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Unit 4 Astronomy the science of the stars Ⅰ.重点单词聚焦 1.It cost him more than one________(十亿) dollars to complete the project. 答案: billion 2.“What happened?” John’s mother asked him in a________

(温和的) voice. 答案: gentle 3. Before the Earth’s protective________(大气层) was formed, there was no life except in the sea. 答案: atmosphere 4.With the________(引力) of the moon and the sun each day,tides (潮汐) roll in and roll away. 答案: pull 5.Manmade________(卫星) are used for sending and receiving messages. 答案: satellites 6.Smoking________(乘,增加) the risk of heart attacks and other health problems. 答案: multiplies

7.Eating too many desserts can be________(有害的) to one’s teeth. 答案: harmful 8.Global warming and________(气候) change problems are perhaps the greatest threats to our planet. 答案: climate 9. According to the________(理论) of relativity (相对论), nothing can travel faster than light. 答案: theory

10. Most of the evidence had been destroyed.________(因此, 于是), it was almost impossible to prove him guilty. 答案: Thus Ⅱ.重点短语扫描 1.prevent... 2. 3.

... 下蛋


eggs one’s turn


4.get the hang 5.watch 6.depend 7. 8.give 9.cheer 10.now 11.break from lay in of out on in birth to up that out Ⅲ.课文原句突破 time

熟悉;掌握;理解 密切注视;当心;提防 依靠 及时,终于 产生;分娩 感到高兴;感到振奋 既然 突发;爆发

1.随后它会变成什么没有人知道,直到 38~45 亿年前,这团尘埃才慢慢地形成一个固体 的球状物。 ________ ________ ________ ________ ________was uncertain until between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe. 答案: What it was to become 2.地球变得如此猛烈,以至于它的形状能否持久还不清楚。 The earth became________violent________it was not clear whether the shape would last or not. 答案: so;that 3.这就产生了一系列的反应,使得生命就有可能开始发展了。

This produced a chain reaction,which________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________. 答案: made it possible for life to develop

4. 而当我试着向前迈步的时候, 我发觉我被送出去很远, 步子的跨度竟是在地球上的两倍, 因而我摔倒了。 But when I tried to step forward,I found I was carried________ ________ ________ ________ on the earth and fell over. 答案: twice as far as

5.“天哪,”我大声说。“引力改变了,走路也的确需要练一练了。” “Oh,dear,” I cried,“walking does need a bit of practice________ ________gravity has changed.” 答案: now that atmosphere n.大气层,空气;环境,气氛 教材原句 P25:They were in time to produce carbon,nitrogen,water vapour and other gases,which were to make the earth’s atmosphere.它们最终产生了碳、氮气、水蒸气和其 他气体,这些后来形成了地球的大气层。 ①The waste they create goes into the atmosphere and makes us sick.它们制造出来的废气进 入大气中,导致我们生病。 ②The simple atmosphere of the office calmed me. 简朴的办公室气氛让我平静下来。 ③Ever since their quarrel,there has been an unpleasant atmosphere in the office. 自从他们发生口角以来,办公室里总有一种不愉快的气氛。 1.(湖北高考)The top leaders of the two countries are holding talks in a friendly________. A.atmosphere C.situation B.state D.phenomenon

解析: 句意为: 两国高层领导人之间的会谈在友好的气氛中举行。atmosphere 气氛;state 状态;situation 处境;phenomenon 现象。由句意可知 A 项正确。 答案: A harmful adj.有害的,其反义词为 harmless 教材原句 P26:What many scientists believe is that the continued presence of water allowed

the earth to dissolve harmful gases and acids into the oceans and seas.很多科学家相信,由于 地球上长期有水存在,它使得地球得以把曾经存在于大气层中的有害气体和酸性物质溶解 在海洋里。 be harmful to 对……有害 do harm to.../do...harm 损害…… There is no harm in doing sth./It does no harm to do sth. 做某事是个好主意(或没有坏处) ①It is harmful to your health to drink too much. 过量喝酒对你的身体有害。 ②Your smoking can be harmful to the health of your children. 你吸烟会危及孩子的健康。 ③He would never frighten anyone or cause them any harm. 他永远不会吓唬或伤害任何人。 ④He may say no,but there’s no harm in asking. 他可能拒绝,但问一问也无妨。 2.Doctors always tell us that drinking too much________our health,but some people don’t care. A.is harm to C.is harmful to B.does harmful to D.do harm to

解析: 句意为:医生总是告诉我们饮酒太多有害健康,但有些人却不在意。be harmful to sb.=do harm to sb.对某人有害。D 项应用第三人称单数。 答案: C puzzle vt.使迷惑;使为难;使窘困;感到迷惑;n.(游戏的)猜谜;难题;谜 教材原句 P27: How life began on earth is one of the biggest puzzles that scientists found hard to solve.地球生命如何起源是科学家们觉得很难解决的最大的难题之一。

①What puzzles me is why he left the country without telling anyone.令我百思不解的是他为 什么悄悄地离开了这个国家。 ②I have been puzzling about this question for weeks now. 我对这个问题已冥思苦想了好几个星期。

③It’s quite a puzzle to us why he did that. 他为何做这样的事,我们完全搞不懂。 ④Her puzzled look on her face suggested she didn’t understand what I said.她脸上迷惑的表 情表明她不明白我说的话。 3.完成句子 She lost heart since she failed in the exam.She_______________(对将来感到迷茫). 答案: felt puzzled about her future pull n.& vt.拉(力);拖;牵引力 教材原句 P30: As the rocket rose into the air, we were pushed back into our seats because we were trying to escape the pull of the earth’s gravity.随着火箭的升空, 我们被重重地推回到座 位上,因为我们正尽力摆脱地球的引力。 pull back 撤回 pull down 拆毁;摧毁 pull in(车辆)进站停靠;靠边停靠 pull out 驶出;退出 pull through 康复;痊愈 ①He pulled the door open and rushed out. 他拉开门,冲了出去。 ②The police car signalled to us to pull in. 警车发出信号,要我们驶向路边停靠。 ③We waved as the train pulled out of the station. 火车驶出车站时我们挥手告别。 ④The doctor told me that I would pull through. 医生告诉我我会康复的。 4.用 pull 的短语填空: (1)Houses were______________to make way for a new highway. (2)Cheer up!Take more exercise every day and you will______________. (3)John________behind me and parked. (4)Be careful when you____________of the driveway. 答案:

(1)pulled down (2)pull through

(3)pulled in

(4)pull out in time 及时;终于;总有一天 ①He managed to send the tourists to the airport in time. 他设法把游客及时送到机场。 ②Will you be home in time to see the children before they go to bed?你会在孩子们上床睡 觉之前回来看他们吗? ③If you keep on,you will succeed in time. 如果坚持下去,你们迟早会成功的。 on time 准时;按时 in no time 立即;马上 at a time 一次;每次 at one time 曾经;一度 at the same time 同时 take one’s time 别着急;慢慢来 ④At one time,half the land on the Earth’s surface was covered by forest.曾经,地球表面有 一半的土地被森林所覆盖。 ⑤You must give your homework to the teacher on time. 你必须准时把作业交给老师。 5.用 time 的适当短语填空: (1)The cloud never hides the sun.The truth will be known to all______________. (2)________________there were not so many cars on the streets. (3)____________I go out to the beach to relax. (4)—I am afraid I can’t return the book to you before Friday. —______________________. 答案: (1)in time (2)At one time (3)At times (4)Take your time

in one’s turn 轮到某人;接着 教材原句 P26:Thus they have,in their turn,become the most important animals on the planet. 于是,他们接着成为了这个行星上最重要的动物。 ①When it is in my turn,I am too excited to speak.

当轮到我时,我激动得都说不出话来了。 in turn 依次,轮流;反之,反过来 by turns 轮流;交替地 take turns to do sth.轮流做某事 It is one’s turn to do sth.轮到某人做某事 ②The customer praised the manager,who in turn praised his staff.顾客表扬了经理,经理 转而表扬了他的职员。 ③All theories are derived from practice and in turn serve practice.所有的理论都来源于实 践,并反过来为实践服务。 ④Now it is your turn to look after the children. 现在轮到你照看孩子了。 6.(湖北高考)People try to avoid public transportation delays by using their own cars,and this________creates further problems. A.in short C.in doubt B.in case D.in turn

解析: 本题考查短语意思辨析。in short 意为“总之,简言之”;in case 意为“假使,免得, 以防万一”;in doubt 意为“感到怀疑,被怀疑的”;in turn 意为“反过来,依次,轮流”。根 据句意要求应选 D。 答案: D prevent...from...阻止/制止……做…… 教材原句 P26:They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere,which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space.他们把过多的二氧化碳释放到大气层 中,这使得地球上的热不能释放到太空中去。 ①No one can prevent this plan from being carried out. 谁也不能阻止这个计划的实施。 ②Once he has made up his mind,nothing can prevent him from doing so.一旦他下定决心, 什么也不能阻止他这样做。

③His advice prevented/kept/stopped me from making a serious mistake.他的忠告使我免于 犯严重的错误。

④He wears sunglasses to protect his eyes from the strong sunlight.他带墨镜保护眼睛使其免 受太阳光的伤害。 7.完成句子 Measures have been taken to_____________________________(阻止河流污染). 答案: prevent/stop/keep the river from being polluted cheer up(使)高兴;使振奋;感到振奋 教材原句 P31:I cheered up immediately and floated weightlessly around in our spaceship cabin watching the earth become smaller and the moon larger. 我立刻高兴起来,由于失重我在太空舱里飘来飘去,我望着 (身后的)地球越来越小,而(前 方的)月亮越来越大。 ①Give Mary a call,she needs cheering up. 给玛丽打个电话,她需要人安慰。 ②Cheer up!Our troubles will soon be over. 振作起来!我们的困难很快就会过去。

③When I’m feeling sad my mother tells me funny stories to cheer me up.当我感到忧伤时, 我的母亲就给我讲有趣的故事让我高兴起来。 ④They do this in order to encourage crowds to cheer their sports team.他们这样做是为了鼓 励人们为他们的球队加油。 8.(2009· 天津卷)—I’m thinking of the test tomorrow.I’m afraid I can’t pass this time. —________!I’m sure you’ll make it. A.Go ahead C.No problem B.Good luck D.Cheer up

解析: 句意为:——我正在考虑明天考试的问题,恐怕这次我会不及格。——振作起来! 我相信你会通过的。根据上下文只有 Cheer up“振作起来”符合题意,而 Go ahead 继续, Good luck 好运气,No problem 没问题,均不符合题意。 答案: D But when I tried to step forward,I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over. 而当我试着向前迈步的时候,我发觉我被送出去很远,步子的跨度竟是在地球上的两倍,

因而我摔倒了。 倍数表达法: (1)“A+倍数+形容词或副词的比较级+than+B”,表示“A 比 B 大(长、高、宽等)多少倍”。 (2)“A+倍数+as+形容词或副词的原级+as+B”,表示“A 是 B 的多少倍”。 (3)“A+倍数+the size/height/length/width,etc.+of+B”,表示“A 是 B 的多少倍”。 (4)A+倍数+what 从句 ①There are five times more books in our library than in yours. 我们图书馆里的书比你们图书馆里的书多五倍。 ②He has read twice as many books as I have. 他读的书是我读过的两倍。 ③My house is twice the size of my parents. 我的房子是我父母的两倍大。 ④Our city has experienced twice as much rain this year as it did last year.我们城市今年的雨 水是去年的两倍。 9.(2009· 江西卷)According to statistics,a man is more than twice as likely to die of skin cancer________a woman. A.than C.so B.such D.as

解析: 阅读题干可知此题考查倍数句式的同级比较句型,其构成应为:倍数词+as+形容 词/副词原级+as+另一比较对象,所以此空应填 as。 答案: D 10.(2009· 辽宁卷)Peter’s jacket looked just the same as Jack’s,but it cost________his. A.as much twice as C.much as twice as 解析: B.twice as much as D.as twice much as


倍数用“倍数词+as+adj.+as”结构。 答案: B 11.(陕西高考)Ten years ago the population of our village was________that of theirs. A.as twice large as C.twice as much as

B.twice as large as D.as twice much as

解析: 句意为:十年前我们村的人口是他们村的 10 倍。形容词比较级的结构之一为:倍 数+as+形容词原级+as... 答案: B 12.Some parts in South China have experienced________this year as they did last year. A.twice as much rain C.as twice much rain B.rain twice as much D.twice rain as much

解析: 考查倍数表达法“倍数+as many/much+n.+as...”。因倍数词为前位限定词,排除 B、C 两项,而 D 项不合句型结构。 答案: A “Oh dear,” I cried,“walking does need a bit of practice now that gravity has changed.”“天 哪,”我大声说:“重力改变了,看来走路也的确需要练一练了。” now that 由于;既然,引导原因状语从句,有时 that 可以省略。 Now that I have nothing to do,I can enjoy music for a little while.既然我无事可做,我可以 享受一会儿音乐了。 Now you have grown up,you can make up your mind by yourself.你已长大了,可以自己作 决定了。 辨析:because,since,as,for 与 now that (1)because 语气最强,一般指事情发生的直接原因,回答提问时,一般放在主句之后。 He was absent from the meeting because he was ill yesterday. 昨天他没参加会议是因为他病了。 (2)since 语气较弱,指双方都明确的原因或众所周知的原因,侧重主句,从句表示显然的或 已知的理由。 Since you can’t answer the question,I’ll ask someone else. 既然你回答不出这个问题,我就问别人了。 (3)as 语气比 because 弱,所引导的从句表示的是显而易见的原因和理由,从句一般放在主 句前。 As there was no answer,we wrote him again. 鉴于他没有回复,我们又给他写了封信。 (4)for 是并列连词,表示推断的原因,或对前一分句补充说明理由。for 表示这一用法时需 放在两句之间。

It must have rained last night,for the ground is wet. 昨晚肯定下雨了,因为地面是湿的。 13.(北京高考)—Did you return Fred’s call? —I didn’t need to________I’ll see him tomorrow. A.though C.when B.unless D.because

解析: 句意为: ——你给 Fred 回电话了吗?——我没必要回, 因为明天我要去见他。 though 虽然;unless 除非;when 当……时;because 因为。 答案: D 14.________you’ve got a chance,you might as well make full use of it. A.Now that C.Although B.After D.As soon as

解析: 句意为:既然你得到了一次机会,不妨充分利用它。 答案: A Ⅰ.完成句子 1.__________________(既然) you’ve finished your homework, you can go and play football to have a rest. 答案: Now that 2.Do your best in your career,and you’ll succeed ________________(迟早). 答案: in time

3.________________(当心) for his temper!He’s not easy to deal with. 答案: Watch out 4.Whenever I’m upset,she always has a good idea to make me______________(感到高兴). 答案: cheer up 5.The first modern robot________________(诞生) in 1954,created by George Davel and operated digitally. 答案: came into existence 6 . The government has taken measures to________ the cultural

relics__________________(阻止被损坏). 答案: prevent;from being damaged

Ⅱ.巧思妙解 1.________matters most in learning English is enough practice. A.What C.Where B.Why D.Which

解析: 本题考查名词性从句的用法。根据句子的分析,________matters most in learning English 是主语部分,is enough practice 是谓语部分。再分析主语部分,发现缺少的是主语, 指的是事情,所以应该用一个代词 what。 答案: A 2.________worries me the way he keeps changing his mind. A.This C.What B.That D.It

解析: 考查代词 it 的用法。用做形式主语。真正的主语是 the way。 答案: D 3.________parents say and do has a lifelong effect on their children. A.That C.What B.Which D.As

解析: 考查名词性从句。所填词引导主语从句,引导词作从句的宾语,指物;用 what。 答案: C 4.________he couldn’t understand was________,as a teacher of Chinese,he was asked to teach history. A.What;that C.What;which B.What;what D.Why;how

解析: 第一个空格引导主语从句,且从句缺宾语,故用 what,而不用在从句中作状语的 why;第二个空格引导表语从句,且该从句不缺任何成分,故用在表语从句中不作成分的 that,而不用在从句中作成分的 what,which,how。 答案: A 5.________is known to us all is that the 2012 Olympic Games will take place in London. A.It C.As B.What D.Which

解析: 句意为: 我们都知道, 2012 年奥运会在伦敦举行。 本题是由一个主语从句________is

known to us all 和一个表语从句 that the 2012 Olympic...组成, 主语从句中缺少主语, 用 what 指代这一事件,注意本题可以转化为 It is known to us all that the 2012 Olympic Games will...(it 作形式主语);以及 As is known to us,the 2012 Olympic Games will...(As 引导非限 制性定语从句)。 答案: B Ⅲ.语法专练 本单元语法——主语从句 1.(2010· 温州三模)Please remember________wins your respect is not your background but your knowledge and virtues. A.that C.which 解析: B.what D.where


和美德。题干中 remember 之后为宾语从句,其中,what wins your respect 又为主语从句。 答案: B 2.(2010· 浙江卷)It is uncertain________side effect the medicine will bring about,although about two thousand patients have taken it. A.that C.how 解析: B.what D.whether 句意为:尽管说已经有大约两千名病人服用了这种药品,但是,这种药品会带来

什么副作用还不明确。本题考查名词性从句。本题设空处须引导主语从句, that 无实际意 义,在从句中不作成分;what 什么,在从句中可作主语、宾语和表语,还可修饰名词作定 语;how 如何,多么;在从句中作方式状语或修饰形容词;whether 是否,在从句中作状 语,不修饰名词。side effect 为名词短语,故须用 what 修饰。 答案: B 3.(2011· 海淀一模)________young people see and hear in the media helps them to figure out how the world works. A.Which C.What 解析: B.That D.How


的世界是如何运转的。 “young people see and hear in the media”中动词 see 和 hear 缺少宾语,

因此空白处应填 What。 答案: C 4.(2011· 安徽皖南八校联考)—Mary looks down today.What is up? —Well,________happened between Mary and me is none of your business. A.wherever C.whatever B.whoever D.no matter what

解析: whatever 引导主语从句,在从句中作主语。 答案: C 5 . (2011· 东 城 第一 学期检 测 )It makes his life quite different________he has received education abroad. A.that C.what B.which D.how

解析: 考查连词。it 作形式主语,that 引导的主语从句作真正的主语,that 不可以省略。 从句部分主谓宾成分齐全,可以排除 B、C;how 表方式,不符合语境。 答案: A


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