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09高考英语二轮语法词汇总复习及练习1


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第一章 名词
表示人、事物、地点或抽象概念的名称的词,叫做名词。 高考重点要求: 1、 分清名词同义词、近义词在语境中语义的差别 2、 物质名词和抽象名词数的转化 3、 掌握名词的’s 属格,of 属格,双重属格 4、 名词复数的构成

第一节 知识点概述

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名词分为专有名词(Proper Nouns)和普通名词 (Common Nouns) ,专有名词是某 个(些)人、地方、机构等专有的名称,如Beijing,China等。普通名词是一类人或东 西或是一个抽象概念的名词,如:book,sadness等。普通名词又可分为下面四类: 1)个体名词(Individual Nouns) :表示某类人或东西中的个体,如:gun。 2)集体名词(Collective Nouns) :表示若干个个体组成的集合体,如:family。 3)物质名词(Material Nouns) :表示无法分为个体的实物,如:air。 4)抽象名词(Abstract Nouns) :表示动作、 状态、品质、感情等抽象概念,如:work。 个体名词和集体名词可以用数目来计算,称为可数名词(Countable Nouns) ,物质名词 和抽象名词一般无法用数目计算,称为不可数名词(Uncountable Nouns) 。

一、普通名词
普通名词指一类人或事物的名称。英语中普通名词分为可数名词和不可数名词。 可数名词一般有单、复数两种形式。如a/one child,ten children。而不可数名词一般只 有一种形式。如cash(现金)。不可数名词之前不可直接用泛指限定词和数词。不可数名词 可与some一起用。如:some money,some water。也可与the一起用:the information(这信 息)。

(一)可数名词及其复数形式
(1)可数名词的复数形式一般由词尾加-s或-es构成 (2)可数名词复数形式的不规则构成法 1) 以y结尾的专有名词,或元音字母+y 结尾的名词变复数时,直接加s变复数: 如: two Marys the Henrys monkey---monkeys holiday---holidays 比较: 层楼:storey ---storeys story---stories 2) 以o 结尾的名词,变复数时: a. 加s,如: photo---photos

piano---pianos

radio---radios zoo---zoos; b. 加es,如:potato--potatoes tomato--tomatoes c. 均可,如:zero---zeros / zeroes 3) 以f或fe 结尾的名词变复数时: a. 加s,如: belief---beliefs roof---roofs safe---safes gulf---gulfs; b. 去f,fe 加ves,如:half---halves knife---knives leaf---leaves wolf---wolves wife---wives life---lives thief---thieves; c. 均可,如: handkerchief: handkerchiefs / handkerchieves

(二)可数名词和不可数名词
英语中的绝大多数名词既可以用作可数名词也可以用作不可数名词。 1.可数名词 可数名词一般可以分成以下二类: 第一类:如bike,desk, factory等,这类名词占可数名词的多数。以bike为例: There are fifty bikes at this shop.这家商店有50辆自行车。 第二类:如clothes等,本身表示复数形式。以clothes为例: She cares for nice clothes.她爱好穿着。 2.不可数名词 不可数名词的用法特征主要有以下几种: (1)不带冠词的单数形式需用动词单数作谓语。例如: Knowledge is power.知识就是力量。 (2)由much,little等词修饰。例如: They have saved much money for future use.他们存了很多钱以备未来使用。 (3)与表示单位的量词如a piece of等连用。例如: Go and fetch me a piece of chalk.给我去拿一支粉笔。 要十分注意的是:不可数名词不能与不定冠词或数词直接用在一起。如不能说a good news, an advice, a hard work等。 不可数名词可以与量词使用构成不同的词组: 如: a piec e of paper 一张纸 a drop of water 一滴水 a 1oaf of bread 一条面包 a bag of money 一袋钱 a bottle of milk 一瓶牛奶 a pair of shoes 一双鞋

二、专有名词
专有名词用来指具体的人、 地点、 日子或物体的专有名称。 其特点是: 第一个字母大写, 通常不与冠词连用,无复数形式。

(一)人名

英美人的姓名与中国人的恰恰相反, 姓在后面, 名在前面, 姓名前通常不用冠词。 例如: Mary Smith , George Washington。 (1)一般熟人间通常用名称呼。例如: How’s John getting on? 约翰近来好吗? (2)在不熟悉人之间或表示礼貌时,常把姓和称谓连用。例如: Would you please tell Dr. Smith to come to the office? 请你告诉史密斯博士到办公室来一 次好吗? (3)姓氏复数前加定冠词可表示全家人。例如: The Turners have gone to America.特纳一家人去美国了。

(二)地名
(1)大部分单数形式的地名不用定冠词。例如: Asia, America , China , London , Shanghai (2)大部分单数形式的湖、岛、山名前不加定冠词。例如:. Silver Lake;Mount Tai (3)山脉、群岛、海洋、河流、运河、海湾、海峡、半岛、沙漠名前一般加定冠词。 例如: the Pacific , the English Channel , the Sahara

(三)日期名
(1)节日名前通常不用冠词。例如: Christmas , National Day (2)星期名前通常不用冠词。例如: Sunday , Tuesday (3)月份名前通常不用冠词。例如: April , December

三、名词所有格
名词所有格是指一个名词与另一个名词之间存在所有关系时所用的形式。其构成有两 种:一种是由名词末尾加’s构成;另一种由介词of加名词构成。前者多用来表示有生命的东 西;后者多用来表示无生命的东西。例如: Children’s Palace 少年宫 Tom’s bike 汤姆的自行车 the title of the book 书名 the legs of the table 桌子的腿

(一)所有格形式的构成
(1)单数名词后加’s,其读音与名词复数结尾的读音相同。例如: the girl’s father 女孩的父亲 (2)以s结尾的复数名词后加’。例如:

two hours’ walk 两个小时的步行 (3)不以s结尾的复数名词后加’s。例如: the children’s holiday 孩子们的节日 (4)以s结尾的名词或人名,可以加’s,也可加’号。例如: Thomas’s brother 托马斯的兄弟 the boss’s handwriting 老板的书写 (5)表示各自的所有关系,不是共有的,要分别在各个名词末尾加’s,如: John’s and Mary’s rooms 约翰和玛丽各人的房间 若表示共有的,则在最后一个名词的末尾加’s,如: John and Mary’s room 约翰和玛丽合住的房间

(二)“’s”所有格的用法 ’s所有格常表示有生命的东西,但也可表示无生命的东西。例如:
(1)表示时间: today’s newspaper 今天的报纸 (2)表示自然现象: the moon’s rays 月光 (3)表示国家、城市、机构: Shanghai’s industry 上海的工业 (4)表示度量衡及价值: twenty dollars’ value 20美元的价值 five miles’ distance 5英里的距离

(三)“’s”和 of 所有格所表示的关系
1.表示所有关系 可分为可分割的所有关系和不可分割的所有关系。可分割的所有关系通常指身外之物, 一般不可用of表示。例如: John’s pen(John has a pen)约翰的钢笔 不可说:a pen of John 但不可分割的所有关系,指自身拥有的不可分割的东西可用’s也可用of表示。例如: Mary’s hands(Mary has two hands)玛丽的手 也可以说:the hands of Mary 2.表示主谓关系 the doctor’s advice(The doctor advised)医生的建议 his mother’s request(His mother requested)他母亲的请求 3.表示动宾关系 the war prisoner’s release 释放战俘 children’s education 年轻一代的教育 4.表示同位语关系(通常用of表示) the city of Rome罗马城 the city of Pairs巴黎城

第二节 实战演练

一、复习时需注意的要点
1、 有些名词形式像复数,但含义是单数,而有些名词是没有单数形式的,应注意谓语动词 的选用。 例如:Maths is the language of science. No news is good news. The Chinese people are a great people. 2、集体名词用作整体时,谓语动词要用单数。如用作整体中的各个成员时,谓语动词要用 复数。 例如:His family is a big one . His family are fond of music. 3、在“there be”的句子中,谓语动词的数应和其最近的主语的数相一致。例如: 例如:There are two pictures on the wall. There is a cat and two dogs in the garden. 4、表示两者共有关系时,只需在最后一个名词后加’s;表示几个并列名词的各自所有关系 时,必须在每个名词后加“’s”。 例如:Li Ping and Li Ying’s father . 李平和李英的父亲. Li Ping’s and Li Ying’s fathers . 李平的父亲和李英的父亲.

二、历届高考试题分析
例1、The young dancers looked so charming in their beautiful clothes that we took _______ pictures of them. A. many of B. masses of C. the number of D. a large amount of 答案为 B。 【解析】 此题考查可数名词和不可数名词表示不定量意义的限定词。many 修饰可数名 词复数时不用 of,故 A 不可选。number 用来表示大量,很多时,应为 a number of,故 C 也不可选, a large amount of 用来修饰不可数名词, 而 picture 是可数名词, 故 D 也不可选。 B 项 masses of 是非正式的表达方式,后跟可数名词。 例 2、He proved himself a true gentleman and the beauty of his ____ was seen at its best when he worked with others. A. temper B. appearance C. talent D. character 答案:D 【解析】 temper 脾气;appearance 外表;talent 天赋,才能;character 性格。 例3、One of the consequences of our planet's being warned up is a (n) ________ in the number of natural disasters. A. result B. account C. reason D. increase 答案为 D。

【解析】 result 意为结果;account 意为数量;reason 意为理由,原因;increase 意为增 加。原句是说地球升温造成的后果之一是(增加)了自然灾害的数量。只有填 increase 比较 合适,而其他几个词则无法讲通。 例4、Life is tough in the city. In order to lose their_________, some people drink alcohol. A. temper B. mood C. consciousness D. pressures 答案为 D。 【解析】 lose one's temper 意为发脾气;mood 意为心境,情绪;consciousness 意为清醒, 意识。第一句说“在城市生活很困难” 。所以应是“为了缓解压力” 。 例5、The ________ is just around the corner and you won't miss it. A. bicycle's shop B. bicycle shop C. bicycles shop D. bicycles' shop 答案为 B。 【解析】 名词做定语如表示所属关系有两种情况:①有生命的东西的名词要加's;②无 生命的东西通常用 of。名词做定语如不表示所有关系,往往只用名词单数形式。表示什 么样的商店要用名词单数修饰 shop。译文:自行车商店就在拐角处,你不会错过它。 例6、 His daughter is always shy in ________and she never dares to make a speech to ________. A. the public; the public B. public; the public C. the public; public D. public; public 答案为 B。 【解析】 In public 的意思是“在公众场合” ;the public 的意思是“公众” 。译文:他女 儿在公众场合很害羞,她从来没有对公众做过报告。 例7、What he has done is far from ________. A. satisfactory B. satisfied C. satisfaction D. satisfy 答案为 C。 【解析】 句中 from 是介词,后接名词。译文:他所做的事离满意还差得远。satisfactory 是形容词,意思是“令人满意的” ;satisfied 是过去分词,可作为形容词使用,意思是“感 到满意的” ;satisfy 是动词,意思是“使??满意” 。 例8、Chinese arts have won the _____ of a lot of people outside China. A. enjoyment B. appreciation C. entertainment D. reputation 答案为 B。 【解析】 本题考察名词。根据句意“中国艺术已经赢得了许多外国人的欣赏” 。选项 A “enjoyment(乐趣) ”和选项 C“entertainment(娱乐) ”以及 D“reputation 名声”均不符 合句意。 例 9、 The environmentalists said wild goats’ _____ on the vast grasslands was a good indication of the better environment. A. attendance B. escape C. absence D. appearance 答案为 D。 【解析】 本题考察名词。根据句意“环境保护论者说也山羊在大草原上出现是环境得到

改善的好兆头” ,选项 D 符合句意。 例 10、—I'm sorry I stepped outside for a smoke. I was very tired. —There is no ___________ for this while you are on duty. A. reason B. excuse C. cause D. explanation 答案为 B。 【解析】 考查名词辨析。excuse 理由、借口。说话人意为:你在值班的时候是没有任何 理由出去的。reason 原因;cause 事情起因;explanation 解释,与句意不符。

第三节 巩固练习
Direction: Beneath each of the following sentences there are four choices marked A,B,C and D. Choose the best answer that completes the sentence.

1.If by any chance someone comes to see me, ask him to leave a _____. A. message B. letter C. sentence D. notice

2. I’ll look into the matter as soon as possible. Just have a little _____. A. wait B. time C. patience D. rest

3. You’ll find this map of great _____ in helping you to get round London. A. price B. cost C. value D. usefulness

4. Many countries are increasing their use of natural gas, wind and other forms of _____. A. energy B. source C. power D. material

5. These football players had no strict _____ until they joined our club. A. practice B. education C. exercise D. training

6. —Who did you spend last weekend with? —_____. A. Palmer’s B. The Palmers’ C. The Palmers D. The Palmer’s

7. You can take as many as you like because they are free of _____. A. fare B. charge C. money D. pay

8. We all know that _____ speak louder than words. A. movement B. performances C. operation D. actions

9. My parents always let me have my own _____ of living. A. way B. method C. manner D. fashion

10. This is not a match. We are playing chess just for _____. A. habit D. hobby C. fun D. game

11. Last Sunday his family went to _____. A. the child’s Park C. the Children’s Park 12. Peter is _____ brother. A. Tom and Jack C. Tom’s and Jack B. Tom’s and Jack’s D. Tom and Jack’s B. the Children’s park D. the Childrens’ park

13.His sister had beautiful black long _____ bur he could see some white _____. A. hairs…hair B. hair…hairs C. hairs…hairs D. hair… hair

14. There are many _____ in the hospital. A. woman doctors C. woman doctor 15. Both Marx and Engels were _____. A. Germans B. Germen C. from German D. Germany B. women doctors D. doctor women

16. Mary always wears beautiful _____. A. clothes B. cloth C. clothing D. dressing

17. Did you ask for _____ leave? A. two days’ B. two-day C. two days D. two-day’s

18. I found the telephone number in the _____. A. phone book B. phone’s book C. book of phone D. phones’ book

19. _____ is not a long way to drive. A. Three miles distance C. Three miles’ distance B. Three-mile distance D. Three-mile-distance

20. She had a good _____ and sings beautifully. A. noise B. sound C. voice D. throat

21. Give me your _____ for refusing. A. reason B. cause C. excuse D. course

22. No matter what you do, you should put your _____ into it. A. mind B. heart C. brain D. thought

23. There are usually at least two _____ of looking at every question. A. means B. directions C. views D. ways

24. Tables are made of _____. A. wood B. woods C. wooden D. some woods

25. Give my _____ to your parents. A. best wish B. regards C. loves D. hello

26. The manager lost his _____ just because his secretary was ten minutes late. A. mood B. temper C. mind D. passion

27. Living _____ are usually higher in cities than in the country. A. costs B. charge C. price D. value

28. According to the recent research, heavy coffee drinking and heart attack is not necessarily _____ and effect. A. reason B. impact C. fact D. cause

29. The better _____ you have of words, the better chance you have of saying exactly what you mean. A. demand B. master C. command D. performance

30. The desk is only _____ high. A. three-foot B. three foot C. three-footed D. three feet

31.Food and ______ are very important to us all. A. clothes B. cloth C. clothing D. dress

32.I think it’s high time you made up your mind to choose a(n)_______. A. ambition B. work C. employment D. career

33.The teachers may use these exercise as part of class work or home ______. A. requirement B. assignment C. appointment D. entertainment

34. The disease spreads fast by touch before any ______ are noticed. A. marks B. clues C. symptoms D. characters

35. Communication is more than speaking and listening. Body language expresses a person’s different _______. A. feelings B. signs C. minds D. senses

36.As soon as their party came into ______ they changed the law. A. force B. power C. strength D. energy

37.Here’s my card. Let’s keep in ______. A. touch B. relation C. connection D. friendship

38.He gained his ____ by printing _______of famous writers. A. wealth…work B. wealths…works C. wealths…work D. wealth…works

39.Nobody would believe the man would end in _______ when he started the project , but it turned out to be ______. A. failures…failure C. failure…a failure B. a failure …failure D. failure…failure

40.The remote high school lacks the elementary sports ______and recreational ______. A. equipment…facilities C. equipment ….facility B. equipments…facilities D. equipments …facility

41.The young man over there is a scholar of ______ . Particularly , he has ______of the world history. A. wide knowledge… a good knowledge C. a wide knowledge…a good knowledge B. a wide knowledge…good knowledge D. wide knowledges…a good knowledge

42. The wooden house caught ______as the boy set off ______nearby. A. fire…some firework C. the fire … a fire work B. a fire …fireworks D. fire … fireworks

43. To attend an English family dinner , you must learn table ______and the ______of speaking . A. manner …manner C. manner…manners B. manners …manner D. manners…manners

44. _______ with foreign countries can bring us much information about the world. A. Contrast B. Competition C. Contact D. Combination

45. I went to my ______ on Sunday and had a good time there. A. uncle B. uncles C. uncle’s D. uncles’

46. My maths teacher has______, and he has to follow______. A. a stomach trouble…a strict diet C. stomach troubles… strict diet B. stomach trouble…a strict diet D. stomach’s trouble… strict diets

47. Some teachers in our school decided to donate______ of money to set up ______ to aid students from poor families. A. sum …fund B. a sum …fund C. sum…a fund D. a sum …a fund

48.This is my ______ book. A. brother John B. brother’s John C. brother’s John’s D. brother John’s

49.______ came that some teachers would attend our class. A. Word B. A word C. Words D. The Word

50. It was estimated that the thieves had stolen ______worth of jewelry from the biggest department shop in the city . A. one-million–dollar C. one million dollars’ B. one million dollar’s D. one million dollars

第一章 名词 1. A 2. C 11. C 12. D 21. A 22. B 31. C 32. D 41. A 42. D

3. 13. 23. 33. 43.

C B D B B

4. 14. 24. 34. 44.

A B A C C

5. 15. 25. 35. 45.

D A B A C

6. 16. 26. 36. 46.

C A B B B

7. 17. 27. 37. 47.

B A A A D

8. 18. 28. 38. 48.

D A D D D

9. 19. 29. 39. 49.

A C C C A

10. 20. 30. 40. 50.

C C D A C


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