格作定语的区别。 the girl friend 女朋友—the girl's friend 那位女孩的朋友 the woman driver 女司机—the woman's driver 那位妇女的司机

④ 名词作定语和形容词作定语的区别 名词作定语主要说明物质的材料、来源或对象;形容词作定语主要起修饰、限定的作用。 gold watch 金表 heart trouble 心脏病 convenience food 快餐 golden sunshine 金色的阳光 hearty welcome 热忱的欢迎 convenient food 制作方便的食品

名词是英语的主要词汇之一, 也是历年高考的重要考点。 综合近几年高考对名词的考查, 单项填空题中,每年都出现 1—2 道题。此外,在阅读理解和完形填空中,名词的一词多义、 熟词新意也经常涉及。因此,在备考中一定要结合具体的语境去感悟、理解名词的辨析、名 词的一词多义以及名词的习惯用法等。 ① We always keep ______ spare paper, in case we ran out. A. too much B. a number of C. plenty of D. a good many

【解析】 答案为 C。“paper”作为“纸”解释时为不可数名词,所以先排除 B 和 D 两个选 项。根据题意“我们总是准备充足的备用纸张,以防用光。”选择答案 C。too much 意为“太 多”尽管修饰不可数名词,但用在这儿不符合题意。 ② The young dancers looked so charming in their beautiful clothes that we took ___ pictures of them. A. many of B. masses of C. the number of D. a large amount of

【解析】答案为 B。【解析】答案为 masses of 意为“大量的”既可修饰可数名词又可修 饰不可数名词;the number of…意为“……的数量”;a large amount of 意为“大量的”后接不 可数名词;“many of”后接前面带 有定冠词的名词,意为“……中的许多”。 The village is far away from here indeed. It's ____ walk. A. a four hour B. a four hour's C. a four-hours D. a four hours'

【解析】答案为 D。“walk, ride, drive”等用做名词可用来表示一般距离,其用法结构为: “时间名词的所有格+这些名词”。 ① The_________ is just around the corner and you won?t miss it. A. bicycle?s shop B .bicycle shop C. bicycles shop D bicycl es? shop

【解析】答案为 B。表示什么样的商店要用单数名词修饰“shop”。 ② He dropped the _________and broke it. A. cup of coffee B. coffee's cup C. cup for coffee D. coffee cup

【解析】答案为 D。coffee cup 意为“ 咖啡杯”是指“用来喝咖啡的杯子”。名词作定语修 饰名词。

一是考查语义方面的辨析: 主要考查某些多义词在特定上下文中的引申含义,以及准确辨 别一些同义、近义词在特定语境中的差异的能力。 ① Most air pollution is caused by the burning of___ A. fuels B. articles C. goods _ like coal, gas and oil. D. products

【解析】答案为 A。由题干中的“coal,gas,oil”可知都是燃料,故正确答案 A 项意为“燃 料”。articles 意为“物品”;goods 意为“货物、商品”;products 意为“产品”。 ② To save some of the human languages before they are forgotten, the students in our school started a discussion “Save Our A. Sky B. Life C. Arts ”.

D. Voices

【解析】答案为 D。由语境可知,此处指人类的语言,而语言是人类说的声音,因此用 “voices”。 ③ —Shall we go out for a walk? —Sorry. This is not the right A. moment B. situation to invite me. I am too tired to walk. C. place D. chance

【解析】答案为 A。句意:“我们出去散散步好吗?”“对不起,这不是邀请我的合适的 时间,我太累了而不想去散步。”moment 意为“某一时刻,片刻”;situation 意为“情形,状 况”;place 意为“地方”;chance 意为“机会”。 ④ The top leaders of the two countries are holding talks in a friendly A. atmosphere B. state C. situation .

D. phenomenon

【解析】 答案为 A。 句意: 这两个国家的最高领导人在友好的气氛中进行交谈。 atmosphere 意为“气氛,氛围”;state 意为“状态”;situation 意为“形势,局面”;phenomenon 意为“现 象”。 ⑤ What?s the hang out for a while? A. sense B. matter C. case D. opinion of having a public open space where you can?t eat, drink or even simply

【解析】答案为 A。本题所设的语境是:有这样一个你在那里不能吃、不能喝甚至不能 动的公共开放场所有什么意义呢?sense 意为“意义、 意识”; matter 意为“问题, 麻烦”; case 意为“情况,问题”;opinion 意为“意见,看法”。四个选项中只有 A 项符合语境。 二是考查搭配方面的辨析:主要考查固定句型中的名词、名词与动词的搭配以及名词与 介词的搭配等。

① The young man made a ______to his parents that he would try to earn his own living after graduation. A. prediction B. promise C. plan D. contribution

【解析】答案为 B。句意:这位年轻人向他的父母许诺说毕业之后他将努力自食其力。 make a promise 意为“许诺、答应”其后的“that”从句为同位语从句,补充说明先行词 “promise”的内容,其它选项不合句意。 ② I bought a dress for only 2010 dollars in a sale; it was a real A. exchange B. bargain C. trade . D. business

【解析】 答案为 B。 bargain 用作名词时, 意为“廉价货, 便宜货”, a real bargain 意为“真 便宜”。 ③ It is no A. use arguing with Bill because he will never change his mind. B. help C. time D. way

【解析】答案为 A。“it is no use 后接动词+ing 形式”或“动词+ing 形式短语”表示“做某 事没有用”。 ④ I have read the material several times but it doesn?t make any ________ to me. A. meaning B. importance C. sense D. significance

【解析】答案为 C。因为 make sense 意为“有意义、讲得通、有道理” 是固定习语。 ⑤ Don?t leave matches or cigarettes on the table within ________ of little children. A. hand B. reach C. space D. distance 【解析】答案为 B。within one’s reach 意为“伸手拿(够)得到”,是习语。 在英语的句子中,谓语动词的形式应与主语的人称和数保持一致。近几年来,高考关于 该内容的考查主要集中在语法一致、逻辑意义一致以及就近(远)一致原则等三个方面。 一、语法一致原则 只要确定句子的主语是单数意义,则谓语用单数,句子的主语意义复数,则谓语用复数。 具体表现如下: 1.不可数名词作主语,一律视为单数。某些以 s 结尾的单数名词作主语,仍视为单数。 No news is good news. His task was to collect information. How much machinery has been installed? 2.表示单一概念的动名词、不定式或句子作主语时,谓语动词用单数。

When and where to go for the on-salary holiday has not been decided yet. 3. “ one, either, neither, each of +复数名词或代词”作主语时, 谓语用单数。 Either of the stories is very funny. 4.something, everything, anything, nothing,somebody, nobody, no one 等不定代词作主语, 谓语通常是单数。 Nothing is impossible. 5.表示时间、金钱、距离、重量、数量的复数名词作主语,通常看作一个整体,谓语动 词用单数。 Ten pounds was missing from the box. 6. a series of, a kind of, a piece of, a pair of 等量词修饰名词,通常以量词的单复数形式来 决定谓语的单复数。 This pair of glasses is very expensive. Two series of new stamps have been ordered. 7.a number of +复数名词,“许多……”,复数意义;the number of +复数名词,“……的 数目”,单数意义。the population of…“……的人口数量”作主语时,谓语用单数,但如果是 分数、百分数、half of, the rest of the population 作主语时,具体指其中的多少人,复数意义, 谓语则用复数。the average of…“……的平均数量”,作主语时,谓语用单数。 The number of the students in our school is quite large and a number of teachers work hard. The population of China is large and most of the population are farmers. 8.主语后 with, together with, along with, except, besides, as well as 等短语时,谓语动词的 数要和这些短语前面的名词的单复数保持一致。(因为 with 等词为介词,其后跟的名词只能 是介宾,不可能充当主语。) Mr. Green together with his children goes to the park every Sunday. 9.“the +adj.”结构指一类人时,谓语动词用复数;如果指个别人或表示抽象的概念,谓 语动词用单数。 The disabled are well taken care of in this country. The dead in this accident was 20, a girl from Nanjing University. The new is certain to replace the old. 10.分数、百分数、all, some, the rest, half of, most of, part of 等作主语时,谓语动词的单 复数根据其指代的含义确定。 The rest of the workers are still very tired.

11.当 and 连接两个并列主语在意义上指同一人、同一物、同一事或者同一概念时,应看 作单数,谓语动词用单数。另外,当 and 连接两个形容词去修饰一个单数形式的主语时, 其实是指两种不同的事物,主语则应该看作是复数, 那么谓语动词也应该用复数。 War and peac e is a constant theme in history. Chinese and Japanese silk are of good quality. 英语中并列结构表示整体概念的有: iron and steel 钢铁 bread and butter 黄油面包 a knife and fork 一副刀叉 aim and end 目的 law and order 治安 a watch and chain 一块带链的表 a coat and tie 一件配有领带的上衣 truth and honesty 真诚

12.what 引导的主语从句作主语时,谓语动词的单复数要取决于作表语的名词的单复数。 What surprised me most was his attitude towards his study. 13.such 作主语时,谓语动词的单复数形式要根据其意义而定。 Such is Stephen Hawking, who has suffered a great deal but achieved so much. 14.quantities of +名词作主语时,不论名词是复数还是不可数,谓语一律用复数。 a quantity of +名词复数作主语时,谓语用复数。 a quantity of +不可数名词作主语时,谓语用单数。 amounts of +不可数名词作主语时,谓语用复数。 an amount of +不可数名词作主语时,谓语用单数。 Every day quantities of water are wasted. A large amount of damage has been done because of the floods. 二、逻辑意义一致原则 1.every /each/no +名词+and every/ each/ no +名词作主语时,谓语用单数。 Every boy and every girl is having sports now. 2.“one +单数名词+and a half”作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 One apple and a half was on the table. 3.“more than one +单数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数形式。 More than one student has failed the exam.

4.“many a +单数名词”作主语时,谓语动词用单数。 Many a child was playing there. 【注意】以上四种情况,如果从意义上来讲,主语有复数意义,但由于名词都是以单数 形式出现的,故谓语用单数形式,谓语形式上与主语的单数形式一致。 三、就近(远)一致原则 1.谓语动词的人称和数常常与最近作主语的词语保持一致。常出现在这类句子中的连词 有:or, not…but…; either…or…, neither…nor…, not only…but also …等。 Either I or they are responsible for the result of the matter. Neither the unkind words nor the unfriendly attitude has caused me any distress. 2.在倒装句中谓语可与后面最近的一个主语一致。 In the distance was heard the clapping of hands and the shouts of the people. 3.当 there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致。 There is a pen, a knife and several books on the desk. There are twenty boy-students and twenty-three girl-students in the class. 4.当一个句子是由 there 或 here 引起,而主语又不止一个时,谓语通常和最靠近它的主 语一致。 Here is a pen, a few envelopes and some paper in the drawer. 5.在定语从句中,关系代词如果在从句中作主语,依先行词决定从句谓语动词的单复数 形式; 在“one of+复数名词+who/that/which”引导的从句结构中, 从句中的动词用复数形式; 但是之前有 the (only)等修饰语时,则从句中的动词用单数形式。 Mary is the only one of the students in our school who has ever been to China. 6.主语后面跟有“with, together with, except, but, like, as well as, no less than, rather than, more than, besides, along with, including, in addition to”等引起的短语,谓语动词要跟主语一 致,即就远一致。 Mr. Green, together with his wife and children, has come to China. A woman with a baby was on the bus. Nobody but Jim and Mike was on the playground. She like you and Tom, is very tall. The girls as well as the boy have learned to speak Japanese. No one except my teachers knows anything about it.

◆ 动词不定式、动名词以及名词性从句作主语时的主谓一致 Most of what has been said about the Smiths_______also true of the Johnsons. A. are B. is C. being D. to be

【解析】答案为 B。本题的主语是主语从句通常看作不可数,“most of”修饰主语从句依 然是不可数,谓语动词应该用单数形式。 ◆ one, either, neither, each 等+of+复数名词或代词作主语时的主谓一致 —Each of the students, working hard at his or her lessons, ______ to go to university. —So do I. A. hope B. hopes C. hoping D. hoped

【解析】答案为 B。本题的主语是“each”,“of the students”作后置定语,修饰“each”。 ◆ 由 and 连接并列主语时的主谓一致 ① —Di d you go to the show last night? —Yeah. Every boy and girl in the area ________invited. A. were C. has been D. was

【解析】答案为 D。主语是“every boy and girl”表示单数概念,故谓语动词用单数,且 询问昨晚的情况,有明确的过去时间,所以应选择“was”。 ② A poet and artist ________ coming to speak to us about Chinese literature and painting tomorrow afternoon. A. is B. are C. was D. were

【解析】答案为 A。此题中“and”连接的第二个名词“artist”前没有加冠词,说明指的是 同一个人,应为单数。 ◆ 定语从句中的主谓一致 He is the only one of the students who _____ a winner of scholarship for three years. A. is B. are C. have been D. has been

【解析】答案为 D。“the only one of +复数名词+定语从句”中的先行词是“the only one”, 定语从句中谓语动词用单数形式, 又结合时间状语“for three years“可知应使用现在完成时。 ◆ quantities of+名词作主语时的主谓一致 With more forests being destroyed, huge quantities of good earth ______ each year.

A. is washing away C. are washing away

B. is being washed away D. are being washed away

【解析】答案为 D。一般讲“quantities of“不论修饰可数名词还是不可数名词,其短语作 主语时,谓语动词用复数形式。 ◆ the number of 与 a number of 的区别 ① As you can see, the number of cars on our roads__________ rising these days. A. was keeping B. keep C. keeps D. were keeping

【解析】答案为 C。在“the number of +复数名词”中主语是“the number(数量)”,谓 语动词用单数,根据语境,应使用现在时。 ② Nowadays, a large number of women, especially those from the countryside, _______ in the clothing industry. A. is working B. works C. work D. worked

【解析】答案为 C。a number of +复数名词,谓语动词用复数,根据语境和时间状语 Nowadays 可知应使用一般现在时。 ◆ 分数、百分数作主语时的主谓一致 ① The company had about 20 notebook computers but only one-third_____ used regularly. Now we have 60 working all day long. A. is B. are C. was D. were

【解析】答案为 D。“one-third”是指“20 台笔记本中的三分之一”,表示复数意义;根据 语境,前后是今昔对比的描述,空格处应使用过去时。 【答案】 ② _____ of the land in that district ______ covered with trees and grass. A. Two fifth; is B. Two fifth; are C. Two fifths; is D. Two fifths; are

【解析】答案为 C。分子大于“1”时,作分母的序数词要用复数形式,并且分数修饰的 是不可数名词“land”,谓语动词用单数形式。 ◆ 倒装句中的主谓一致 ① At the foot of the mountain ________. A. a village lie B. lies a village C. does a village lie D. lying a village

【解析】答案为 B。这是一个全部倒装的句子,主语是“a village”。 ② On top of the books _______the photo album you?re looking for.

A. is

B. are

C. has

D. have

【解析】答案为 A。作表语的介词短语放在句首时,使用全部倒装语序,句子的真正主 语不是“books”,而是“the photo album”。 ◆ 表示抽象概念的名词或词组作主语时的主谓一致 A survey of the opinions of experts _________that three hours of outdoor exercise a week ________ good for one?s health. A. show; are B. shows; is C. show; is D. shows; are

【解析】答案为 B。主句中的主语是“A survey”为单数,后有“of”短语作定语分隔;从 句中的主语是“threehours”,是表示时间段的名词词组,看作一个整体,谓语动词用单数形 式。 ◆ 一些单复数形式相同的名词如作主语时的主谓一致 Every possible means _____to prevent the pollution, but the sky is still not clear. A. is used B. are used C. has been used D. have been used

【解析】C。答案为“means”前有“every”修饰,说明是单数;根据语境,此处应使用现 在完成时,表示对现在造成的结果或影响。 ◆ 由连词“or, either…or…,neither…nor…,not only…but also…,whether…or…” 等连接并列主语时的主谓一致(遵循就近一致原则) Either you or the headmaster _______ the prizes to those gifted students at the meeting. A. is handing out out ① We live day by day, but in the great things, the time of days and weeks _________ so small that a day is unimportant. A. is B. are C. has been D. have been B. are to hand out C. are handing out D. is to hand

【解析】答案为 A。主语“time”和谓语动词之间插入了“of”短语作定语来迷惑考生,必 须分析句子成分和结构才能慧眼识别出主语为“the time”。 ② The father as well as his three children _________ska ting on the frozen river every Sunday afternoon in winter. A. is going B. go C. goes D. are going

【解析】答案为 C。本题的主语是“father”,“as well as”短语是插入成分,其后的名词 不是主语的一部分。 2009 年

1.(天津卷) I?m trying to break the _______ of getting up too late . A. tradition 【答案】C 【解析】句意:我试图打破起床太晚这个习惯。 Tradition 表示“传统”;convenience 表 示“方便”;habit 表示“习惯” ;leisure 表示“消遣,娱乐”,根据句意,应选 C。 2. (安徽卷)China has got a good smooth organization. A. reputation 【答案】A 【解析】四个近义词来区分.从句意及空格后面的介词入手,表达“中国在……上面有着 较好的声誉”应接介词 for。influence 后接 on。impression 后接 on。knowledge 后接 of. 3.(福建卷)The World Health Organization gave a warning to the public without any the virus of H1N1 hit Mexico in April, 2009. A. delay 【答案】A 【解析】delay:耽搁,延误;effort:努力;schedule:时间表;consideration:考虑, 体谅;关心。题干意思是:当 H1N1 型 2009 年 4 月袭击墨西哥时,世界卫生组织毫不犹豫 地向人们提出了警告。选 A。 4.(湖北卷)Hiking by oneself can be fun and good for health. It may also be good for ______ building. A. respect 【答案】D 【解析】根据常识便可知运动既可增强体质也可强健个性,不会增强尊敬或名声,友谊 可以增强,但与前面 health 不搭配,故答案为 character。 5.(湖北卷) In our class, when the bell rang and the teacher closed his book, it was a ______ for everyone to stand up. A. signal 【答案】A 【解析】根据句意可知打铃及老师合上书本,这是下课的暗示,选项中只能选择 signal。 chance“机会”,mark“分数,痕迹”,measure“方法,措施”。 B. chance C. mark D. measure B. friendship C. reputation D. character B. effort C. schedule D. consideration when B. influence C. impression D. knowledge for fighting against the flu with its careful and B. convenience C. habit D. leisure

6.(江西卷)The ____________ shoes were covered with mud, so I asked them to take them off before they got into __________ car. A. girl?s; Tom?s 【答案】C 【解析】根据题干后半部分的 them 可知对应复数 girls。 7.(山东卷)— He says that my new car is a ____________ of money. 21 世纪教育网— Don?t you think those words are just sour grapes? A. lack 【答案】D 【解析】lack 缺乏;load 负担;question 疑问;waste 浪费;根据句意,尤其是下句的 sour grapes(酸葡萄)可知答案选 D。 8. (陕西卷) Form their ________ on the top of the TV Tower, visitors can have a better view of the city. A. stage 【答案】B 【解析】stage:舞台,时期,阶段;position:位置;condition:条件,情况;situation: 形式,情况;情景;根据空前的物主代词 their 可以推断出此处选 B。题干意思是:从他们 在电视塔顶部的位置,游客们可以更好地看到这个城市的景色。 9.(浙江卷)The system has been designed to give students quick and easy ______ to the digital resources of the library. A. access 【答案】A 【解析】句意:人们设计这个系统是为了让学生快洁地使用图书馆的数字资源。 passage 意为 “文章;走廊”;way 是“方法、方式”; approach 也指“方式;接近”;access 指 “入口、通路”,常和介词 to 连用,可知选 A 符合。 10. (四川卷)The teacher together with the students ________ discussing Reading Skills that ________ newly published in America. A. are; were 【答案】B 【解析】A together with B 作主语时谓语动词与 A 的单复数保持一致;第二空为定语从 句 that 指代 Reading Skills,由于 Reading Skills 是书名所以谓语动词用单数。 B. is; were C. are; was D. is; was B. passage C. way D. approach B. position C. condition D. situation B. load C. question D. waste 21 世纪教育网 B. girls?; Toms? C. girls?; Tom?s D. girl?s; Toms?

11.(湖南卷)Either you or one of your students ______ to attend the meeting that is due tomorrow. A. are 【答案】B 【解析】Either …or…. 连接两个主语,按就近原则来确定谓语的单复数。One of your students 谓语应用单数形式。 12.(江苏卷)The population of Jiangsu __ figure is now approaching 74 million. A. has grown 【答案】A 【解析】考查主谓一致和时态。population 是集合名词,或集体名词,即看成一个整体, 所以谓语动词用单数形式。句子说的是江苏现在的人口数量和以及增长,用完成时表示现 在的状态。 13. (江西卷) At present, one of the apartments in favor of the new airport ________ that it will going a lot jobs to the area. A. is 【答案】A 【解析】考查时态和主谓一致。根据 at present =now 可知,应用一般现在时。 14.(山东卷)The number of foreign students attending Chinese universities ________ rising steadily since1990. A. is 【答案】C 【解析】本题考查主谓一致和时态,主语是 the number 故谓语动词用单数,又因时间 状语是 since 1997 所以用完成时态。 15.(陕西卷)Dr. Smith, together with his wife and daughters, A. is going to 【答案】A 【解析】考查动词时态和主谓一致。主语中心词是 Dr. Smith,表单数,谓语动词用单 数形式;时间状语是 this summer,表计划性的将来,故时态用一般将来时,选 A。 16.(四川卷)The teacher together with the students ________ discussing Reading Skills that ________ newly published in America. B. are going to C. was going to visit Beijing this summer. B. are C. has been D. have been 21 世纪教育网 B. are C. will be D. were B. have grown C. grew D. are growing to more than twice what it was in 1949. The B. is C. have D. be

D. were going to

A. are; were 【答案】B

B. is; were

C. are; was

D. is; was

【解析】A together with B 作主语时谓语动词与 A 的单复数保持一致;第二空为定语从 句 that 指代 Reading Skills,由于 Reading Skills 是书名所以谓语动词用单数。 2010 年 1. (安徽卷)I haven?t seen Sara since she was a little girl, and she has changed beyond A. hearing 【答案】C 【解析】 hearing 意为“听力”;strength 意为“力气;力量”;recognition 意为“认出;识 别;认识”;measure 意为“测量;措施”。句意为“……她变得认不出来了。” 2.(湖北卷)This restaurant has become popular for its wide pockets. A. division 【答案】C 【解析】此题不仅考察学生对于四个选项的认知,更重要的是要理解句子的含义。“这 家餐馆越来越出名是由于它做的各种各样的食物适应各种类型的人群。”“a range of ”强调 一个系列,而“a wide range of”意为“各种各样的”。正好符合题意。从句子结构来讲,这个 句子属于典型的“从句套从句”。“for”引导原因状语从句,“that”引导定语从句。 3.(湖北卷)After the earthquake, the first thing the local government did was to provide the homeless families. A. occupation 【答案】D 【解析】 accommodation 表示“住处”; occupation 表示“占用”或者“工作, 职业”; furniture 表示“ 家具 ”;equipment 表示“设备,器材”。正确答案 D。 4.(江苏卷)The doctor is skilled at treating heart trouble and never accepts any gift from his patients, so he has a very good_____. A. expectation 【答案】B 【解析】表示名声而 expectation 是期望的意思。 contribution 是贡献的意思。 civilization 是文明的意思。 B. reputation C. contribution D. civilization B. furniture C. equipment D. accommodation for B. area C. range D. circle of foods that suit all tastes and B. strength C. recognition D. measure .

5.(江西卷)Last year the number of students who graduated with a driving license reached 200,000, a(n) of 40,000 per year. A. average 【答案】A 【解析】a number of 许多 amount of 一般加不 可数名词表金额, 既可以修饰可数也可以 修饰不可数名词。an average of 表示“平均……”的意思。 6.(山东卷)Those who suffer from headache will find they get ______ from this medicine. A. relief 【答案】A 【解析】句意应为“那些头痛的人会发现这种药物能使头痛缓解。”所以 A 项意义符合句 意, relief 表示“缓解,减轻,解除”。 safety 表示“安全,保险”;defense 表示“防御,防护”; shelter 表示“掩蔽,保护”。 7.(天津卷)James took the magazines off the little table to make _______ for the television. A. room 【答案】A 【解析】make room for 是固定搭配,意思是“为……让出空间”的意思,其中的 room 是 不可数名词。 句意:詹姆斯把杂志从小桌子上拿下来,为电视机腾出空间来。 8.(浙江卷)The school advisers help you talk through your problems but they don't give you any direct __ . A. solution 【答案】A 【解析】四个选项:solution 解决的方法;target 目标;measure 措施;function 功能。 句意:学校老师帮助你分析问题,但是他们不会给你任何直接的解决方法。 9.(湖南卷)Listening to loud music at rock concerts A. is 【答案】C 【解析】根据动名词短语作主语,句子的谓语动词用单数形式,由此排除 B、D 两项, 根据主语与 caused 的主动关系,排除 A 项。 B. are C. has caused hearing loss in some teenagers. B. target C. measure D. function B. area C. field D. position B. safety C. defense D. shelter B. number C. amount D. quantity

D. have

10.(四川卷)Such poets as Shakespeare difficult to underst and. A. are;are 【答案】A B. is;is C. are;is

widely read, of whose works, however, some

D. is:are

【解析】主句中的主语应为 poets,谓语动词用复数,其后的非限制性定语从句的主语应 为 some of whose works,谓语动词也应是复数。故选 A。 ?11.(全国卷Ⅱ )Barbara is easy to recognize as she?s the only one of the women who________evening dress. A.wear 【答案】B 【解析】 考查主谓一致和时态。首先 the only one of ….为先行词时,定语从句修饰的是 one, 即 one 是主语, 而非后面的复数 women, 根据主谓一致的原则, 谓语动词应该用单数, 排除 A,D。另外,从“is”可以看出句子是要表示一种习惯,因此要用一般现在时,排除 C, 故选 B。 2011 年 1.(湖北卷)“Tommy, run! Be quick! The house is on fire!” the mother shouted, with clearly ________ in her voice. A. anger 【答案】D 【解析】句意为“Tommy,快跑!快点!房子着火了!”母亲大声叫喊,嗓音里夹杂着明 显的惊慌。anger 生气;rudeness 粗鲁;regret 后悔;panic 惊慌,慌乱。根据句意选 D。 2.(湖北卷)Giving up my job to go back to full-time education was a big _______, but now I know it was the best decision I ever made. A. project 【答案】B 【解析】根据句中的“现在我知道这是最好的决定”,可知“放弃工作重新参加全职教育 是一个很大的投入。”,故答案为 B。句意:放弃我的工作重新参加全职教育是一个很大的 投入,但现在我知道这是我曾经做出的最好的决定了。project 意为“工程;项目”; commitment 意为“投入; 奉献; 承诺”; competition 意为“竞争; 比赛”; ambition 意为“雄 心;志向”。 3.(山东卷)There?s a _________in our office that when it?s somebody?s birthday, they bring in a cake for us all to share. B. commitment C. competition D. ambition B. rudeness C. regret D. panic B.wears C.has worn D.have worn

A. tradition 【答案】A

B. balance

C. concern

D. relationship

【解析】句意:我们办公室有个传统:轮到某个人的生日时,他就带蛋糕来与大家分享。 tradition 传统;balance 平衡;concern 关心;relationship 关系,联系。句中 somebody 与 they 相照应,说明不止一次,因此用 tradition 作答案。 4. (江西卷) What?s the ________, in your opinion, of helping him if he doesn?t make an effort to help himself? A. sympathy 【答案】D 【解析】sympathy 同情,theme 主题,object 物体,point 意义。句意:你认为如果他 没有作出努力去帮助自己而去帮助他的意义是什么?选 D。 5.(江苏卷)Teachers have to constantly update their knowledge in order to maintain their professional _______. A. consequence 【答案】C 【解析】为了保持专业能力,老师需要不断地更新他们的知识。competence“能力”,符 合句意。consequence“结果”,independence“独立”,intelligence“智力”,均不符合句意。 6.(浙江卷)Anyway, I can?t cheat him —it?s against all my ________. A. emotions 【答案】B 【解析】选项 emotions 情绪;regulations 规程;opinions 意见,因此选 principles 原则 最合句意。句意:无论如和,我不能骗他——这违背我的原则。 7.(福建卷)The lack of eco-friendly habits among the public is thought to be a major _______of global climate change. A. result 【答案】B 【解析】“公众缺乏环保的习惯”和“全球气候变化”二者之间是因果关系,所以用 cause。 句意:公众缺乏环保的习惯被认为是全球气候变化的一个主要原因。 8.(四川卷)Always remember to put such dangerous things as lives out children?s _______. A. touch B. sight C. reach D. distance B. cause C. warning D. reflection B. principles C. regulations D. opinions B. independence C. competence D. intelligence B. theme C. object D. point

【答案】C 【解析】out of/beyond one’s reach 为固定用法,意为“某人够不到”,符合句意。touch 触摸,接触;sight 视力,视野;distance 距离。句意:时刻记住把诸如刀子之类的危险物 品放在孩子们够不到的地方。 9.(安徽卷)The factory used 65 percent of the raw materials, the rest of which_______saved for other purposes. A. is 【答案】D 【解析】考查时态与主谓一致。非限制性定语从句中的主语 rest 意为“其余的”,谓语动 词应与 of 后的名词一致,而 which 指代先行词 materials,故谓语用复数;定语从句中的谓 语应与主句中的谓语动词 used 一致,故用过去时态。从时态和主谓一致两方面考虑,选择 D 项。句意:该工厂使用了 65%的原材料,其余的用作其它用途。 10.(湖南卷)One third of the country ______covered with trees and the majority of the citizens_______black people. A. is; are 【答案】A 【解析】分数、百分比、the majority of, the minority of 等结构的单复数取决于其后面 所跟的名词的单复数。the country 是单数,而 the citizens 是复数,故选 A。 11. (江苏卷) 22. The fact that so many people still smoke in public places_________ that we may need a nationwide campaign to raise awareness of the risks of smoking. A. suggest 【答案】B 【解析】 考查时态及主谓一致。 首先解析句子结构, 题干中 that so many people still smoke in public places 为 the fact 的同位语, 主语为 the fact, 所以谓语用单数形式; that we may need a national wide campaign to raise awareness of the risks of smoking 是宾语从句,而原句中 缺少谓语动词,可排除 D 选项;根据句意“还是有那么多的人在公共场合吸烟这个事实说明 我们需要一个广泛的全国性的运动来提高人们对吸烟危害性的认识”,这是现在的情况,用 一般现在时即可。 1. Any help from you will be greatly appreciated. Please give me a reply at your earliest________. A. interruption 【答案】D B. instruction C. consideration D. convenience B. suggests C. suggested D. suggesting B. is; is C. are; are D. are; is B. are C. was D. were

【解析】这里表示“请在你方便的时候尽早给我回复”,at your earliest convenience 是固 定表达,表示“在你方便的时候请尽早”,符合语境。interruption 打断;instruction 指导, 指示;consideration 考虑。 2. If you ask why I plan to study in the United States,the only answer is that it is a(n) ________for me. A. puzzle B. advantage C. challenge D. average

3. The conference has been held to discuss the ________of global warming on people?s lives all over the world. A. importance 【答案】B 【解析】effects 意思是“影响”,即讨论全球气候变暖对人们生活的影响。其他选项不合 题意:importance 意思是“重要性”;protection 意思是“保护”;attitudes 意思是“态度”。 4. I am really a bit worried because I have no idea what my parents? ________will be to my poor examination result. A. expression expectation 【答案】B 【解析 】句意:我真的有点担心,因为我不知道我父母对我不好的考试结果会是什么反 应。expression 表情;reaction 反应;appearance 外表;expectation 期望。 5. There is no ________in going to school for the students merely to learn some facts. A. doubt 【答案】C 【解析】固定句式 There is no point in doing sth.表示“做……是没有必要的”,其他搭配 不正确,所以这 里选 C 项。 6. Here are some ________for you to follow when you take a test in chemistry. A. patterns 【答案】B 【解析】语境为“下面给你提出几点忠告,当你参加化学测验时应该遵循”。tip 忠告, 意见;pattern 样式,花样,图案;topic 题目,论题,话题;effort 努力,尽力。 B. tips C. topics D. efforts B. mind C. point D. wonder B. reaction C. appearance D. B. effects C. protection D. attitudes

7.Mr. Li has some trouble sleeping, so drinking a glass of milk before going to bed every night is his common ________. A. practice 【答案】A 【解析】……因此每晚睡前喝一杯牛奶是他通常的做法。common practice 通常的做法, 符合题意。 8. —Paul has gone abroad to try his luck. —In my________, his decision is not wise. A. word 【答案】B 【解析】句意:在我看来,他的决定不明智。in one’s view 表示“在某人看来”。 9.My English teacher is really very kind. I?ll never forget the ________he has done me. A. favor 【答案】A 【解析】句意:我的英语老师实在是太好了。我永远不会忘记他对我的帮助。do sb. a favor 帮助某人。 10.According to a UN report,30 percent of the world?s population have no ________to clean drinking water and health care. A. means 【答案】D 【解析】access 意思是“(使用或见到的)机会,权利”,后面与介词 to 连用。 11.It was reported that the problem had been settled without much________. A. affect 【答案】D 【解析】affect 影响;affair 事务;effect 影响,效果;effort 尝试,努力。句意:据报 道,问题没费多大事就解决了。根据语意可知,D 项正确。without effort 意思是“毫不费力 地”。 12.The speech that Mr. Smith made today gave a strong ________on the students. A. expression B. impression C. reputation D. expectation B. affair C. effect D. effort B. approach C. channel D. access B. deed C. help D. value B. view C. sight D. way B. knowledge C. experience D. duty

【答案】B 【解析】 句意: 史密斯先生今天所做的演讲给学生们留下了深刻的印象。give/leave/make an impression on sb.表示“给某人留下印象”。expression 表情,表达;reputation 声誉,名 声;expectation 期望,指望。 13.Our government has decided to give________ to those environmentally-friendly businesses in many aspects. A. profit 【答案】C 【解析】profit 利益;interest 兴趣,嗜好,利息;preference 偏爱,优待;advantage 优势,有利条件。政府已经决定给那些环保的企业多方面的优惠政策。 14.Finding a girl struggling in the water,he threw himself into the water without________. A. hesitation 【答案】A 【解析】发现一名女孩正在水中挣扎,他毫不犹豫地跳入水里。without hesitation 毫不 犹豫,符合题意。 15.—How do you like the scenery here, Mr. Black? —Wonderful indeed. Beyond all ________,I suppose. A. explanation 【答案】C 【解析】beyond all description 的意思是“无法(用言语)表达”,即这里的景色很美,无法 用言语表达。 16.This sentence is difficult to understand. Can you make A. sense 【答案】A 【解析】考查固定短语。句意:这个句子很难理解,你能弄明白吗? make sense of 理解, 懂,明白。又如:Can you make sense of what this American is saying?你能听懂这个美国人 在说些什么吗?make sense 讲得通,有意义;make no sense 讲不通,没意义,毫无意义。 17.My father didn't have to say anything. I knew he was upset from his ________. A. look 【答案】A B. sight C. appearance D. sign B. knowledge C. idea of it? D. understanding B. introduction C. description D. instruction B. suggestion C. order D. asking B. interest C. preference D. advantage

【解析】句意:我父亲无须说什么,我从他的表情就知道他很难过。此处的 look 表示“表 情”。后三项分别表示“视力,景象”“外貌”“标志,迹象”,都不符合题意。 18.The door and the windows were all closed and there was no ________ of forced entry. A. scene 【答案】C 【解析】语意表示“门窗都关闭着,没有强力侵入的迹象”。这里 sign 表示“迹象”;scene 表示“场景,景色”;signal 表示“信号”;sight 则表示“视野”。根据句意,选 C 项。 19.Many people in Haiti died from the earthquake because they didn't have ________ to immediate rescue. A. access 【答案】A 【解析】句意:海地有许多人死于地震,因为他们没有得到及时的援救。have access to 可以获得或使用(机会、权利等)。 20.The________ to the environment has helped many animals to escape from their enemies and fit in with the surroundings. A.adaptation 【答案】A 【解析】句意:适应环境的能力使很多动物能逃脱其敌人,并且适应周围的环境。根据 句意判断选,adaptation 表示“适应,适应性”。adoption“收养,采用,推选”;recreation“娱 乐,消遣”;foundation“建立,基础”。 21.Chen Fang , as well as his two colleagues, ________ for a trip to Tibet in a month. A. goes 【答案】C 【解析】考查主谓一致及时态。此处 Chen Fang 是主语,故用单数谓语动词;根据 in a month 可知用将来时。 22.The atmosphere is as much a part of the earth as _______ its soil and water of its lakes, rivers and oceans. A. has 【答案】D 【解析】此处 soil and water 是主语,故用 are。 23.In fact, not only Mary and I but also Jane___ having one exam after another. B. do C. is D. are B. go C. is going D. are going B.adoption C. recreation D. foundation B. admission C. approac h D. attention B. signal C. sign D. sight

A. is tired with 【答案】C

B. are tired with

C. is tired of

D. are tired of

【 解析】此处考查就近一致,Jane 是主语故用 is。 24.Either you or one of your students ___ to attend the meeting that is due tomorrow. A. are 【答案】B 【解析】此处考查就近一致,真正的主语是 one of your students,故用 is。 25.— Did you go to the show last night? — Yeah. Every boy and girl in the area ______ invited. A. were 【答案】D 【解析】 根据时间状语 last night 可以排除 B、 C。 every /each/no +名词+and every/ each/ no +名词作主语时,谓语用单数。 26.A teacher of English and class teacher _______ us something about volunteer workers. A are telling 【答案】B 【解析】本句主语指的是同一个人,即英语老师兼班主任,谓语用第三人称单数形式。 27.There which a table, four chairs, three bikes in the courtyard, in the middle of B. is telling C. are given D. were given B. have been C. has been D. was B. is C. have D. be

two tall trees with great shade. B. is; are C. has; have D. have; has

A. are; is 【答案】B

【解析】当 there be 句型的主语是一系列事物时,谓语应与最邻近的主语保持一致;后 面是个倒装句,主语是 two tall trees,应用复数。 28.Our monitor said to our English teacher,“ All _________present and all_______ going on well.” A. is, is 【答案】C 【解析】第一个“all”指人意思为“所有的人,大家”,其谓语用复数;第二个“all”表示事 物指“一切的事情”,其谓语用单数。 B. are, are C. are, is D. is, are

29.The young A. is; are 【答案】D

eaten up almost everything; one and a half bananas _____ le ft on the table. B. are; is C. has; have been D. have; has been

【解析】“the +young”指一类人(年轻人)时,谓语动词用复数;“一半香蕉”为单数。 30.A survey of the opinions of experts week good for that three hours of outdoor exercise a

one?s health. A. show; are B. shows; is C. show; is
电脑版 回顶部

D. shows; are


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