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专业外语讲稿第1课Characterristics of Wood


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Characteristics of Wood

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1 Characteristics of Wood Character ['k?r?kt?] 基本翻译

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n. 字符;特性;角色;性格,品质 vt. 使具有特征;印,刻 网络

释义 character:字符|人物|性格 additional character:附加符号|特殊符号|附加字符 control character:控制字符|控制字元|控制符号 Throughout history , the unique characteristics and comparative abundance of wood have made it a natural material for homes and other structures , furniture , tools , vehicles , and decorative objects . Character 1. the combination of qualiies which makes thing , event , place , etc . , different from another 2. the qualities which make a person different from another ; moral nature 3. fame , good or bad Characteristics n . A special and easily recognized quality of someone or something adj. typical ; representing a person’s or thing’s usual character Characteristics [k?r?kt?'ristiks] n. 特性, 特征; 特质; (characteristic 特色 的复数)
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网络释义 characteristics:特性|特性、特性曲线|建设有中国特色的社会主义理论 output characteristics:输出特性 job characteristics:工作特性|职业特征

Throughout [θru:'aut] prep. 贯穿,遍及 adv. 自始至终,到处;全部 网络释义 throughout:遍及|始终|吞吐量 Carpet throughout:地毯 throughout history:纵观整个历史

Unique [ju:'ni:k]adj. 唯一的,独一无二的;独特的,稀罕的 n. 独一无 二的人或物 网络释义 unique:独特的|唯一的|别致的, 奇特的 Make Unique:独立|使独立|(使惟一) 【U

unique index:唯一索引|惟一索引|唯一索引 唯一索引

Comparative [k?m'p?r?tiv]adj. 相当的;比较的 n. 比较级;对手 网络释义 comparative:比较的|比较级的|相当的 comparative literature:比较文学|比較文學|文学比较
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comparative validity:相对效度|相对有效性|相对有效性/效度

Abundance [?'b?nd?ns]n. 充裕,丰富 网络释义 abundance:丰度|丰富|多度 photospheric abundance:光球丰度 abundance anomaly:丰度变异|丰度异常

abundance of 许多;丰富;富足: 网络释义 abundance ratio of isotopes:同位素的相对丰度 abundance of commodity supplies:商品供应充足 abundance of population:资源量

make it 网络释义

达到预定目标;及时抵达;走完路程; (病痛等)好转

make it:在面试、考试、比赛等获得成功|成功把握|成功 Future is what you make of it:未来掌握在自己的手中 And what I make of it:它使我什么

natural material 自然材料;天然材料 网络释义

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natural material:天然材料|木美自然|自然材料 natural cementing material:天然胶结材料 Cosmetic/Natural Soap Material:化妆品/香皂材料

structure ['str?kt??]n. 构造;结构;建筑物 vt. 组织;建造;构成 网络释义 Structure:结构|装置,结构|建筑物 atomic structure:原子结构|原子构造|释义:原子结构 Structure Sketching:结构素描

vehicle ['vi:ikl, 有时发'vi:hi-] n. 车辆;交通工具;运载工具;媒介物; 工具;传播媒介 网络释义 vehicle:交通工具|车辆|你想买的一辆车 Motor vehicle:机动车|汽车|机动车辆 towing vehicle:牵引车|全挂牵引汽车|牵引汽车

decorative ['dek?r?tiv]adj. 装饰性的;装潢用的 网络释义 decorative:装饰的|装饰的,装潢的|装饰配件 Decorative lighting:装饰灯具|装饰照明|灯饰 decorative laminate:装饰性层压板|装饰薄板|装饰层压纸
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object ['?bd?ikt, -d?ekt, ?b'd?ekt]n. 宾语;客体;目标;物体 vi. 反对; 拒绝 vt. 提出…作为反对的理由 网络释义 object:对象|客体|标的 object impossibility:对象不能犯|客体不能犯 Object Properties:物体属性|对象属性|对象特性

Today, for the same reasons , wood is prized for a multitude of uses.

Prized adj. 被看作最有价值的 force to get some thing 网络释义

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to value highly

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to use by

the most prized books:最为珍爱的书 Prized Possession: my parents:珍贵的人事物:父母亲。

a multitude of 大批的,众多的 网络释义 a multitude of:大量(接复数名词)|大量|一大批 Success covers a multitude of blunders !:成功由大量的失望铸就 Charity covers a multitude of sins.:仁爱可以隐藏罪恶

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All wood is composed of cellulose , lignin , hemicelluloses , and minor amounts (5% to 10%) of extraneous materials contained in a cellular structure.

composed [k?m'p?uzd] a. 镇静的,沉~的 v. 组成,著作,作曲 vbl. 组成,著作,作曲

cellulose ['seljul?us] n. 纤维素

minor ['main?] n. 未成年人,副修科目

extraneous [eks'treinj?s] a. 外来的,无关的

a. 次要的,较小的,二流的,未成年的 v. 辅修 [音乐] 小调

(5% to 10%) brackets opened 5 percent to 10 percent brackets closed

Variations in the characteristics and volume of these components and differences in cellular structure make woods heavy or light , stiff or flexible , and hard or soft .

stiff [stif]

flexible ['fleks?bl]
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a. 灵活的,易弯曲

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的,柔韧的 a. 坚硬的,严厉的,呆板的 ad. 僵硬地,彻底地

The properties of a single species are relatively constant within limits ; therefore , selection of wood by species alone may sometimes be adequate . species ['spi:?iz] n. 物种,种类 constant ['k?nst?nt] a. 经常的,不变的 n. 常数,恒量 alone [?'l?un] a. 单独的,仅仅 ad. 单独地 relatively ['rel?tivli] ad. 比较地,相对地

adequate ['?dikwit] a. 足够的,充足的,适当的,能胜任的

However , to use wood to its best advantage and most effectively in engineering applications , specific characteristics or physical properties must be considered .

engineering [,end?i'ni?ri?] n. 工程(学),工程技术 application [,?pli'kei??n] n. 申请 n. 应用软件程序
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physical ['fizik?l] a. 身体的,物理的,物质的 n. 体检 consider [k?n'sid?d] 考虑过的,被尊重的

Historically , some species filled many purposes , while other less available or less desirable species served only one or two needs . historically [his't?rik?li] adv. 历史上地;从历史观点上说 网络释义 historically:历史上地|从历史观点说,在历史上 historically significant experiment:具有历史意义的尝试 historically sensitive dates:历史敏感的日子

species ['spi:?i:z, -si:z] n. 物种;种类 adj. [生物]物种上的 网络释义 Species:种|物种|种类 Adaptable species:适应性强的物种 Migratory species:移栖种

For example , because white oak is tough , strong , and durable , it was highly prized for shipbuiding , bridges , barn timbers , farm implements, railroad crossties , fence posts , and flooring . barn [bɑ:n] n. 谷仓;车库;畜棚;靶(核反应截面单位)vt. 把贮存 入仓 网络释义

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barn:谷仓|靶恩|车库 calf barn:牛犊舍|犊牛舍 Barn owl:草鸮|仓枭|仓鸮

timber[ `timb?r] 1. wood for building 2. growing trees esp. condidered as a supply of wood for buildings 3. wooden beam esp. a curved piece forming part of a ship’s framework timber [ tim`b?:r] interj ( a warning shouted when a cut tree id about to fall down ) 倒啦 避开 (伐木工在树木倒下前的呼喊)

implement ['implim?nt, 'impliment] vt. 实现,使生效;实施,执行 n. 工具,器具;手段 网络释义 implement:完成,实施|实现|实施 Implement Resources:利用资源|执行资源布署 Implement Design:设计实现

crosstie ['kr?:s,tai] n. 枕木 网络释义 crosstie:小横梁|横梁,交叉拉杆,轨枕|撑杆,枕木
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crosstie wall:横档壁 frame crosstie:车架横梁

fence post 围篱桩;栅栏柱 网络释义 fence post:围篱桩,围篱柱|篱柱 steel fence post:栅栏钢桩 One fence post at a time:这每每竖立在心头的栅栏

flooring ['fl?:ri?] n. 地板材料;地板;室内地面;铺地板 v. 在上铺地 板;[口]击败(floor 的 ing 形式) 网络释义 flooring:铺地板|地板|(一块)地板 flooring paper:地毯用纸 resilient flooring:弹性地板|弹性地面|回弹底限 Wood such as black walnut and cherry were used primarily for furniture and cabinets, black walnut 黑胡桃;黑胡桃木 网络释义 Black walnut:黑胡桃|黑胡桃木|黑核桃 Black Sea walnut:黑海核桃木 America Black Walnut Wood:美国黑胡桃木
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cherry ['t?eri] n. 樱桃;樱桃树;如樱桃的鲜红色;[俚,鄙]处女膜, 处女 网络释义 Cherry:樱桃|樱桃白兰地酒|绮莉 法国 仁慈,像樱桃般红润的人 black cherry:黑樱桃|幸田来未|黑色樱桃 Cherry Latt:樱桃咖啡拿铁

cabinet ['k?binit]n. 内阁;橱柜;展览艺术品的小陈列室 adj. 内阁的; 私下的,秘密的 网络释义 cabinet:橱柜|储藏柜|陈列柜 filing cabinet:文件柜|公文柜|档案橱柜 bedside cabinet:床头柜|床边绸|释义:床边柜 Cabinets n. 匣子;陈列柜;内阁;小房间(cabinet 的复数) 网络释义 cabinets:内阁|橱,陈列柜|箱柜产品 Storage Cabinets:保管柜|保存柜 Wired cabinets:配电箱 Hickory was manufactured into tough , hard , and resilient striking – tool handles, and black locust was prized for barn timbers.

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resilient [ri'zili?nt, -j?nt] adj. 弹回的,有弹力的 网络释义 resilient:有弹力,有弹性的|有弹性的|有回弹力的,恢复活力的 resilient joint:弹性接合 resilient pin:弹性销

striking ['straiki?] v. 打(strike 的 ing 形式) adj. 打击的;显著的,突出的,惊人的;罢工的 网络释义 striking:打击的|拆除|拆除模板 striking point:打击点|熔断点|警魂瞬间 striking arc:引弧

locust ['l?uk?st]n. 蝗虫,蚱蜢 locust:洋槐|蝗虫|槐木

网络释义 locust control:治理蝗灾|蝗虫控制 locust plague:蝗灾

black locust 洋槐;刺槐 网络释义 Black Locust:刺槐
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Locust,Black:黑刺槐 What the early builder or craftsman learned by trial and error became the basis for deciding which species were appropriate for a given use in terms of their characteristics, craftsman ['krɑ:ftsm?n, 'kr?ft-] n. 技工;工匠;手艺人 网络释义 craftsman:工匠|技工|手艺工人 wayside craftsman:街头工匠|街头工匠 文康体育 craftsman kitchen:名家厨房

by trial and error 反复试验,不断摸索 网络释义 by trial and error:用试试改改的办法|用试凑法|反复试验,不断摸索 (by)trial and error:反复试验|尝试错误 It was commonly accepted that wood from trees grown in certain locations was stronger, more durable, more easily worked with tools, or finer grained than wood from trees in other locations. work with 与…共事;对……有效 网络释义 work with:使用…来工作|对…行得通,对…起作用|起作用 work closely with UNICEF:密切地和 UNICEF 工作在一起 work closely with:密切合作|与。。密切合作 。
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finer adj. 出色的,好的 网络释义 finer:好的|精炼炉|更好的 stop finer:止动指针,止销|止销|止动指针 finer points:细节

grained [ɡreind] adj. 有木纹的;除去毛的;漆成木纹的 网络释义 grained:粒状的|有木纹的|漆成木纹的 heterometrically grained:不均粒的 short grained:小颗粒的|细粒的

Modern research on wood has substantiated that location and growth conditions do significantly affect wood properties . substantiate [s?b`st?n?ieit] v. to prove the truth of ( something said , claimed , etc. , ) Can you substantiate your claim in a court of law ?

The gradual reduction in use of old – growth forests has reduced the supply of large clear log for lumber and veneer,

Hower, the importance of high quarlity logs has diminished as new
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concepts of wood use have been introduced, diminish [di'mini?] vi. 变小;减少,缩小 vt. 使减少;使变小 网络释义 diminish:缩小|(使)减少|减少,降低 gradually diminish:逐渐减少 diminish responsibility:减轻责任 Second – growth wood, the remaining old –growth forests , and imports continue to fill the needs for wood in the quality required .

Wood is as valuable an engineering material as ever , and in many cases , technological advances have made it even more useful . valuable ['v?lju?bl] adj. 贵重的;有价值的;可估价的 n. 贵重物品 网络释义 valuable:有价值的|有价值的,贵重的|贵重的 valuable merchandise:贵重品|珍贵品|贵重商品 Non valuable:无效部位 The inherent factors that keep wood in the forefront of raw materials are many and varied , but a chief attribute is its availavility in many species, sizes , shapes , and conditions to suit almost every demond . inherent [in'hi?r?nt] adj. 固有的;内在的;与生俱来的 网络释义 inherent:固有的|生来的,固有的,先天的|内在的
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inherent reliability:固有可靠性|本质可靠性|固有可靠度 inherent risk:固有风险|固有風險

forefront ['f?:fr?nt] n. 最前线,最前部;最活动的中心 网络释义 forefront:最重要的地方,最前锋之位置|最前部|最前方 forefront pressure:前端压力 forefront::前沿

attribute [?'tribju:t, '?tribju:t] n. 属性;特质 vt. 把归于;归属 网络释义 Attribute:属性|特性|(属性) (关系模型) :属性是关系中命名的列。 Attribute inheritance:(属性继承) :子类成员可以拥有其特有的属性, 并且继承那些与超类有关的属性的过程。 attribute value:属性值|属性值 属性值|计数值 Wood has a high ratio of strength to weight and a remarkable record for durability and performance as a structural material . performance [p?'f?:m?ns] n. 性能;表演;执行;绩效 网络释义 performance:业绩|性能|动作性能 high performance:高性能的|高性能|高效能 Performance Settings:性能设置|执行设置|指定执行设置
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Dry wood has good insulating properties against heat , sond , and electricity .

It tends to absorb and dissipate vibrations under some conditions of use , and yet it is an incomparable material for such musical instruments as the violin . dissipate ['disipeit] vt. 浪费;使消散 vi. 驱散;放荡 网络释义 dissipate:使消散,驱散|驱散|驱散,浪费 dissipate::(使)驱散|消散,驱散 dissipate fatigue:消除疲劳

vibration [vai'brei??n] n. 振动;犹豫;心灵感应 网络释义 Vibration:振动学|振荡|震动 vibration,:振动 vibration feeder:振动送料机|振动式送料器|振动加料器 The grain patterns and colors of wood make it an esthetically pleasing material , and its appearance may be easily enhanced by strains, varnishes, lacquers, and other finishes. esthetic [i:s'θetik] adj. 感觉的;审美的(等于 aesthetic)n. 美学;审 美家;唯美主义者

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网络释义 esthetic:审美|感觉的|美学的 esthetic education:美育 esthetic intelligence:审美智力

pleasing ['pli:zi?] v. 取悦(please 的现在分词) adj. 合意的;令人愉 快的;讨人喜欢的 网络释义 pleasing:愉快的|令人喜爱的|使人愉快的 pleasing satisfactory:令人满足的 Deka Pleasing:女性英文名字 希腊

appearance [?'pi?r?ns] n. 外貌,外观;出现,露面 网络释义 appearance:外观|外观疵点|投案 Personal Appearance:相貌|良好的个人形象|释义:人物外观 heel appearance:后跟外观|后跟外愚

strain [strein] n. 张力;拉紧;血缘;负担;扭伤 vt. 拉紧;滥用;滤 去;竭力 vi. 拉紧;尽力 网络释义 strain:应变|拉紧|压力
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strain gauge:应变计|应变仪|应变计,应变规 compressive strain:压缩应变|压缩变形|压缩应力

varnish ['vɑ:ni?] n. 虚饰;光泽面;亮光漆,清漆 vt. 装饰,粉饰; 在上涂清漆;使有光泽 网络释义 varnish:凡立水|清漆|涂料 insulating varnish:绝缘漆|绝缘清漆|浸渍树脂 copal varnish:骨湃脂清漆|钴钯清漆|树脂清漆

lacquer ['l?k?] n. 漆;漆器 vt. 涂漆;使表面光泽 网络释义 lacquer:亮漆|力架|涂漆 clear lacquer:光力架|清漆|清喷漆 nitrocellulose lacquer:硝基纤维漆|硝化纤维(喷)漆|硝基清漆 It is easily shaped with tools and fastened with adhesives , nails , screws , bolts , and dowels .

adhesive [?d'hi:siv] n. 粘合剂;胶黏剂 adj. 带粘性的;粘着的 网络释义 adhesive:粘合剂|黏结剂|胶水 adhesive paper:胶粘纸|不干胶纸|胶水纸
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adhesive capacity:粘着能力|胶粘度|粘附能力

screw [skru:] n. 螺丝钉;吝啬鬼;螺旋 vt. 旋,拧;压榨;强迫 vi. 转动,拧 网络释义 screw:螺钉|螺栓|螺丝 wood screw:木螺钉|木牙螺丝|木螺丝 screw nut:螺母|螺帽|螺帽,螺母

bolt [b?ult] n. 闪电;螺栓;门闩;弩箭 vi. 逃跑;冲出 vt. 囫囵吞 下;上门闩 adv. 直立地;突然地 网络释义 bolt:螺栓|岩石栓|门闩 rock bolt:石栓|岩石锚杆|岩层锚杆 hook bolt:钩头螺栓|钩形螺栓|钩螺栓

dowel ['dau?l] n. 木钉;暗榫;合板钉 vt. 用暗销接合;为装暗榫 网络释义 dowel:定位销|合钉|定位梢 Dowel Steel:合缝钢条|传力杆|传力钢条 positioning dowel:定位销钉|定位销|释义:定位销 Damaged wood is easily repared, and wood structures are easily
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remodeled or altered. remodel [,ri:'m?d?l] vt. 改变;改造;改型 网络释义 remodel:改变|改装|改造 Yang Remodel:老杨装修 Construction & Remodel:建筑装修

remodeled adj. 改制的;改造的 v. 重建;改造(remodel 的过去式及 过去分词) 网络释义 remodeled:改制|改建|改组

alter ['?:lt?] vi. 改变;修改 vt. 改变,更改 网络释义 alter:改变|修改|转换,交流电,变换器 Alter Switch:改变开关|变更开关 改变开关|变更开关 alter tack:掉抡|掉抢 In addition , wood resists oxidation, acid, saltwater, and other corrosive agents, has high salvage value, has good shock resistance, can be treated with preservatives and fire retardantsm, and can be combined with almost aniy other material for both functional and esthetic uses, resist [ri'zist] n. 抗蚀剂;防染剂 vt. 抵抗;忍耐,忍住 vi. 抵抗,
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抗拒;忍耐 网络释义 resist:抵抗|抗蚀护膜|抵抗,对抗 Resist Lightning:抵抗闪电|圣武士的抵抗闪电光环|闪电防御术 ultraviolet resist:紫外线敏感光刻胶

corrosive [k?'r?usiv] n. 腐蚀物 adj. 腐蚀的;侵蚀性的 网络释义 Corrosive:腐蚀品|腐蚀性物品|腐蚀 corrosive liquid:腐蚀液|腐蚀性液体 corrosive sublimate:升汞|氯化汞|三氯化汞,升汞

agent ['eid??nt] adj. 代理的 n. 代理人,代理商;药剂;特工 vt. 由 作中介;由代理 网络释义 agent:代理人|承销人|代理商 Purchasing Agent:采购(进货)员|采购代理|购买经纪人(进货员) foaming agent:发泡剂|起泡剂|泡沫剂 Trees are divided into two broad classes , usually referred to as hardwoods and softwoods . hardwood ['hɑ:dwud] n. 硬木,硬木材;阔叶树 网络释义

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hardwood:硬木|硬材|硬木(杂木) hardwood tracheid:阔叶树材管胞 hardwood ironwood:硬木

softwood ['s?ftwud, 's?:-] n. 软木材;针叶树材 网络释义 softwood:软木|软质木材|软材 softwood tree:针叶树 softwood plank:针叶材的厚板 These names can be confusing since some softwoods are actually harder than some hardwoods, and conversely some are softer than some softwoods .

For example, softwoods such as longleaf pine and Douglas – fir are typically harder than the hardwoods basswood and aspen .

longleaf pine ['l??li:f; 'l?:?-] 【植物】长叶松 (Pinus palustris);长叶松 木[亦作 longleaved pine, Georgia pine] 网络释义 longleaf pine:长叶松|大王松 longleaf Indian pine:西藏长叶松 longleaf pine oil:长叶松油
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basswood ['b?swud] n. 椴木;椴树;菩提树 网络释义 Basswood:椴木,美国椴木|椴木|北美椴木 Carolina basswood:卡罗来纳椴木 Florida basswood:佛(罗里达)州椴木

aspen ['?sp?n] n. 山杨 adj. 山杨的;类似白杨的;颤抖的 网络释义 Aspen:白杨 美国克莱斯勒|白杨类|白杨 quaking aspen:美洲山杨|颤杨(木浆原料) Aspen Technology:艾斯本技术 Botanically , hardwoods are Angiosperms ; the seeds are enclosed in the ovary of the flower . angiosperm ['?nd?i?sp?:m] n. [植]被子植物 网络释义 angiosperm:被子植物|被子植物(有花植物) Angiosperm Extract:被子植物酸 具有防止发炎及抗过敏效果 classification system of angiosperm:被子植物分类学系统

botanical [b?'t?nik?l] n. 植物性药材 adj. 植物学的 网络释义

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botanical:植物学的|植物的|植物性药材,植物学的 botanical garden:植物园|热带植物园|考试大植物园 Botanical gardens:植物园

enclose in (或 within);禁闭在内,关在内;包围: 网络释义 enclose in:关入|陷入...之中|关入...之中 to enclose sth. in:把包入/装入

ovary ['?uv?ri] n. [植]子房;[解]卵巢 网络释义 ovary:卵巢|子房|卵巢,子房 superior ovary:上位子房|子房上位|上位子宫 inferior ovary:下位子房|下位子房[见于植物 Anatomically , hardwoods are porous ; that is , they contain vessel elements . anatomical [,?n?'t?mik?l] adj. 解剖的;解剖学的;结构上的 网络释义 anatomical:解剖的|解剖学的|解剖学上的 anatomical terms:解剖学术语 anatomic anatomical:解剖的

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porous ['p?:r?s, 'p?u-] adj. 能渗透的;有气孔的;多孔渗水的 网络释义 porous:多孔的|渗透的|多孔 porous bearing:多孔轴承|多孔质滑动轴承|多孔质轴承 porous structure:多孔结构|多孔构造|疏松结构

element ['elim?nt] n. 元素;成分;要素;原理;自然环境 网络释义 Element:元素|元素 要素|母线、要素 rolling element:滚动体|转动体|滚动件 Element Design:零件设计|构件设计|零件谋划

A vessel element is a wood cell with open ends ; when vessel elements are set one above another , they form a continuous tube (vessel) , which serves as a conduit for transporting water or sap in the tree. conduit ['k?ndit] n. 导管;导水管;沟渠 网络释义 conduit:导管|管道|导线管 cable conduit:电缆管|电缆管道|缆索管道 service conduit:设施管道

sap [s?p] n. 树液;活力;坑道;精力,元气 vt. 使衰竭,使伤元气;
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挖掘以破坏基础 vi. 挖坑道 网络释义 SAP:Service Access Point|汁液|树液 Sap green:暗绿色|绿色颜料|树绿 Bright sap:净面边材,无皮边材|净面板材,无皮边材|净面边材,

Typically, hardwoods are plants with broad leaves that , with few exceptions in the temperate region , lose their leaves in autumn or winter, exception [ik'sep??n] n. 例外;异议 网络释义 exception:异常|异议|例外 without exception:无一例外|全部|一概 exception control:例外控制

temperate ['temp?rit] adj. 温和的;有节制的;适度的 网络释义 temperate:稳健的|温带的|有节制的,适中的 temperate climate:温带气候|温和的气候|温带气候, 温和气候 temperate zone:温带

lose [lu:z] vt.使沉溺于;浪费;遗失;使迷路;错过 vi. 失败;受损失 网络释义

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lose:丢失,降低,浪费|丢失|失去 lose heart:灰心,泄气|失去勇气,丧失信心|失去信心 lose track:失去联系|不之所在|失去...的线索 Most imported tropical woods are hardwoods. tropical ['tr?pik?l] adj. 热带的;酷热的;热情的 网络释义 tropical:热带的|热带彩虹|哥拉斯彩虹 tropical cyclone:热带气旋|飓风|热带低压 热帯低気圧 Tropical Green:热带绿|温泉绿|印度 - 花岗岩 Botanically, softwoods are Gymnosperms or conifers, the seeds are naked (not enclosed in the ovary of the flower) . gymnosperm ['d?imn?usp?:m] n. 裸子植物 网络释义 gymnosperm:裸子植物|裸子植物门|棵子植物 Gymnosperm Stems:裸子植物茎

conifer ['k?unif?] n. 针叶树;松柏科植物 网络释义 CONIFER:针树叶|松柏植物|针叶树 conifer cone:圆锥形的松毬 Conifer Arboretum:针叶树标本园

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naked ['neikid] adj. 裸体的;无装饰的;无证据的;直率的 网络释义 Naked:赤裸裸|裸露的|赤裸 naked wire:裸线|裸线, 裸导线|裸线 裸导线 naked virus:裸病毒 Anatomically, softwood are nonporous and do not contain vessels.

Softwoods are usually cone – bearing plants with needle like or scale – like evergreen leaves. cone [k?un] n. 圆锥体,圆锥形;球果 vt. 使成锥形 网络释义 Cone:圆台(锥)体|圆锥|松果 front cone:前锥体|前锥|前锥面 cone crusher:圆锥破碎机|锥形压碎机|旋回破碎机

bearing ['bε?ri?] n. 轴承;方位;举止;关系 v. 忍受(bear 的 ing 形 式) 网络释义 bearing:轴承,支座|培林|方位 thrust bearing:推力轴承|止推轴承|推力轴承,止推轴承推力座 radial bearing:向心轴承|径向轴承|向心铀承

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scale [skeil] vi. 攀登;衡量;生水垢;剥落 n. 刻度;比例;数值范 围;天平;规模;鳞 vt. 攀登;测量;刮鳞;依比例决定 网络释义 scale:比例尺|氧化皮|缩放 Logarithmic scale:对数尺度|对数尺|对数比例尺 scale efficiency:规模效率|規模效率|規模效?

Some softwoods, such as larches and bald cypress , lose their needles during autumn or winter.

larch [lɑ:t?] n. 落叶松属植物;落叶松木材 网络释义 larch:落叶松|落叶松本|落叶松木 Western Larch:西部落叶松|粗皮落叶松 Dahurian larch:落叶松|华北落叶松

bald [b?:ld] adj. 秃顶的;单调的;光秃的;无装饰的 vi. 变秃 网络释义 bald:秃头|光秃|光秃秃 bald eagle:白头鹰|秃头鹰|白头海雕 bald coot:骨顶鸟

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cypress ['saipris] n. 柏树,柏木属植物(原产北美、欧、亚) ;柏树枝 (用作哀悼的标志) 网络释义 cypress:柏树|赛普拉斯|丝柏 Cypress Semiconductor:赛普拉斯半导体公司|赛普拉斯半导体|柏士半 导体 Italian CyPress:这种意大利柏树|这种义大利柏树|常绿柏

bald cypress 美国水松 网络释义 bald cypress:落羽松|秃柏|降羽杉 Bald Cypress Trees at Sunset Louisiana:路易斯安那州:落羽松壁纸|路 易斯安那州:落羽松|路易斯安那州:落羽松桌布 Fig. 1-1 Wood is favered for waterfront structures , particularly fend ering , because of its shock-absorbing qualities . The fendering on this dock in Key West , FL , is made of creosote treated Douglas-fir ( Pseudotsuga menziesii ) . Some tropical species are resistant to attack by decay fungi and marine borers and are used for marine construction without preservative treatmernt . shock [??k] n. 打击;震动;震惊;休克;禾束堆 vt. 使震动;使震惊; 使受电击; 使休克; 把堆成禾束堆 adj. 蓬乱的; 浓密的 vi. 受到震动; 感到震惊;堆成禾束堆

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网络释义 shock:休克|冲击|休克,电击 Shock Wave:冲击波|激波|震波 shock absorber:减振器|消震器|避震器

shock-absorbing adj. (建筑物或机械)减震的 网络释义 shock-absorbing device:减震装置 shock-absorbing bracket:减震托架 shock-absorbing support sleeve:减震支杆套

fend [fend] vi. 供养;照料;力争 vt. 供养;保护;挡开;谋生 网络释义 Fend:击退|保护|主程序结束 fend off:挡开|垫开|挡住、挡开 fend v:抵挡,击退

fendering n. 防护物 网络释义 fendering:碰垫系统|防护物 fendering system:碰垫系统|防撞系统 fendering device:防撞装置|护栏装置
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dock

n. 船坞;码头;被告席;尾巴的骨肉部分 vt. 剪短;使靠码

头 vi. 入船坞 网络释义 Dock:船坞|停靠|码头 wet dock:湿坞|泊船坞|有闸港池 dock floor:坞底|干坞底|浮坞甲板

creosote ['kri:?,s?ut] n. 木馏油;碳酸;杂芬油 vt. 用木馏油处理 网络释义 creosote:杂酚油|木材防腐油|木馏油 creosote emulsion:乳化防腐油|杂酚油乳剂,乳化防腐油|杂酚油乳剂 Creosote pills:木溜油丸

borer ['b?:r?] n. 钻孔器;穿孔者 网络释义 borer:钻孔器,钻头|钻孔器|钻工 Line borer:直线镗削机|直线镗削机— tap borer:螺孔钻|螺纹底孔钻|螺孔钻,螺纹底孔钻

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