Body Language 肢体语言
dash vi. 猛冲；突进 at ease 舒适；快活；自由自在 t
ruly adv. 真实地；真诚地 false anger adj.错误的；假的 n.怒气；怒火 丢脸 adult n.成人；成年人 simply adv.简单地；只 Muslim n. & adj.穆斯林（的） spoken adj.口语的
n.陈述；说明 vt. 代表；象征 n.社团；联系；联想
vi. & vt. 迎接；问候
dormitory n. 宿舍 canteen curious n.食堂 adj. 好奇的
posture n.姿势；体态 be likely to do … 很可能；有希望 in general 总的来说；通常 crossroads n.十字路口 employee frown misread n.雇员 vi. 皱眉；蹙额 vt.读错；误解
turn one’s back to 背弃；背对 fist yawn n.拳头 vi.打哈欠 adj.恭敬的 adj. 主观的
curiously adv.好奇地 approach
vt. & vi.接近；靠近；走近 n.接近；方法；途径
respectful subjective hug rank
vi & vt.拥抱 n.等级；军衔 n.磁带 adj.面部的
defend against 保卫…以免受 defence major n.防御；保卫 adj.主要的 vt.误会；误解
function n.作用；功能；职能 vi. 起作用；运转
II． Reading COMMUNICATION: NO PROBLEM?交流：没有问题吗？ Yesterday, another student and I, representing our university’s student association, went to the Capital International Airport to meet this year’s international students.昨天， 我和另一个学生代表
我们大学的学生会到首都国际机场迎接今年的国际生。 【注释：representing our university’s student 是现在 分词短语作状语， 该分词与句子主语 “another student and I” 之间的逻辑关系为主谓关系。 也有把 representing our uninersity's student association 看作非限制性定语（相当于 who represented our university's student association.） 考题：
1. (09 申-31) A small plane crashed into a hillside five miles east of the city, ____ all four people on board. A. killed B. killing C. kills D. to kill 2. (09 湘-25) At the age of 29, Dave was a worker, ____ in a small apartment near Boston and ______ what to do about his future. A. living; wondering B. lived; wondering C. lived; wondered D. living; wondered 3. (09 辽-22) When we visited my old family home, memory came _____ back. A. flooding B. to flood C. flood D. flooded 4. (08 全 II-9) —— What are you reading, Tom? —— I’m not really reading, just _____ the pages. A. turning off B. turning around C. turning over D. turning up 5. (08 京-24) ______ that she was going off to sleep, I asked if she’d like that little doll on her bed. A. Seeing B. To see C. See D. Seen 6. (08 重-29) _____ to reach them on the phone, we sent an email instead. A. Fail B. Failed C. To fail D. Having failed BAACAD】
They were coming to study at Beijing University.他们要来北大学习。 【注释：were coming to 是用短暂 性动词的进行时形式表示将来。类似用法 be going to do sth. 】 We would take them first to their dormitories and then to the student canteen.我们首先把他们带到宿舍，然后带他们去小卖部。 【注释： 当序数词作状语修饰谓语动词时，在序数词前面不可用 the。如： Tom came here first this morning.】 After
half an hour of waiting for their flight to arrive, I saw several young people enter the waiting area looking around curiously.等了半个小时之后，我看到几个年轻人走进候机区，在好奇地张望。 【注释： looking around curiously 是现在分词作伴随状语。 stood for a minute watching them and then 】I went to greet them.我站一会儿，观察他们，然后过去跟他们打招呼。 The first person to arrive was Tony Garcia from Colombia, closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain.第一个到达的是来自哥伦比亚的托尼·加西亚，紧跟着后面的是来自英国的茱莉亚·斯密斯。
【注释： first person to arrive,非谓语动词修饰序数词或修饰有序数词修饰的名词时， the 常能用不定式形式。 试题：1) She was the first woman ____ the gold medal in the Olympics in the world. A. won B. wins C. to win D. winning —— Agreed! C. to arrive D. arriving CC】
2) The last one _____ pays the meal. A. arrived B. arrives
After I met them and then introduced them to each other, I was very surprised.当我接到他们并相互 介绍完毕之后， 我感到非常吃惊。 Tony approached Julia, touched her shoulder and kissed her on the cheek!托尼走到茱莉亚跟前，摸摸她的肩膀并吻了她的脸颊。 【注释：approach vt.向…靠近；接近；与…
打交道；探讨； vi. 靠近；临近；接近； n. 靠近；临近；接近；通路；亲近的表示；方式（后跟 to）; the approach of … …的来临/临近； make approaches to sb.想接近某人；想与某人打交道； approach sb. about/ for sth.向某人要求某物； approach to sth.做某事的方式/方法； eg. 1) Snow announced the approach of winter.雪宣告冬季的来临。 2) I like her approach to the problem.我喜欢她解决这个问题的方法。 3)
They made approaches to the team to buy one of their players.他们与那支球队洽谈要买他们的一个球员。 试题： ★ With winter _____, many animals are busy storing food. A. leaving B. disappearing C. appearing D. approaching 】
She stepped back appearing surprised and put up her hands, as if in defence.她向后退了一下， （脸
上）显露出很吃惊，举起双手，似乎是在防卫。 【注释：as if would be if:似乎，仿佛： that： eg. eg. conj.（连接词） (1) In the same way that it (2)That:相当于 looked as if she were made of ice.她看起来似乎是冰做的.
It seemed as if the meeting would never end.看起来会议没完没了】 I guessed that there was eg. Alice majors in economics.爱丽丝主修经济学。
probably a major misunderstanding.我想这主要可能是一个误会。 注释： major adj.较大的； 【 主要的 n.
专业； vi.主修；专政； major in 攻读；专修；主修 a/the majority of 大多数的； 大半的 eg. The majority of lone parents are divorced or separated women.单身父
母中大多数是离婚或分居的妇女。 Young people were in the majority at the meeting.这次会议年轻人占了很 多。 Then Akira Nagata from Japan came in smiling, together with George Cook from Canada.随 】 后，来自日本的永田明，和来自加拿大的佐治亚库克都笑着进来。 【注释：smiling 是现在分词作伴随状语。 】
As they were introduced, George reached his hand out to the Japanese student.在介绍他们的时候，
佐治亚向日本学生伸出手去。 【注释：introduce vt. 引领；引进；介绍；提出； introduce sb. to sb.把某 人介绍给某人； introduce sth. in/ into 把某物引进； introduce sb. to sth.引导或带领某人接触某事物； introduce sth. to sb.向某人宣布并介绍； introduce oneself 作自我介绍 who introduced me to jazz.是我弟弟介绍我听爵士乐的。 eg. 1) It was my younger brother
2) Allow me to introduce my friend Miss Wood to
you.允许我向你介绍我的朋友伍德小姐。 3) Coffee was introduced into England from the Continent.咖啡是从 欧洲大陆传入英国的。 Just at that moment, however, Akira bowed so his nose touched George’s 】
moving hand.可是， 就在那时， 永田明弯腰鞠躬， 以致于他的鼻子碰到了佐治亚正伸出来的手。 They both apologized — another cultural mistake!他们两个都相互道歉——又一个文化过失！ Ahmed Aziz, another international student, was from Jordan.艾哈默德·阿齐兹，另一个来自约旦 的国际生。 When we met yesterday, he moved very close to me as I introduced myself.昨天，当我
们见面的时候，在我自我介绍时，他走到我跟前，靠得很近。 【辨析：close, closely ⑴close 表示具体的
空间概念，即指“距离很近” ，如：stayed close together.紧紧地靠在一块。 closely 指抽象的“关系密切” 。 如：The two things are closely interconnected.这两个事物是相互紧密地联系在一起的。类似用法像 deep 与 deeply, deep 指具体的空间概念 “深” 而 deeply 指抽象的感情概念 ， “深深地” I moved back a bit, but he 】
came closer to ask a question and then shook my hand.我向后退了一点， 可是他靠得更近来问问题， 并 与我握手。 When Darlene Coulon from France came dashing through the door, she recognized Tony Garcia’s smiling face.当来自法国的达琳库龙匆忙地穿过门口过来时，她认出了托尼加西亚微笑的 脸庞。 They shook hands and then kissed each other twice on each cheek, since that is the French custom when adults meet people they know.他们握手并在脸颊上相互吻了两下，因为那是法国人的习
俗： 当成年人遇到相识的人时， 要相互吻两下脸颊。 【注释： they know 是定语从句， 修饰限制先行词 people.】
Ahmed Aziz, on the contrary, simply nodded at the girls.相反，艾哈默德阿齐兹只是对他的女友点点 头。 【注释：on the contrary 相反。 Men from Middle Eastern and other Muslim countries will often 】 stand quite close to other men to talk but will usually not touch women.来自中东和其他穆斯林国家
的男子通常与别人站得很近来讲话，但通常不碰女子。 【注释：touch = be out of touch with 与…失去联系； eg. vt. & vi. n. 触摸；接触； get in/into touch with 与…取得联系； keep in touch with 与…保持联系； be in touch with 与…有联系； lose touch with 1) Let’s stay in touch 让我们保持联系。 2) I was touched/moved
by her gentleness.我被他的温柔打动了。 3) We have kept in touch with each other since graduation.自毕业以后 我们一直相互保持联系。 4) I regret to say that I have lost touch with four or five.很遗憾，我和四五个朋友已 失去了联系。 】
As I get to know more international friends, I learn more about this cultural “body language”.
随着我开始认识更多的国际朋友，我了解了更多的有关“肢体语言”的文化。Not all cultures greet each
other (in) the same way, nor are they comfortable in the same way with touching or distance between people.（= nor are they comfortable touching strangers or being too close or too far away.）不是所有的文化以相同的方式相互问候/寒暄，以同样的方式或同样的距离与人接触都会使他们不
舒服(与人接触时距离太近或太远都会使他们不舒服)。 【注释：(1) not all 意为‘并非所有的…都’ ，是部分 否定； not 构成部分否定意义的表示整体意义或表示绝对概念的词还有：both, every, everyone, everywhere, 与 everybody, everything, always, entirely,altogether wholly, . Eg. 1) Not every student passed the exam.并非所 有的学生都通过了考试。 2) Not all of them can speak English.并非他们都会说英语。 (2) 表示全部否定是 词有： none, nobody, neither, never, nothing, nowhere, no one, not at all. Eg. None of the books are useful.】
In the same way that people communicate with spoken language, they also express their feelings using unspoken “language” through physical distance, actions or posture.同样地， 他们在用口语交流
时，他们也通过使用身体的距离、行为、或姿态等不说出口的“语言”来表达感情。 【注释： through (1)By way of:由，经过：eg. 过：用…途径或媒介： eg. climbed in through the window.从窗户爬进去 prep. (2)By the means or agency of:通
bought the antique vase through a dealer.通过一个商人买到这只古花瓶】
English people, for example, do not usually stand very close to others or(= and not) touch strangers as soon as they meet.例如，英国人一见面，通常彼此站得不是很近，或不是近距离的接触陌生 人。 However, people from places like Spain, Itlay or South American countries approach others closely and are more likely to touch them.然而，来自西班牙、意大利或南美国家的人彼此靠得很近，
也很可能接触对方。 【注释：likely, possible, probable 在不同结构中的运用： (1) It’s likely that … = sb. be likely to do …
如: It’s likely that he will win the game = he is likely to win the game.
(2) It’s possible for sb. to do sth.= It’s possible that sb. will do sth. (3) It’s probable that sb. will do sth.
如：It’s possible for Tom to pass the exam this time.
如：It’s probable that Tom will pass the exam this time.
1) We’ve just heard a warning on the radio that a hurricane is ____ to come this evening. A. likely B. possible C. probable D. believable
2) It is _____ for her to finish that maths problem in such a short time, because she is so clever.
3) Look, dark clouds are gathering. It is ______ to rain soon. A. possible B. likely C. probable D. perhaps ADA 】
Most people around the world now greet each other by shaking hands, but some cultures use other greetings as well, such as the Japanese, who prefer to bow.世界各地大多数人是通过握手进行彼
此问候，但也有其他文化用其他方式问候，比如日本人比较喜欢鞠躬。 【注释： as well 也；又；同样;倒不 如, 还是...的好;最好...还是(It will be as well to stop that young screamer. 但是最好还是让那个大哭大叫 的孩子住声。) eg. He mentioned other matters as well.他也提到了其它事情】
These actions are not good or bad, but are simply ways in which cultures have developed.这些 行为不好也不坏，只是文化发展的不同方式罢了。 【注释：simply adv. (1)merely; only:仅仅；只不过： eg.
It is simply a matter of time.这只不过是一个时间的问题. delicious.真是鲜美极了. (2)absolutely; altogether:完全地； 简直： eg. simply (3)Frankly; candidly:坦率地； 天真地： eg. You are, quite simply, the best candidate
for the job.说实在话，你是这份工作最好的候选人 】 I have seen, however, that cultural customs for
body language are very general — not all members of a culture behave in the same way.可是，我
已经明白：对于肢体语言的文化习俗是非常普遍的——并非所有文化在行为上都以相同的方式。 【注释： behave v.tr. 及物动词） （ (1)To conduct (oneself) properly:举止适宜： eg. Did you behave yourself at the party? The witness 你在聚会上举止得体吗?
(2)To conduct (oneself) in a specified way:以某一特殊方式行动：eg.
behaved herself with great calmness. 那 目 击 者 表 现 得 极 其 冷 静 】 In general, though, studying
international customs can certainly help avoid difficulties in today’s world of cultural crossroads!
不过， 一般说来， 研究国际习俗确实能够有助于避免当今世界文化交叉所产生的困难。 【注释： ①in general 大体上；一般地； as a general rule 一般情况下；通常； generally speaking 一般地说。如： 1) As a general rule, he goes to bed late. 来。 ②avoid +动名词/名词/代词 vt. 避开；避免 (1)I crossed the street to avoid
meeting him, but he saw me and came running towards me.我横穿马路以便避开他,但他看到了我并朝我跑过 (2) To avoid confusion, the teams wore different colours.为避免混淆,两队分穿不同颜色的衣服。 】
试题： 1. I guess that team is _____ to win the match, but I am not quite sure. A. possible B. likely C. impossible D. certain 2. The kids seated themselves ____ to the teacher and listened ___ with great interest. A. closely; close B. closely; closely C. close; closely D. close; close 3. _____ the importance of this experiment, they checked the results over again. A. To consider B. Considered C. Consider D. Considering 4. The new plan was put ____ immediately by the leaders in that city to stop the spreading fire. A. for use B. into use C. into action D. for action 5. All eggs look _____ to each other, but no two eggs are quite the same, Leonardo Da Vinci’s teacher once said to him. A. different B. similar C. alike D. Familiar BCDC[put sth. into action 采取行动；付诸实践]B 重点句型： 1．The first person to arrive was Tony Garcia from Colombia，closely followed by Julia Smith from Britain.【精提取】 to arrive 为不定式作后置定语。注：当所修饰的部分是序数词或为 序数词修饰时，则应用动词不定式作定语。如：She is the first student to come here. 【巧应用】 她是在 29 届奥运会获得金牌的第一位运动员。
She was ___ _____ ____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ in the 29th Olympic Games. 答案：the first athlete to win the gold medal 2．Not all cultures greet each other the same way，nor are they comfortable in the same way with touching or distance between people. 【精提取】 not all 为部分否定。表示整体概念或绝对概念的词与否定词连用时，则表示部 分否定。这些词有 all, both, every..., always, entirely, altogether, completely, quite , all the time(一直） not…and…的否定式， ， 被否定的往往是 and 后面的那一部分(如： This film is not interesting and instructive.这部电影有趣但无教育意义) 。 【巧应用】 并不是所有昨天晚 上在场的歌手都是学生。 ________ ________ ________ ________ present last night were students. 答案：Not all the singers 3．However，people from places like Spain，Italy or South American countries approach others closely and are more likely to touch them. 【精提取】 sb. be likely to do sth.有可能做某事。 【巧应用】 如不小心，你就可能出事故。 An accident ____ ______ ______ _____ if you are not careful enough. 答案：is likely to happen 4．These actions are not good or bad，but are simply ways in which cultures have developed. 【精提取】 in which cultures have developed 为定语从句， 用来修饰 ways。 way 作先行词时， 后面可以跟或不跟 in which/that。 【巧应用】 我不喜欢他看我的方式。他好像看不起我。 I didn’t like _____ ____ ____ _____ _____ _____.He seemed to look down upon me. 答案：the way he looked at me 每日一篇范文背诵： (2009 年高考全国卷Ⅱ)假定你是李华，你的美国朋友 Sarah 打算暑期来北京旅游，来信询问 改建后前门大街的情况。请你写封回信，简单介绍以下内容： 1．简况：长 800 余米、600 多年历史、300 余家商铺； 2．位置：天安门广场南面； 3．交通：公共汽车 17、69、59 等路，地铁 2 号线； 4．特色：步行街、当当车、茶馆、剧院等。 参考词汇：步行街 pedestrian street；当当车 trolley car；地铁 subway 注意：1．词数 100 左右，开头语已为你写好；2．可以适当增加细节，以使行文连贯。 Dear Sarah， Thank you for your letter asking about the rebuilt Qianmen Street. Here is something about it. Qianmen Street is a famous street of over 600 years old. Along this 800? meter street,there are more than 300 shops. As the street is in the center of Beijing,just to the south of Tian’anmen Square, it’s very convenient to get there by bus. You may take Buses No. 17,69 or 59. Subway Line 2 has a stop there too. Qianmen Street is a pedestrian street, but there are trolley cars to take you not only to the shops,but also to theaters and teahouses where you can experience a truly Chinese way of life. I’m sure you’ll like it. Yours, Li Hua