1．定语从句：复合句中修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。 2．先行词：被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3．关系词：引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 1）关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等；关系 副词有 when, where, why 等。 2）关系词
通常有下列三个作用：A、引导定语从句；B、代替先行词；C、在定语从句中 担当一个成分。例如： The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 该句中， who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句，修饰先行词 the man， “who”是引导定语从 句的关系词，代替先行词 the man，在定语从句中作主语。
1．who 指人，在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 2．whom 指人，在定语从句中做宾语，常可省略。 The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。 The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 注意：关系代词 whom 在口语或非 正式文体中常可用 who 来代替，也可省略。但直接介词后只用 whom,不可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. The man to whom you talked just now is my old friend. 3．Which 指物，在定语从句中做主语或宾语，做宾语时常可省略。或在非限制定语从句中代 替整个主句。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. He failed the exam again ,which made his father angry. 4．That 指人时，相当于 who 或 whom；指物时，相当于 which.。在定语从句中作主语或宾语， 作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. Where is the man (that / whom) I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿？ Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 5．Whose 通常指人，也可指物，在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. 我拜访了一个全国知名的科学家。 I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。 注意：指物时，常用下列结构来代替： We live in a house,______windows face the sea. We live in a house,______the windows face the sea. We live in a house,the windows_____ face the sea We live in a beautiful house,and the windows _____ face the sea Do you like the book whose cover is yellow?=……=……
关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时，从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous.
The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。 This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的男孩。 The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions. 注意：１． 含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开，介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如： look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) 这是我正在找的手表。 This is the watch for which I am looking . (误) The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. （误） ２．若介词放在关系代词前，关系代词指人时只可用 whom，不可用 who, that；关系代词指 物时只可用 which，不可用 that。关系代词是所有格时用 whose。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. (正) The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误) The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (正) The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (误) ３． “介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词 或者数词。如： He loves his parents deeply, both of whom =( …)are very kind to him. In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which=（…） have gone bad. Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life.
1． when 指时间，在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when=(…) I first came to this school. The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。 2． where 指地点，在定语从句中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where=(…) I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. I visited the farm where=(…) a lot of cows were raised . 3． why 指原因，在定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why=(…) you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。 I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 我不知道他今天为什么看上去不愉快。 注意： 关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。 如： Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear.
形式上：不用逗号“，”与主句隔开。 意义上：是先行词不可缺少的定语，如删除，主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。 译法上：译成先行词的定语：“．．．的” 关系词的使用上：A．作宾语时可省略 B．可用 that C．可用 who 代替 whom
意义上：只是对先行词的补充说明，如删除，主句仍能表达完整的意思。 译法上：通常译成主句的并列句。 关系词的使用上：A．不可省略 B．不用 that C．不可用 who 代替 whom 限制性定语从句举例： The teacher told me that Tom was the person (that/who/whom)I could depend on. China is a country which/that has a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 非限制性定语从句举例 ： His mother, who (不用 that)loves him very much, is strict with him. China, which（不用 that） was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every year.
（一）限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况
1． 当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some 等不定 代词时，或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。如： Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗？ All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的都做好了。 There is little that I can do for you. 我不能为你干什么。 He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. 注意：当先行词指人 时，偶尔也可用关系代词 who，如： Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people. 2．当先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。如： The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 3．当先行词被 the very, the only，the last 修饰时。如： This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。 After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 注意：当先行词指人时，偶尔也可用关系代词 who。如： Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting. 4．当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。如： Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁？ Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件 T 恤衫最合我的身？ 5．当先行词既有人又有物时。如： They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 另外：1)直接介词后只用 which/whom,作定语可用 whose，不用 who 和 that 2)that 不引导非限制定语从句 3） that 和 who 都可以指人， 但下面两种情况， 多用 who。 ①先行词为 all, anyone, one, ones 等时。如：All who heard the news were excited.②先行词为 those, he 和 people 时。如： Those who want to go please sign your names here. He who does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man.
（二）关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句
as 和 which 引导非限制性定语从句时， 其用法有相同之处，也有不同之处。具体情况是：
1. as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语，代表前面整个句子。如： He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了，这是很自然的事。 He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实， 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引导的非限制性定语从句可以放在主句之前、主句之后，甚至还可以分割主 句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只可放在主句之后。另外，as 常常有“正如、正像”的含 义，用于一些固定结构。如：as anybody can see 正如人人都能看到的那样 as is well known = as is known to all 众所周知 as we had expected 正如我们所预料的那样 as often happens 正如经常发生的那样 as has been said before 如上所说 as is mentioned abov 正如上面提到的 As（不用 which） is known to all, China is a developing country. He is from the south, as（可用 which） we can know from his accent. John, as you know, is a famous writer. 正如你所知， 约翰是个著名作家。 Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe. 注意：当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时，关系词往往只用 which。如： Tom was late for school again and again, which(不用 as) made his teacher very angry. These tables are made of metal, which made them very heavy. 3. 当先行词受 such, the same ,as 修饰时，关系词常用 as。 如： I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 He is not such a fool as he looks. 他可不象他看上去的那样傻。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。 注意：当先行词受 the same 修饰时，偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句，但与 as 引导的定语从句 意思有区别。如： She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一 条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的同样的连衣裙。
(三) 以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句做状语时通常由 in which 或 that 引 导，而且通常可以省略。如：
The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. I don’t like the way (that / in which) you laugh at her. 我不喜欢你冲她的样子。 但 The way _____he explained to us was not practical.
用关系代词还是关系副词引导定语从句主要看关系词在定语从句中的作用（即所担当的成 分）。试比较： A. I know a place _____ we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。 I know a place______ is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. B. I will never forget the days ____ we spent our holidays together. I will never forget the days_____we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度过的日子。 C. This is the reason____ he was dismissed. 这就是他被解雇的原因。 This is the reason______ he explained to me for his not attending the meeting.
1．定语从句修饰限定先行词，它对先行词修饰限制；同位语从句解释先行词的具体内容， 它对先行词解释说明。 The plane that has just taken off is for Paris. （_____从句） The fact that he has already died is quite clear. （____从句）
2． 定语从句关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分， 关系代词在从句中作宾语时经常可省略。 同位语从句主要由连词 that 引导时，在从句中一般不担当成分；有时也由 where, when, how, who, whether, what 等连词引导，这些连词则在从句中担当成分。 The news that he has just died is true. （____从句） 他刚刚去世了，这个消息是真的。 The news that he told me is true. （____从句） 他告诉我的消息是真的。 The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve. （_____从句） The question that he raised puzzled all of us. （____从句） 他提出的问题让我们很为难。 The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. （____从句） 3．同位语从句与先行词一般可以用动词 be 发展成一个表语从句, 而定语从句则不能。 如： A. The idea that he we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. （同位语从句） The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice. B. Pay attention to the problem how we can protect the wild animals. （同位语从句） The problem is how we can protect the wild animals.
1.He is such a good student _____we all like .(____从句) He is such a good student _____ we all like him (____从句) 2.This is the house _____ we lived in 5 years ago.(____从句) Put a mark _____ you have questions .(_____从句) A.where B.in which C.which D.on which 3.It is the street ______I lost my bike.(_______) It is in the street ______I lost my bike .(________) It was 8 o’clock________I went home.(_________) It was at 8 o’clock______I went home.(__________) 4.Is this the book _____you are looking for? Is the book _____ you are looking for? A. that B.who C.the one D. for which 5.Tom is one of the students who _____ been admitted to Beijing University.(定语从句主谓一致) Tom is the one of the students who _____ been admitted to Beijing University. Those who ___ against the plan put up your hands. 6. The earth is round, ___ we all know.=___ is known to all, the earth is round. =___ is known to all that the earth is round.=_____is known to all is that the earth is round. 7. 当先行词为 time，表示“次数”时，应用关系词 that 或省略。如： This is the first time (that) the president has visited the country. 当 point, situation, case 等词作先行词表示“情况， 境地， 场合”等意思时， 其后常由 where 引导定语从句，where 在句中作状语。如： Can you think of a situation_____ this phrase can be used?
Exercises: 1.There are three bedrooms in the house,_____ is Mary's. A the smallest of which B the smaller of which C the smallest of them D the smallest one 2.The Greens will move into the new house next Monday,_____ it will be completely finished. A by the time B by which time C by that time D by this time 3.Alice has a large collection of phone,_____ was taken in london.
A none of them B no one of which C all of which D none of which 4.With the fast development of agriculture, the people ____ village I taught before lived a happy life. A who B whose C in whose D in which 5.There is a moutain ____ the top is always covered with snow. A whose B of which C it's D that 6.She may have missed her train, in ____ case she won't arrive for another hour. A what B that C which D this 7.1)I have three children,and two of _____ are doctors. 2)I have three children, two of ____ are doctors. 8.There two thousand students in our school,____ are girls. A two-thirds in which B two-thirds in them C two-thirds of them D of whom two thirds 9.I have bought two ballpens,_____ writes well. A neither of them B none of them C neither of which D none of which 特殊结构定语从句点击 1. These houses are sold at such a low price ________ people expected. A. like B. as C. that D. which 2. I've never heard so interesting a story ________ you told me. A. as B. that C. of which D. about which 3. I've seen the same film ________ you saw yesterday. A. that B. which C. as D. like 4. I'll buy the same coat ________ you wear. A. that B. which C. as D. like 5. He made another wonderful discovery, ________ of great importance to science. A. which I think is B. which I think it is C. which I think it D. I think is 6. ________ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month. A. It B. As C. That D. What 7. This is the first time ________ he has been here. A. that B. when C. at which D. which 8. I don't like ________ you speak to her. A. the way B. they way in that C. the way which D. the way of which 定语从句 1．This is the best factory ____we visited last year . A. where B. which C. in which D. that 2.Is this the factory ____computers are built ? A. that B. which C. in which D. in that 3.Please pass me the dictionary ____cover is red . A. whose B.its C. which D. which of 4.The man ____has arrived . A. whom I told you B. that I told you
C. whom I told you about him D. I told you about 5. Do you know the comrade ____we are talking ? A. to whom B. to who C. whom D. to that 6. They visited the house ___the great writer was born . A. from where B. in which C. which D. in where 7. The comrade ___is speaking at the meeting is my teacher . A. whom B. which C. who D. whose 8. He asked us to watch carefully everything ___he did in class . A. who B. that C. what D. where 9. I’ll visit the professor tomorrow ,___he will be back from Shanghai . A. who B. that C. when D. which 10.The school ___I study is a new one . A. on which B. at where C. on that D. at which 11. China has many islands,____the largest is Taiwan . A. in which B. at which C. which D. of which 12. The city ____my mother grew up is not far from here . A. what B. where C. that D. which 13. Our teacher lives in the house ____door faces to the north . A. which B. his C. that D. whose 14. Do you know the man ___your father nodded ? A. whom B. to whom C. to who D. about whom 15.Wrestling is a sport in ___people easily get hurt . A. that B. when C. which D. what 16. I told you ____I know . A. all that B. all which C. all what D. all whom 17.China has a lot of famous writers ,one ___is Lu Xun . A. of which B. of whom C. of who D. of them 18. Is this factory ____we visited last year ? A. in which B. around that C. whom D. the one 19. Who is the man ____was there ? A. who B. which C. that D. whom 20. Is there anything ____I can do for you, sir ? A. that B. which C. whose D. who 21. I still remember the day ____she first wore that green dress . A. which B. in which C. on that D. on which 22. The knife ____we used to cut the bread is very sharp . A. with which B. with it C. with that D. which 23. The games ____the young men competed in were difficult . A. in which B. which C. it D. who 24.It rained hard yesterday, ____ prevented me from going to the park.. A. that B. which C. as D. it 25. George Mallory was an English school teacher _____ loved climbing. A. who B. whom C. he D. which
历届高考英语单项选择题定语从句精选 26.His parents wouldn’t let him marry anyone ______ family was poor. A.of whom B.whom C.of whose D.whose 27.She heard a terrible noise, _______ brought her heart into her mouth. A.it B.which C.this D.that 28.In the dark street , there wasn’t a single person _____ she could turn for help. A.that B.who C.from whom D.to whom 29.The weather turned out to be very good , ____ was more than we could expect. A.what B.which C.that D.it 30.After living in Pairs for fifty years he returned to the small town ____ he grew up as a child. A.which B.where C.that D.when 31．Carol said the work would be done by October,______personally I doubt very much. A. it B.that C.when D.which 32．Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course , made the others unhappy. A．who B．which C．this D．what 33.Recently I bought an ancient Chinese vase , _____ was very reasonable. A.which price C.the price of which C.its price D.the price of whose 34._____ has already been pointed out , grammar is not a set of dead rules. A.As B.It C.That D.Which 35.He lived in London for 3 months , during ____ time he learned some English. A.this B.which C.that D.same 36.On the wall hung a picture, _____ color is blue. A.whose B.of which C.which D.its 37.Whenever I met him , ____ was fairly often, I like his sweet and hopeful smile. A.what B.which C.that D.when 38.The visitor asked the guide to take his picture _____ stands the famous tower. A.that B.where C.which D.there 39.The boss ____ department Ms King worked ten years ago look down upon women. A.in which B.in that C.in whose D.whose 40.I don’t like _____ you speak to her. A.the way B.the way in that C.the way which D.the way of which 41.I had neither a raincoat nor an umbrella ._______ I got wet through . A.It’s the reason B.That’s why C.There’s why D.It’s how 42.He made another wonderful discovery , ____ of great importance to science. A.which I think is B.which I think it is C.which I think it D.I think which is 43. ---Where did you get to know her? ---It was on the farm _____ we worked. (07 山东) A. that B. there C. which D. where
（1---6ABDCBC 7----9B DDC）
答案与简析： 1. B。当先行词被 such 修饰时，定语从句用 as 引导，即构成结构为"such+（a/an）＋形容词 ＋名词＋as"引导的定语从句，意为"......像......一样的"。整个句子意为：这些房屋以人们原 来估计的那样低的价格出售。 2. A。由 so interesting a story = such an interesting story 和上面一题的解释便可得知答案。as 在定语从句中作宾语。整句意为：我从未听说过像你告诉我那样有趣的故事。 3. A 4. C。当先行词被 same 修饰时，定语从句由 that 或 as 引导，但意思不同。用 that 引导定语 从句指同一物，而用 as 引导定语从句指同类事物。 5. A。做此题的关键是要知道 I think 在定语从句中作插入语，做题时将其去掉便可容易得到 答案。 6. B。Ａs 在此引导非限制性定语从句，代表它所修饰的整个句子内容，并且它可放在所修 饰句子的前、中或后面。其常见结构如：as you know, as is said above, as is often the case（情 况经常是这样）等。如选Ａ，则需将逗号改为 that；如选 D，则需将逗号改为 is that。 7. A。当先行词为 the first time, the last time 等时，定语从句的引导词用 that 而不用 when。 8. A。当先行词为 way 时，定语从句的引导词用 that 或 in which, 也可省略。
定语从句答案: 1-5DCADA 6-10 BCBCD 11-15 DBDBC 16-20 ABDCA 21- 25 DABBA KEYS: 26-30 DBDBB 31-35 DBCAB 36-40 ABBCA 41-42 BAD