当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

英语语法专项总结-形容词和副词


初中英语语法大全:形容词和副词
A:形容词 1、 形容词及其用法 形容词修饰名词,说明事物或人的性质或特征。通常, 可将形容词分成性质形容词和叙 述形容词两类,其位置不一定都放在名词前面。 1) 直接说明事物的性质或特征的形容词是性质形容词, 它有级的变化, 可以用程度副词修 饰,在句中可作定语、表语和补语。例如:hot 热的。 2) 叙述形容词只能作表语,所以又称为表

语形容词。这类形容词没有级的变化,也不可用 程度副词修饰。大多数以 a 开头的形容词都属于这一类。例如:afraid 害怕的。 (错) He is an ill man. (对) The man is ill. (错) She is an afraid girl. (对) The girl is afraid. 这类词还有: well, unwell, ill,faint, afraid,alike, alive,alone,asleep,awake 等。 3)形容词作定语修饰名词时,要放在名词的前边。但是如果形容词修饰以-thing 为字尾的 词语时,要放在这些词之后,例如: something nice 2. 以-ly 结尾的形容词 1) 大部分形容词加-ly 可构成副词。但 friendly,deadly,lovely,lonely,likely, lively, ugly,brotherly,仍为形容词。

改错:(错) She sang lovely. (错) He spoke to me very friendly. (对) Her singing was lovely. (对) He spoke to me in a very friendly way. 2)有些以-ly 结尾既为形容词,也为副词。 daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early The Times is a daily paper. The Times is published daily. 3 用形容词表示类别和整体 1) 某些形容词加上定冠词可以泛指一类人,与谓语动词的复数连接。如:the dead,the living,the rich,the poor,the blind,the hungry

The poor are losing hope. 2) 有关国家和民族的形容词加上定冠词指这个民族的整体,与动词的复数连用。 the British,the English,the French,the Chinese. The English have wonderful sense of humor. 4 多个形容词修饰名词的顺序 多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为: 限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --出处--材料性质,类别-名词 a small round table a tall gray building a dirty old brown shirt a famous German medical school an expensive Japanese sports car 典型例题: 1) Tony is going camping with ___ boys. A. little two other B. two little other other two 答案:C。由"限定词--数词--描绘词--(大小,长短,形状,新旧,颜色) --性质--名词 "的公式可知数词,描绘词,性质依次顺序,只有 C 符合答案。 2) One day they crossed the ____bridge behind the palace. A. old Chinese stone Chinese stone old 答案 A. 几个形容词修饰一个名词,他们的排列顺序是:年龄,形状,大小+颜色+来源+ 质地+用途+国家+名词。 3) ---- How was your recent visit to Qingdao? ---- It was great. We visited some friends,and spent the ___days at the seaside. A. few last sunny B. last few sunny C. last sunny few D. few sunny last B. Chinese old stone C. old stone Chinese D. C. two other little D. little

答案:B。本题考查多个形容词的排序问题。一般与被修饰形容词关系密切的形容词靠近名 词;如果几个形容词的重要性差不多,音节少的形容词在前,音节多的方在后,在不能确定 时,可参照下表: 限定词+数量词(序数词在前,基数词在后)+性状形容词+大小、长短、高低等形体+ those + three + beautiful + large + square

新旧+颜色+国籍+材料+名词 old + brown + wood + table 5 下列几类形容词也没有比较等级: (1)表示“终极”意义或绝对概念的形容词或副词。如:absolute(ly), blind, dead, excellent, entire, living, full, perfect(ly), round, relative, wrong 等。 (2)表示时间、 方位或方向的形容词或副词。 如: back, backward, forward, front, past, monthly, weekly, present, southern, vertical 等。 (3)部分表示事物性质、 物质材料或结构成分的形容词。 如: atomic, cultural, economic, educational, golden, political, scientific, silken, urban, wooden 等。 (4)本身具有 “最” 或 “唯一”概念的形容词。如:maximal, mere, minimal, matchless, sole, only unique 等。 6 形容词作定语时的后置 a.前面我们讲到形容词作定语时, 位置要放在所修饰的名词前面, 但当它带有表示量度的词 或词组时,定语后置。 They have built a bridge a hundred meters long. 他们建成了一座一百米长的桥。 Last year we built a building thirteen storeys high. 去年,我们盖了一栋十三层的高楼。 b.带有表示量度的词或词组,作表语时,也后置。 The bridge is a hundred meters long. 这座桥长达一百米。 The building is thirteen storeys high.

这个大楼有十三层高。 They have built a two-hundred-meter-long bridge. 他们已经修建了一座长二百米的桥。 注意 量度词组变成合成语时,作定语用,放在名词前。 Last year we built a thirteen-storey-high building. 去年我们建了一座高十三层的大楼。 c.另外,一些形容词或形容词词组常用来放在句首、句中或句尾,作状语。 He returned home, tired and hungry. 他又累又饿地回到了家。 Cold and hungry, he walked in the street. 又冷又饿,他走在街道上。

B: 副词及其基本用法

1 副词的种类、用法和位置 副词在句子中修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子。用来表示时间、场所、状态及程度。 1 副词的种类 1.副词的种类 (1)时间副词 ①表示大体时间:now,then,yesterday,today, tonight,before,justnow,recently,so far ②表示频率:always,usually,often,sometimes.seldom,never ③其它作用:already,yet,late,early,soon,at once,immediately,atfirst,at last,finally (2)地点副词 ①表地点:here,there,home,abroad,upstairs,downstairs,anywhere,everywhere, nowhere,somewhere. ②表位置关系(后接宾语时,用作介词):

above,below,round,around,down,up,in,out,inside,outside,across,back,along,over, away,near,off,past (3)方式副词表示谓语动词"怎样地",(此类副词大部分由形容词加 ly 构成):

badly,bravely,gratefully,calmly,carefully,carelessly,nervously,proudly,patientl y, politely,sadly,properly,rapidly, wrongly,suddenly. (4)程度副词 多数用来修饰形容词或副词:much,(a)little,a bit,very,sO,too,enough,quite,rather,completely,terribly,deeply,nearly,almost,ha rdly (5)疑问副词 构成特殊疑问句:how,when, where,why (6)连接副词 连接主语、宾语或表语从句:how,when,where,why (7)关系副词 引导定语从句:when,where,why (8)其它性质的副词对整个句子进行说明,一般用逗号与主句隔开: frankly(坦率地说,说真的),generally(一般说来),luckily(幸运地是),first of all(首先)等。 1.地点副词、时间副词和方式副词一般放在句末 注意 地点副词作定语时要后置,不属于这种情况。有时少数地点副词和时间副词可以作定语,放 在所修饰词的后边。

The students here are all from China. I'll wait for you here.(地点副词) 我将在这儿等你。

I'll meet him at the station tomorrow.(时间副词) 明天我将去车站接他。 Tomorrow I'll meet him at the station. 注意 有时为了强调时间,也可把时间副词放在句首。 The boy wrote the homework quickly. (方式副词) 这个男孩子写作业很快。 They did their experiments carefully in the labyesterday.方式 地点时间 昨天他们在实验室认真地做实验。 The students all worked well here last week 这些学生上周在这里都做得很好。 2.频度副词在句中位置有以下两种 a.在 be 动词、情态动词及第一个助动词之后。 She is always kind to us(be 动词) 她对我们总是很好。 I can never forget the day.(情态动词) 我永远也不能忘掉这一天。 The work has never been done.

助动词 助动词 (频度副词 never 放在第一个助动词 has 的后面) 这件工作永远也做不完。 b.在实义动词之前 He often goes to school early.(实义动词) 他常常早到校。 3.程度副词有下列二种情况 a.修饰动词时,它在句中的位置与频度副词的情况相似。 He is almost forty years old.(在 be 动词之后) 他快四十岁了。 注意 如果句末同时有几个副词,它的基本顺序是:方式副词+地点副词+时间副词。 He can hardly understand you. (在情态动词之后) 他几乎听不懂你的活。 I like the boy.(在实义动词之前) 我相当喜欢这个男孩子。 b.修饰形容词、副词时,放在它所修饰的词的前面。 He studies much harder now.

现在他学习努力多了。 The room is big enough to hold fifty persons. (enough 修饰形容词) 这个房间够大的可以容纳 50 人。 He runs fast enough.(enough 修饰副词) 他跑得够快的。

注意:副词 very 可以修饰形容词,但不能修饰动词。 改错:(错) I very like English. (对) I like English very much. 注意:副词 enough 要放在形容词的后面,形容词 enough 放在名词前后都可。 I don't know him well enough. There is enough food for everyone to eat. There is food enough for everyone to eat. 6 兼有两种形式的副词 1) close 与 closely close 意思是"近"; closely 意思是"仔细地" He is sitting close to me. Watch him closely. 2) late 与 lately late 意思是"晚"; lately 意思是"最近" You have come too late. What have you been doing lately? 3) deep 与 deeply deep 意思是"深",表示空间深度;deeply 时常表示感情上的深度,"深深地" He pushed the stick deep into the mud. Even father was deeply moved by the film. 4)high 与 highly

high 表示空间高度;highly 表示程度,相当于 much The plane was flying high. I think highly of your opinion. 5) wide 与 widely wide 表示空间宽度;widely 意思是"广泛地","在许多地方" He opened the door wide. English is widely used in the world. 6) free 与 freely free 的意思是"免费";freely 的意思是"无限制地" You can eat free in my restaurant whenever you like. You may speak freely; say what you like. 7 某些副词在用法上的区别 (1) already, yet, still already 表示某事物已经发生, 主要用于肯定句;yet 表示期待某事发生, 主要用于否定 句和疑问句;still 表示某事还在进行,主要用于肯定句和疑问句,有时也可用于否定句。 如: We've already watched that film. I haven't finished my homework yet. He still works until late every night. (2) too, as well, also, either too, as well 和 also 用于肯定句和疑问句,too 和 as well 多用于口语,一般放在句 末, 而 also 多用于书面语, 一般放在句中与动词连用。 either 用于否定句和否定的疑问句, 往往放在句末。如:He went there too. He didn't go there either. I like you as well. I also went there. 8 形容词与副词的比较级

⑴ 规则变化

变化规则 example 1.一般在词尾直接加-er 或-est Tall-taller-tallest, long-longer-longest

2.以不发音的字母 e 结尾的单词在词尾直接加-r 或st Nice-nicer-nicest, large-larger-largest 3.以辅音字母+ 结尾的词,把 y 变为 i ,再加 er 或 est Heavy-heavier-heaviest Happy-happier-happiest 4.重读闭音节,末尾只有一个辅音字母,双写这个辅音字母,再加 er 或 est Big-bigger-biggest Fat-fatter-fattest 5.部分双音节词和多音节词分别在原级前加 more 构成比较级和 most 构成最高 级 Slowly-more slowly-most slowly Beautiful-more beautiful-most beautiful

⑵ 不规则变化

原级 比较级 最高级 Good/well better best Bad/ill/badly worse Worst Many/much more most little less least far Farther/further Farther/further old Older/elder Oldest/eldest

其用法与形容词相似,只是副词最高级前可省略定冠词。如: Of all the boys he sings (the) most beautifully. We must work harder. 9. as + 形容词或副词原级 + as 1)在否定句或疑问句中可用 so? as。 He cannot run so/as fast as you. 2)当 as? as 中间有名词时采用以下格式。 as +形容词+ a +单数名词 as + many/much +名词 This is as good an example as the other is. I can carry as much paper as you can.. 3)用表示倍数的词或其他程度副词做修饰语时,放在 as 的前面。

This room is twice as big as that one. Your room is the same size as mine. 4) 倍数+ as + adj. + as <=> 倍数+ than + of This bridge is three times as long as that one. This bridge is three times the length of that one. Your room is twice as large as mine. Your room is twice the size of mine. 10. 比较级形容词或副词 + than You are taller than I. They lights in your room are as bright as those in mine. 注意: 1)要避免重复使用比较级。 (错) He is more cleverer than his brother. (对) He is more clever than his brother. (对) He is clever than his brother. 2)要避免将主语含在比较对象中。 (错) China is larger that any country in Asia. (对) China is larger than any other countries in Asia. 3)要注意对应句型,遵循前后一致的原则。 The population of Shanghai is larger than that of Beijing. It is easier to make a plan than to carry it out. 4)要注意冠词的使用,后有名词的时候,前面才有可能有名词。 比较:Which is large, Canada or Australia? Which is the larger country, Canada or Australia? She is taller than her two sisters. She is the taller of the two sisters. 11 可修饰比较级的词 1)a bit, a little, rather, much, far, by far, many, a lot, lots, a great deal, any, still, even 等 2)还可以用表示倍数的词或度量名词作修饰语。 3)以上词(除 by far)外,必须置于比较级形容词或副词的前面。 典型例题:

1) ---- Are you feeling ____? ---- Yes,I'm fine now. A. any well B. any better C. quite good D. quite better 答案:B. any 可修饰比较级,quite 修饰原级,well 的比较级为 better. 2)The experiment was____ easier than we had expected. A. more B. much more C. much

D. more much 答案: C. much 可修饰比较级, 因此 B, C 都说得通, 但 easier 本身已是比较级, 不需 more, 因此 C 为正确答案。 3)If there were no examinations, we should have ___ at school. A. the happiest time C. much happiest time 答案:D。 12 many,old 和 far 1) 如果后接名词时, much more +不可数名词 many more +可数名词复数 2) old 有两种比较级和最高级形式: older/oldest 和 elder/eldest。 elder,eldest 只 用于兄弟姐妹的长幼关系。 My elder brother is an engineer. Mary is the eldest of the three sisters. 3) far 有两种比较级,farther,further. 在英语中两者都可指距离。 在美语中,father 表示距离,further 表示进一步。 I have nothing further to say. 13. the + 最高级 + 比较范围 1) The Sahara is the biggest desert in the world. 形容词最高级前通常必须用定冠词 the,副词最高级前可不用。 形容词 most 前面没有 the,不表示最高级的含义,只表示"非常"。 It is a most important problem. =It is a very important problem. 注意: 使用最高级要注意将主语包括在比较范围内。 (错) (对) Tom is the tallest of his three brothers. Tom is the tallest of the three brothers. B. a more happier time D. a much happier time

2) 下列词可修饰最高级,by far, far, much, mostly, almost This hat is nearly / almost the biggest. 注意: a. very 可修饰最高级,但位置与 much 不同。 This is the very best. This is much the best. b. 序数词通常只修饰最高级。 Africa is the second largest continent. 3) 句型转换: Mike is the most intelligent in his class. Mike is more intelligent than any other students in his class. 4) "否定词语+比较级","否定词语+ so? as"结构表示最高级含义。 Nothing is so easy as this. =Nothing is easier than this. =This is the easiest thing. 14. 和 more 有关的词组 1) the more? the more? 越??就越??

The harder you work,the greater progress you'll make. 2) more B than A 与其说 A 不如说 B less A than B He is more lazy than slow at his work. = He is less slow than lazy at his work. 3) no more? than? 与??一样??,不比??多 The officials could see no more than the Emperor. no less? than? 与??一样?? He is no less diligent than you. 4) more than 不只是,非常 She is more than kind to us all. 典型例题 1)The weather in China is different from____. A. in America B. one in America C. America

D. that in America

答案:D. 本题意为"中国的天气比美国热。"比较的是天气而不是国家,C 不能选。A 没有名 词,后句成分不全,排除。B 和 D 中,B 中的 one 常用来代替可数名词,而 that 可车以代替 不可数或抽象名词,所以选 D。 2)After the new technique was introduced,the factory produced ___ tractors in 1988 as the year before. A. as twice many B. as many twice C. twice as many D. twice many as

答案 C. 此句意为"这个厂 1988 能生产的拖拉机是往年的两倍"。 表示倍数用"倍数+ as + 形容词原形+ as +比较对象"的句型。所以此句答案为 C。 This ruler is three times as long as that one. 重点提示: 常见比较级五句型 1> Who / Which + be +比较级 , A or B ? Who is taller, Tom or John? Which is more expensive, a bicycle or a computer? 2> ~ + be + the 比较级 + of the two. (两个之中比较?的那一个,~包含在两个之 中) Tom is the taller of the two. = Tom is taller than the other boy. 3> much / a lot / even / far + 比较级 A compute is much more expensive than a bicycle. 计算机比自行车贵多了。 4> "The+形容词比较级..., the+形容词比较级...", 表示 " 越... 就越..."。 The more you study, the more you know. 你学的越多, 就知道的越多。 5> " 形容词比较级 + and + 形容词比较级 ", 表示 " 越来越... "。 The computer is cheaper and cheaper. 计算机越来越便宜。 /

3) 最高级不一定就是第一 1> Who / Which + be +最高级, A, B, or C ? Who is the tallest, Tom, Jack, or David? Tom, Jack 与 David 三个人中谁最高? Which is the most expensive, a bicycle, a motorcycle, or a car? 自行车,摩托 车和汽车,哪一个最贵? 2> ~ + be + one of the +最高级 +复数名词, 表示"最??的??之一"。 The Yellow River is one of the longest rivers in China. 黄河是中国最长的河流 之一。 3> "?+ be +the + 序数词 +最高级 +单数名词 + 范围", 表示"??是??.的第 几??"。 She is the second tallest student in our class. 她是我们班第二高的学生。 4> ~ + be + the 最高级 ~ that 某人 have/ has ever + 过去分词. This is the most interesting book that I have ever read.这是我看过的最有趣的书。 没有比较级的形容词和副词 1)有些程度副词,如:quite, rather, comparatively, incomparably, relatively, fairly 等与形容词连用具有"比较"含义。故这时句中的形容词不能再使用比较级。 例如: It is a set of comparatively new instrument in our laboratory. This book is rather difficult for the juniors, but fairly easy for the seniors. 2)下列几类形容词也没有比较等级: (1)表示"终极"意义或绝对概念的形容词或副词。如:absolute(ly), blind, dead, excellent, entire, living, full, perfect(ly), round, relative, wrong 等。 (2)表示时间、 方位或方向的形容词或副词。 如: back, backward, forward, front, past, monthly, weekly, present, southern, vertical 等。

(3)部分表示事物性质、 物质材料或结构成分的形容词。 如: atomic, cultural, economic, educational, golden, political, scientific, silken, urban, wooden 等。 (4)本身具有"最"或"唯一"概念的形容词。如:maximal, mere, minimal, matchless, sole, only unique 等。

真题再现 1. -Which is ____ season in Beijing?(2003 年) -I think it's autumn. A.good B.better C.best D.the best 解析:正确答案为 D。该题的核心词为 season。根据比较级与最高级的知识,两者之间 用比较级,而三者或三者以上用最高级,北京有四季,因此本题应选择最高级。又因为形容 词最高级前要加定冠词 the,因此答案为 D。 2. - Which is__________ , the sun, the moon or the earth?(2004 年) -- Of course, the moon is. A.small B.smaller C.smallest D.the smallest 解析:正确答案为 D。该题的核心词在第一句句尾,"the sun, the moon or the earth", 提问的对象为三者,应该选择最高级。 3. The air in Beijing is getting much _____ now than a few years ago.(2005 年) A. clean B. cleaner C. cleanest D. the cleanest 解析:正确答案为 B。该题的核心词为 than,than 一词是比较级的标志。

4. Mobile phones are very popular now and they are _____ than before.(2005 年) A. cheap B. cheaper C. cheapest D. the cheapest 解析:正确答案为 B。该题与第三题相似,核心词为 than。


相关文章:
中考英语语法专项习题__形容词和副词综合练习
中考英语语法专项习题__形容词和副词综合练习_英语_初中教育_教育专区。2011 中考...《建筑工程管理与实务》笔记总结 88份文档 2014全国高考状元联手分享状元笔记 ...
2015届高三英语语法专题形容词&副词
2015届高三英语语法专题形容词&副词_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。2015 届...核心提示: 注意归纳形容词副词加上前缀或后缀后演变的各种 词形变化,做题...
高中衔接英语语法专项练习:形容词和副词(含答)
高中衔接英语语法专项练习:形容词和副词(含答)_英语_高中教育_教育专区。中学试卷 形容词和副词 1. Tony is going camping with ___boys. A. little two othe...
英语语法大攻克--形容词与副词总结
英语语法大攻克--形容词与副词总结_英语_高中教育_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载 英语语法大攻克--形容词与副词总结_英语_高中教育_教育专区。教师高度优质...
英语语法大攻克--形容词与副词总结
英语语法大攻克--形容词与副词总结_英语_高中教育_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载 英语语法大攻克--形容词与副词总结_英语_高中教育_教育专区。教师高度优质...
八年级英语语法专题复习(形容词、副词)
八年级英语语法专题复习(形容词副词)_英语_初中教育_教育专区。英语形容词概说;副词概说;形容词副词比较等级的构成、用法及巩固练习。...
初二英语语法形容词比较级专项练习
初二英语语法形容词比较级专项练习一、写出下列形容词与副词的比较级与最高级...应届生求职季宝典 英文个人简历模板 创意简历模板汇集 推理型题分析与总结+...
小学英语语法专项训练-形容词和副词)
小学英语语法专项训练-形容词和副词)_英语_小学教育_教育专区。小学英语语法专项训练-形容词和副词 I.写出所给词的反义词。 1.young___ 6.better___ 2. white...
...有限公司2015年中考英语语法专项(六)形容词和副词
江苏省无锡新领航教育咨询有限公司2015年中考英语语法专项(六)形容词和副词_英语...下面将初中学习阶段中遇到的修饰可数名词的词和词组归纳如下: many, no, ...
2016届高三英语语法专项---形容词﹠副词
2016届高三英语语法专项---形容词副词_英语_高中教育_教育专区。2016 届高三英语语法专项---形容词副词 Ⅰ、用所给词的正确形式填空 1. Don‘t feel __...
更多相关标签:
形容词副词专项练习 | 语法填空形容词副词 | 英语语法形容词副词 | 形容词副词专项训练 | 初中语法 形容词副词 | 语法填空之形容词副词 | 形容词和副词专项练习 | 形容词和副词语法填空 |