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Offshore support structures


Offshore wind turbine support structures
海上风机支撑结构

Overview概述

? Design requirements ? Support structure types ? Foundation types ? Influences on choice ? Floating wi

nd turbines

设计要求 支撑结构类型 基础类型 选型考虑的因素 漂浮风机

Rotor Nacelle Assembly 风轮和机舱组合

Support Structure 支撑结构

Tower 塔架

Sea surface 海平面 Sea bed 海床 Foundation基础

Transition Piece 过渡段 Monopile 单桩式

Design requirements
设计要求

? Acceptable stiffness 可接受范围内的刚度 ? Ease of installation 易于安装 ? Suitability over a range of site conditions
对不同现场环境的通用性

? Personnel access ? Minimum cost!

维护人员进入 最小的成本!

Excitation frequencies: choice of stiffness
激振频率:刚度的选择

1.4

1P
1.2

3P

1

谱密度 Spectral Density

0.8

0.6

0.4

0.2

Wave energy spectrum
波能量谱
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9

0

Frequency (Hz) 频率

Support structure types
支撑结构类型

? ? ? ?

Monopile 单桩式 Gravity base 重力基础 Braced monopile 拉索单桩式 “Mini-jacket” 小型导管架式

Support structure types: Monopile
支撑结构类型:单桩式
– – – – – Steel Tube 钢管 Typically 4.5 - 5 m dia 通常直径4.5-5m Thickness 30 - 60 mm 厚度30-60mm Driven/drilled 打入/钻孔 Transition piece grouted to top of pile
过渡段固定在桩上部,以灌浆料填充
G pipe with tree inlets rout

灌注管

过渡段连接塔底法兰
Transition piece w tow flange ith er Brackets w hydraulic . Jacks

液压斜坡

密封 Grout seal
M onopile

单桩

Support structure types: Gravity base
支撑结构形式:重力式

Support structure types: Gravity base
支撑结构形式:重力式

– Steel or concrete 钢或混凝土 – Relies on weight of structure to resist overturning 依靠结构重量抵
抗倾覆

– Ballast may be required 可能需要
压舱物

– Seabed preparation essential 必
须事先清理海床

– Can be susceptible to scour 可能
对海浪冲刷敏感

– Better suited to shallower sites 更
适用于浅水区

Support structure types: Multiple member
支撑结构类型:组合结构

– Suited to deeper water installations where monopile provides insufficient stiffness
深水区由于单桩式的刚度不够,故采 用组合式

型风机

Source: Suction Pile Technology

– Braced monopile 索拉单桩 – “Mini-jacket”导管架 e.g. Ramboll star-platform – Expensive → suitable for large turbines only 成本高,只适用于大

Support structures for deeper water
深水区的支撑结构

Jacket structure
导管架(桁架)

Foundation types
基础类型

? Single piles 单桩式 ? Multiple piles 组合式 ? Suction caissons 沉箱式

Foundation types: Monopile 单桩式
Rock Socket (软土地基中的) 嵌岩桩 Driven 打入桩 基

Foundation types: Multiple piles
组合式
– Small diameter steel piles
的钢管 较细 上部结

– Tubular steel superstructure
构为钢管

– Grouted or swaged pile connections 连接使
用灌浆或者锻压预成型

– Suitable for deeper water
深水区

适用于

– Expensive construction / installation 施工/
安装成本较高

– Difficult to remove


难以拆

Foundation types: Suction Caisson
沉箱式
– Steel skirt caisson structure
构 刚箱结

– Penetrates into seabed under self weight 沉箱靠自重插入海底 – Trapped water pumped out to install
抽出箱内的海水产生压力差

– In use as mooring anchors for 已用于 offshore installations
海上结构的锚泊固定

– Inexpensive installatio安装成本低 – Easy removal 易拆除 – Feasibility stage at present for turbine foundations 正在对风机基础上
的应用做可行性研究

Offshore foundations to date
最新海上项目风机基础
Distance from Shore (km) 1.5 > 3.0 1 6 0.4 4 8 > 12.5 0.5 2 No of turbines 11 4 10 28 5 7 2 20 Water depth (m) 2.5 > 5

Location Vindeby, Denmark Lely, Netherlands Tuno Knob Dronten, Netherlands Bockstigen, Sweden Utgrunden, Sweden Blyth, UK Middlegrunden, Sweden Yttre Stengrund Sweden Horns Rev, Denmark North Hoyle, UK Arklow Bank, Ireland Scroby Sands, UK

Date of Commissioning 1 October 1991 1 June 1994 1 October 1995 1 September 1997 1 February 1998 1 August 2000 1 September 2000 1 December 2000

Turbine type & rating Bonus 450 kW Nedwind 500kW Vestas 500kW Nordtank 600kW Wind World 500kW Enron Wind 1500kW Vestas 1800 & 2000kW Bonus 2000kW

Foundation type Concrete gravity Steel monopile

3>5 5 6 7.2 > 10 7.5 2>5

Concrete gravity Steel monopile Steel monopile Steel monopile Steel monopile Concrete gravity

1 August 2001 1 September 2001 1 March 2004 1 March 2004 1 August 2004

6 17 7>8 14 2.5

5 80 30 7 30

Neg Micon 2000kW Vestas 2000kW Vestas 2000kW GE 3.6 MW Vestas 2000kW

9 6.5 > 13.5 10 > 15 5 > 8.5 4 > 12

Steel monopile Steel monopile Steel monopile Steel monopile Steel monopile

Structure types - influences on choice
选型的考虑因素

– Water Depth 水深 – Soil and bed conditions
海床条件 土壤和

– Environmental loading
载荷

环境

– Construction methodology


施工方

– Cost 成本

Influences - Water Depth 水深因素

– Increased overturning with increased depth
深增加,倾覆的可能性也随之加大

随着水

– Larger structures required to support same turbine
对相同风机,需要更大的结构来支撑

– More difficult working environment
恶劣

工作环境更

Influences - Soil and Bed Conditions
土质和海床的条件
54.82 54.80 no 16m z data 15m 14m 13m 54.78 54.76 54.74 54.72 12m 11m 10m 9m 8m 7m 6m 5m 4m 3m 54.68 -3.82 -3.80 -3.78 -3.76 -3.74 -3.72 -3.70 -3.68 -3.66 -3.64 -3.62 -3.60 -3.58 -3.56 -3.54 -3.52 -3.50 2m 1m 0m 0m -1m -2m -3m -4m -5m -6m -7m -8m -9m -10m -11m -12m -13m -14m -15m -16m

– Stratigraphy 地层学 – Soil strength 土壤强度 – Level of rock head 岩表深度 – Bed mobility 海床迁移率
? Overall bed movement


54.70

54.82
4.00m 3.50m

54.80

3.00m 2.50m 2.00m

54.78
1.50m 1.00m

54.76

0.50m

整体迁
54.74 54.72

0.00m

-0.50m

-1.00m

? Local scour
冲刷

局部
-3.78 -3.76 -3.74 -3.72 -3.70 -3.68 -3.66 -3.64 -3.62

-1.50m

-2.00m

54.70 -3.80

-2.50m

Influences - Environmental loading
环境载荷影响
– Wind Loading from Turbine
由风机传递的风载

– Wave Height and Period
波浪高度和周期

– Breaking Wave Conditions
破碎波条件

– Current Speed
洋流速度

– Ice
冰载荷

– Marine Growth
海洋生物附着生长

Influences - Construction methodology
施工方法

– Fabrication/Shore Side Facilities 构件加工/岸上设备 – Available Installation Equipment可使用的安装设备 – Transport of Foundations ? Size ? Weight
基础的运输 尺寸 重量

– Foundation Connections 基础的连接 ? Speed of Installation 安装速度 ? Temporary propping required?是否需要临时支撑? ? Attendance required? 是否需要监督? – Weather !!!!!!!
天气变化!!!

Influences – Installation
安装

? Available equipment /resources 可利用的设
备/资源
? Jack-up/Floating barge 顶起/钻井浮船 ? Piling equipment 打桩设备 ? Cable laying 放缆

? Local logistical restrictions 当地后勤局限
? Harbour/shore side facilities海港/海岸设备 ? Water depth/ tidal restrictions水深/潮汐

? Conditions of Statutory Consents
许的条件

法律允

? Weather 气候条件

Influences – Cost 成本
– Fabrication
制作成本 ? Raw material cost 原料成本 ? Location - at port if possible位置-尽量在港口 ? Transport - overall size/weight
运输-整体尺寸/重量

? Form of fabrication

制作形式

– Installation

安装 ? Attendance required 需要监督 ? Transport from port 从港口运输 ? Time on site/potential for delay
– Tolerance – Weather windows 现场的时间/可能的延误 允许公差 天气窗口

– Decommissioning 拆除成本 – Risk 风险

Foundation types - detailed design considerations
基础类型-详细设计需注意事项

– Combined wind and wave loading
风和波浪的组合载荷

– Dynamic loading 动力载荷 – Fatigue (FE analysis)疲劳(有限元分析) – Interaction with turbine (natural freq.)共振(固有
频率)

– – – – – – –

Access 进入方式 Cable connections - J tubes 电缆连接-J型管 Corrosion protection 防腐蚀保护 Scour protection 防冲刷保护 Constructability 可建造性 Cost 成本 Decommissioning 拆除

风机革命?

?

岸上

近海

深海

Floater concepts 漂浮的构想

Anchor types锚系类型

Gravity anchor 重力式

Pile 打桩式

Suction pile 沉箱式

Drag embedment anchor 倒勾式

Summary总计和回顾
? Design requirements 设计要求

? Support structure types 支撑结构类型
- Monopile, Gravity base, Multiple member structures
单桩,重力,多体组合结构

? Foundation types
- Piles, Suction caisson

基础结构类型
桩,沉箱

? Influences on choice ? Floating wind turbines

选型的考虑因素 漂浮风机

- Floater design, Mooring & Anchor options


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