非 谓 语 动 词
to do:\to be done 主语\宾语\表语\定语\补语\状语 To do to have (been) done: 宾语 to be doing: 宾语 doing: 主语，宾语，表语，定语，补语，状语 doing being done: 宾语，表语，定语，补语， having (been) done: 状语 done : 表语
To do 可以充当所有成分；
※非谓语动词 的否定式一律 在其前加 not
状语：to do, dong, having (been) done, done 定语\补语: to (be) do, doing, being done, done. 主语: to do, doing (动名词） 宾语：to do 及其所有变形，being done, doing 表语: to do, doing, being done, done
非谓语动词的完成时不做定语和补语； 作主语的只有：to do\ doing 不作宾语的只有：done\having (been)done; 不做状语的有:to do 的完成时和进行时以及 doing 的被动式 .
一： 非句子成分作状语：非句子，句子 = 句子，非句子。 独立主格： 主语+非谓语动词，+ 句子。 （句首和逗号处无连词，主语不一致） =with 的复合结构去掉 with。(非谓语动词形式由其前面主语决定） 分词作状语： （with+N+非谓语动词，+ 句子）(非谓语动词形式由其前面 N 决定） 分词作状语: (主语) +非谓语动词，+ 句子。 （句首和逗号处无连词，主语一致) （非谓语动词：一看主语的主被动，二看谓语动词的时间先后关系） to do , doing，having done; 主动被动 done, having been done, to do 表在谓语 V 之后发生； doing 表与 V 同时或几乎同时发生 时间先后关系 having ( been ) done 表在谓语 V 之前发生 done 只表被动 be + done +prep 用于以上结构，要去掉 " be ", 用被动表主动.某些动词用于分 ※ 词作状语，不考虑主被动，不考虑时间关系，只用其固定形式，这些词的固定形式 为：judging from(从--来判断）, providing that\given that （假如） ，considering（考虑到）, to tell the truth,（说实话） generally speaking, speaking of\ talking of (谈到---） ，taking ---into consideration（考虑）, seeing（考虑到）, supposing (如果）
句子, only+ to do ( to be done) 意料之外; \ 句子，(only)+ doing 意料之中 作其它的目的状语，结果状语，原因状语
1. (so as) to do\ (in order) to do (目的） 2. too adj to do (表否定概念，但 adj 为表情感的 adj 时， 此结构表肯定概念 ） （结果） 。 3. be +adj enough to do.（结果） 4. 主语+ be adj + to do (原因） (此时 adj 为表心情的词） ，（adj 若为表性质的词， 用 to do 的 主动形式表被动）
N + to do\ to be done \ doing\ being done \done (be done +prep) 非谓语 V 的完成式不用于 定语修饰名词或代词 ※(看所修饰名词与所选词之间的主被动与时间关系)
N + to do\to be done: 选 to do 还是选 to be done，就看整个句子的主语是否是 to do 中 do 的 逻辑主语，即是否是 to do 中 do 这个动作的发出者，是发出者，用 to do, 不是发出者，用 to be done. Eg: I have something to do this afternoon, so I can’t go out with you; ----I want to go shopping now, do you have something to be bought?
结构:1. 主语+ have \make\let sb + do\doing \done → sb + be + had\made\let +to do\doing\done 2. 主语+ get \leave\set sb to do\doing \done 3. 主语+ keep sb doing\done 4. 主语+感官动词+sb do\doing \done → sb be +感官动词的过去分词+to do\doing\done ※ 感 官 动 词 ： 一 感 二 听 三 让 四 看 一 监 视 一 注 意 一 发 现 feel\listen to (hear)\ let(make\have)\see(watch\observe\look at)\spy\notice\find\catch---
to do： 一次性行为\偶尔为之的行为；doing：经常性\习惯性行为 ※ to do\ doing 作主语，谓语动词用单数 动名词的复合结构： 作宾语： 只接 Ving 形式作宾语的 V 后 + 形容词性物主代词\宾格+doing； Eg: You should avoid your son’s (your son ) doing it again. 作主语：形容词性物主代词+doing+V 单数+其他 Eg: My apologizing to him changed his attitude at last.
只接 Ving 形式作宾语的 V 有： 避免错过少延期，( avoid\miss\postpone ) 建议完成多练习；( advice\finish\end up\practice ) 喜欢想象禁不住，(enjoy\fancy\imagine\can’t help) 承认否定与嫉妒；(admit\deny\envy) 逃避冒险莫原谅，(escape\risk\excuse) 忍受保持不介意；(stand\bear\keep\mind) 禁止成功不感激，(forbid\succeed\appreciate) 考虑面对忒值得；(consider\face\delay\be worth) 两个允许莫忘记。(allow\permit) 既可接 Ving 又可接 to do 作宾语的 V 有： （1）表情感类 V：prefer\like\love\dislike\hate + 只接 to do 做宾语的 V 有： 三个希望两答应，( hope\wish\expect\promise\agree ) 两个要求莫拒绝；(ask\demand\request\refuse) 设法学会做决定，(manage\learn\decide\be determined to do) 不要假装在选择；(pretend\choose) proceed\endeavor\strive 两个计划被安排，(plan\intend\arrange) profess\plot\presume 想要尝试去教学；(want\would like\attempt\teach) swear 承受失败无准备，(afford\fail\prepare) resolve\request 似乎提供要去做；(seem\offer+ to do) threaten, undertake 保证匆忙不犹豫。(guarantee\hurry\hesitate) tend, seek
to do： 表示某个具体的行为动作 doing: 表示一贯的行为\常态
（2）remember\forget\regret+ to do\ doing: to do 表示去做，doing 表示做过了； （3）stop to do:停下来去做另外一件事；stop doing:停下手头正在做的事情。 （4）try to do: 设法\努力去做---; try doing: 试着做---. （5）mean to do: 打算去做（主语一般是人） ；mean doing：意味着做---（主语一般是物） （6）go on\continue + to do:接着去做另一件事; go on\continue + doing:接着做同一件事； （7）be afraid \fear+ to do: 害怕，不敢去做某事；be afraid \fear of doing:担心发生某种结果； （8）be sure to do:一定\必定做某事；be sure of doing:有信心做某事
（9）Start\begin+ to do\doing: to do\doing 常可互换，但以下情况只能接 to do. ※ start\begin 本身为进行时\to do 中 do 为表心理活动的词\主语为 It 时，只接 to do. Eg:I am starting to change\ She starts to realize(understane\believe\know) it\ I t start to change.
thought\intended\planned \expected\meant to have done=had thought\intended\planned to do:
1. 连词+分词（to do\done );略（详见固定句式） 2. 感官动词\使役动词+宾语+省略 to 的动词不定式 （即 V 原形)略： 详见非谓语动词作补语。 3. 在并列结构中，第二个 to do 要省略 to, ※但两个不定式形成对比关系，第二个 to do 不 省略 to. Eg; The purpose of developing new technologies is to make life easier, not to make it more difficult.; I want to sing and (to ) dance. ※不省略 to 的结构还有：1. 如果第二个句子 to do 和第一个句子中的 to do 短语重复，第 二个句子中的 to do 短语只保留 to, 省略 do; 但如果 do 为 be\have(做 ‘有’ 解） ， 需保留 be\have. Eg: --Would you like to play with us?---Yes, I would love to. ---Are you a taxi-driver?---No, but I used to be. 4. 固定句式 (1) Why not do--- =Why don’t you do---? 为什么不做---？ (2) Would rather do-- than do--=would do rather than do---.宁愿做---而不做--（3）prefer to do --- rather than do (4) can ‘t help but do\can’t but do\can’t choose but do: 只好做\只能做--(5) had better do\may as well do:最好做---；不妨做---。 5. 如果 but 前有实意动词 do 的相应形式 but 后的 to do 要省略 to. 6. 在主系表结构中，如果做主语的句子中出现实意动词 do 的相应形式, to do 要省略 to. Eg: All you need to do is (to) press the button.
八： sb be done + to do(再谓语 V 之后发生）\ to be doing（与 V 九: 非谓语动词中的主动表被动
同时发生）\to have done（在
V 之前发生） 。Eg: The book is said to have been published into 32 languages.
1. 主语+be +adj + to do (adj 为表示事务性质的形容词） 2. Need\want\require+ doing\tobe done ; 需要被做；be worth+doing: 值得被做--3. Be to blame for sth: 为某事负责任 4. be +done +prep: 系动词\belong to\be\happen(break out\occur\take place\come about)\come out 5. 系老属必（be ）生斑(版). 此三种结构不是非谓语动词， 但也是主动表被动形式 6. be seated:就座；坐着。 7. 开关洗净，卖烧减驾，读写画行 Open\lock(shut)\wash\clean\sell\burn\cut\drive\read\write\draw\move (这些 V 基本上都翻译为 “--- 起来” ，且其后必有副词出现来修饰主语的性质。Eg: These pens write smoothly. 8: with +n+非谓语动词+ to do (将要被做的动作）
十：非谓语动词陷阱题： Eg: The gift I am looking forward to makes me happy.
主语 + 定语从句 + 谓语动词 （考察是谓语动词还是非谓语动词）
※此定语从句中会出现以介词结尾的动词短语干扰项， 许多同学会认为既然以介词结尾， 其 后应加 doing 形式， 实际上介词短语是作定语， 应该去掉后划分句子结构， 主语后应接谓语。
2012---2013 年高考题 非谓语动词专练
1.___ that he was in great danger, Erick walked deeper into the forest. (温州) A. Not realized. B. Not to realize. C. Not realizing. D. Not to have realized.
2. I’d rather read than watch TV. The programs seem ___ all the time. A. to get worse B. to be getting worse C. getting worse D. to have got worse 3. How happy we are! The holiday we have been looking forward _______ at last. A. to has come B. to have come C. to having come D. has come
4. The witnesses by the police just now gave very different descriptions of the fight.(陕西) A. questioned B. being questioned C. to be questioned D. having questioned 5. Our evidence shows that ___ time outdoors is good for kids’s eyes. (长沙） A.spend B. to be spent C. spending D. spent 6 John received an invitation to the dinner, and with his work ___, he gladly accepted it.(济南）A. finished B. having finished C. finishing D. was finished th 7. in the early 20 century, the school keeps on inspiring children’s love of art. （安徽）A. To found B. Founding C. Founded D. Having founded
8. She took her son, ran out of the house, _____ him in the car and drove quickly to the nearest doctor’s office. (吉林） A. put B. to put C. putting D. having put． 9. That is the only way we can imagine ______ the overuse of water in students' bathrooms. A. reducing B. to reduce C. reduced D. reduce 10. The children went home from the grammar school，their lessons _______ for the day. A. finishing B. finished C. had finished D. were finished 11. At last, we found ourselves in a pleasant park with trees providing shade and ______ down to eat our picnic lunch. A. sitting B. having sat C. to sit D. Sat 12. ______straight on， and you’ll see a church. You won’t miss it. A. Go B. Going C. If you go D. When going
13. Volunteering gives you a chance lives, including your own.（北京） A. change B. changing C. Changed D. to change 14.---Did you see him ___ down the old lady? ----Yes, the lady was just in front of the door hurrying to another bus when the young man got off. A. knock B. knocked C. To knock D. to be knocked
15. The traffic rule says young children under the age of four and ____ less than 40 pounds must be in a child safety seat. （浙江） A. being weighed B. to weigh C. weighed D. weighing 16. I got out of the taxi, _____ the fare and dashed into the Station. A. paid B. paying C. to pay D. having paid
17.I am leaving for Beiing, do you have anything ___ to your daughter? A. to take B. taken C. to be taken D. Taking 18. The purpose of developing new technologies is to make life easier, ___ more difficult. A. not make B. not making C. not to make D. do not make 19. ________ warm at night, I would fill the woodstove, then set my alarm clock for midnight so I could refill it.（湖南）A. Staying B. Stayed C. To stay D. Stay
20. _______ the road round to the right and you’ll find his house. A. Follow B. Following C. To follow D.Followed 21. Of all the feelings, bodily plain is the most difficult _____. A. explained B. to explain C. being explained D. To be explained 22. The car burns more fuel,but _____ all things into consideration, it is still a good car. A. Taken B. Taking C. Having taken D. To take 23. The theory he sticks to ______ to be of no use in our studies. A. proves B. prove C. proving D. be proved
24. I stopped the car ____ a short break as I was feeling tired. （山东） A. take B. taking C. to take D. taken 25. The best seller, _____ in her own things, didn’t notice what the customer is talking A. Lost B. losing C. lose D. having lost 26. ______at the cafeteria before, Tina didn’t want to eat there again. （山东） A. Having eaten B. To eat C. Eat D. Eating 27. There are some health problems that, when in time, can become bigger ones later on.(浙江) A． not treated B. not being treated C. not to be treated D. not having been treated 28. The airport next year will help promote tourism in this area.(四川) A．being completed B. to be completed C. completed D. having been completed 29. Anyone, once positive for H1N9 flu Virus, will receive free medical treatment from our government.(福建) A． to be tested B. being tested C. tested D. to test
30【2012 湖南卷】 21. We've had a good start, but next, more work needs ____ to achieve the final success. decision. minutes. A. being done A. consider A. operating B. do B. considering B. to be operating C. to be done C. to consider C. operated D. to be D. considered D. to operate 31【2012 重庆卷】31. Before you quit your job, ______how your family would feel about your 32【2012 辽宁卷】29. This machine is very easy 33. Entering the room , _________ A. the walls was found newly-painted. C. the walls was found newly-painting. A. washed challenge. A. meets A. to be told better_____silent. B. wash B. meeting B. telling A. Remain C. meet B. I found the walls newly-painted. D. I found the walls newly-painting C. washing D. to meet C. being told B. be remaining B. Basing D. told D. to remain D. to wash 高 666 . Anybody can learn to use it in a few
34【2012 四川卷】12. Before driving into the city, you are required to get your car ____. 35【2012 陕西卷】22.If he takes on this work, he will have no choice but ______ an even greater 36【2012 山东卷】26. George returned after the war, only _______ that his wife had left him. 37 【 2012 浙江卷】 3. No matter how bright a talker you are, there are times when it's C. having remained C. Base D. To base 38 【2012 江苏卷】 31.__________an important decision more on emotion than on reason, you will regret it sooner or later. A. Based 39【2012 安徽卷】24. I remembered the door before I left the office, but forgot to turn off
the lights. A. locking B. to lock C. having locked 40 Not every should ____ for the fault that you found. A. blame B. be to blame C. be to be blamed D. Be blamed
D. to have locked