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高三时态、语态语法复习


2010 级高三英语一轮复习语法专题(五) 时态和语态
编制人:张玉芳 杨春香 时态是单项填空题的必考考点,也是英语学习的重点和难点。

一、考试说明“时态”要求掌握的项目(共 10 种)
1、一般现在时 5、一般过去时 9、过去将来时 2、现在进行时 6、过去进行时 10、将来进行时 3、现在完成时 7、过去完成时 4、现在完成进行时 8

、一般将来时

二、山东 2008~2012 近 5 年时态考点归纳:
1.现在完成时:08 年;09 年;10 年;共 3 个; 2.一般过去时:09 年;11 年;12 年;共 3 个; 3.过去完成时:11 年;共 1 个; 4.过去将来时:12 年;共 1 个; 由上可见,在每年的 15 个单项选择题中,时态题 08 年 1 个;09 年 2 个;10 年 1 个;11 年 2 个;12 年 2 个,足见其重要性。

三、解题思路:
1.时间观念:弄清空所在的句子是谈现在还是谈过去; 2.考查被动语态:高考的很多时态题,往往两个选项是主动语态,两个选项是被动语态,先从 主动和被动角度缩小选择范围,再结合时间观念,往往命中率很高。 3.考查现在完成时:空所在的句子是谈现在。 ①强调对现在造成的影响。设题方式:情景对话(第一句往往是对现在造成的影响)②强调 到现在为止动作已经完成。 4.考查过去完成时:表示“过去的过去发生的动作” ①必须找到过去的时间参照点(句中有过去动作) ; ②时态的一致性也是解题的重要依据(整句都是过去时态层面) 。 5.考查一般过去时:一般过去时只说明过去(陈述过去事实) ,与现在无关。 ①时态的一致性(整句都是过去时态层面) ; ②有明显的过去时间状语。

四、理论概述: 1、一般现在时
①表示现在的经常性、习惯性动作或状态。 ②在以 when, before, after, until/till, as soon as, once, the moment 等引导的时间状语从句和以 if, unless, as long as 等引导的条件状语从句中,常用一般现在时代替一般将来时。 ③按时刻表、时间表、日程表将要发生的动作,常用一般现在时表将来,但句中往往有将来 时间状语。

2、 现在进行时
①表示现在正在进行的动作; ②表示现阶段正在发生的事情,说话时刻动作不一定正在进行; ③现在/过去进行时与频度副词(always, forever, constantly 等)连用,表示反复出现或习惯性动 作,往往含有赞赏、厌恶等感情色彩。

3、一般过去时与现在完成时
一般过去时只单纯地表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,与现在无关; 现在完成时表示过 去开始的某一动作到现在为止已经完成, 强调动作的完成性或过去某一动作对现在的影响和结 果,谈的是现在的情况。

常与现在完成时连用的时间状语有:already; so far; in the last/past few days; recently; lately(最 近); since(用作介词+名词或者用作连词后接从句);for+时间段;up to now;ever since 等。 注意:一般过去时也完全可以与 for+时间段连用,表示从过去某一时间开始到过去某一时间 结束的过去一段时间的动作或状态。 --- This returned scholar has become one of the top experts in this field. --- Yes, I know him very well. He worked in Africa with animals for years.

4、一般过去时与过去完成时
一般过去时只单纯地表示过去发生的动作或存在的状态,与现在无关;过去完成时表示过去 某时或某个动作之前已经发生的动作或存在的状态,表示的是“过去的过去”。因此,必须找到 “过去的时间”作为参照点。

5、现在完成时与现在完成进行时
现在完成时表示过去开始的某一动作到现在为止已经完成,强调动作的完成性或过去某一动 作对现在的影响和结果,谈的是现在的情况;现在完成进行时表示过去开始的某一动作,一直 延续到现在还在继续进行,也可能继续进行下去,强调的是动作的进行性。

6、一般过去时与过去进行时
一般过去时表示动作已经完成;过去进行时表示过去某时正在进行的动作,动作没有完成。

五、链接高考:
1. After Jack had sent some e-mails, he ______working on his project. (2012 山东) A. had started B. has started C. started D. starts 2. The manager was concerned to hear that two of his trusted workers _____. (2012 山东) A. will leave B. are leaving C. have left D. were leaving 3. When I got on the bus, I _________ I had left my wallet at home. (2011 山东) A. was realizing B. realized C. have realized D. would realize 4. She was surprised to find the fridge empty; the child _________ everything! (2011 山东) A. had been eating B. had eaten C. have eaten D. have been eating 5. Up to now, the program ______thousands of children who would otherwise have died. (2010 山东) A. would save B. saves C. had saved D. has saved 6. The number of foreign students attending Chinese universities ______ rising steadily since1990. A. is B. are C. has been D. have been (2009 山东) 7. I was out of town at the time, so I don’t know exactly how it ______. (2009 山东) A. was happening B. happened C. happens D. has happened 8. By the time he realizes he ______ into a trap, it’ll be too late for him to do anything about it. A. walks B. walked C. has walked D. had walked (2008 山东) 9. Walmart, which is one of the largest American supermarket chains, some of its store open 24 hours on Mondays through Saturdays. (2012 安徽) A. keeps B. keep C. have kept D. had kept 10. Food supplies in the flood-stricken area ______.We must act immediately before there’s none left. A. have run out B. are running out C. have been run out D. are being run out (2012 重庆) 11. George said that he would come to school to see me the next day, but he ______. (2012 北京) A. wouldn’t B. didn’t C. hasn’t D. hadn’t 12. —Have you heard about that fire in the market? — Yes, fortunately no one _____. (2012 北京) A. hurt B. was hurt C. has hurt D. had been hurt
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13. Our friendship _____ quickly over the weeks that followed. (2012 北京) A. had developed B. was developing C. would develop D. developed 14. —Can I call you back at two o’clock this afternoon? —I’m sorry, but by then I _____ to Beijing. How about five? (2012 陕西) A. fly B. will fly C. will be flying D. am flying 15. Close the door of fear behind you, and you ______ the door of faith open before you.(2012 湖南) A. saw B. have seen C. will see D. are seeing 16. —Look! Somebody ______ the sofa. —Well, it wasn’t me. I didn’t do it. (2012 江西) A. is cleaning B. was cleaning C. has cleaned D. had cleaned 17. Mum, I was wondering if you could lend me a few dollars until I ____ on Friday. (2012 辽宁) A. get paid B. got paid C. have paid D. had been paid 18. — Alvin, are you coming with us? — I’d love to, but something unexpected _______. (2012 浙江) A. has come up B. was coming up C. had come up D. would come up 19.The manager is said to have arrived back from Paris where he _____ some European business partners. A. would meet B. is meeting C. meets D. had met (2012 江苏) 20. Planning so far ahead ______ no sense---so many things will have changed by next year. A. made B. is making C. makes D. has made (2011 全国) 21. If you don’t like the drink you _____, just leave it and try a different one. ( 2011 全国) A. ordered B. are ordering C. will order D. had ordered 22. On her next birthday, Ann ____ married for twenty years. ( 2011 天津)) A. is B. has been C. will be D. will have been 23. We arrived at work in the morning and found that somebody ____into the office during the night. A. broke B. had broken C. has broken D. was breaking (2011 江西) 24. Tom _____ in the library every night over the last three months. ( 2011 北京) A. works B. worked C. has been working D. had been working 25. Last month, the Japanese government expressed their thanks for the aid they ____ from China. A. receive B. are receiving C. have received D. had received ( 2011 福建) 26. The manager was worried about the press conference his assistant ____ in his place but, luckily, everything was going on smoothly. (2011 浙江) A. gave B. gives C. was giving D. had given 27. ---Tommy is planning to buy a car. --- I know. By next month, he _____enough for a used one. (2011 江苏) A. saves B. saved C. will save D. will have saved 28. In 1492, Columbus _________ on one of the Bahama Islands, but he mistook it for an island off India. (2011 湖南) A. lands B. landed C. has landed D. had landed 29. Look at the pride on Tom’s face. He _____ to have been praised by the manager just now. A. seemed B. seems C. had seemed D. is seeming (2011 重庆) 30. --- What a mistake! --- Yes. I _____ his doing it another way, but without success. (2011 四川) A. was suggesting B. will suggest C. would suggest D. had suggested

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