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如何做好英语阅读推理判断题


如何做好英语阅读推理判断题
本文作者:文/福建省晋江市第一中学 施碧凡 蔡惠汝

【摘 要】推理是人的一种认识能力,是人们根据已有经验对已知事实进行分析、判断,从而推测出有关的未知事情的 思维过程。推理判断题是高考阅读题中占比重比较大的一部分,更是阅读理解题中的难题,学生往往抓不住文章的主干 意思,偏离文章轨迹,而做出不正确的判断,本文就推理判断能力

、解题技巧和易错点拨进行分析、指导。

【关键词】 解读 技巧 点拨

《普通高中英语课程标准(实验稿) 》明确规定:“能理解文章主旨和作者意图;能通过文章中的线索进行推理”、 “能理 解阅读材料中不同的观点和态度”。推理判断题在高考阅读题中比重较大,学生容易在这个题型失分,因此,提高推理 判断题的解题能力很重要。

推理是人的一种认识能力,是人们根据已有经验对已知事实进行分析、判断,从而推测出有关的未知事情的思维过程。 推理是在判断基础上进行的, 判断是通过推理而获得。语言材料就是已知的事实,阅读推理判断就是根据已知内容材料, 根据已有的经验,知识结构,进行合乎上下文情景的推理判断。因此,阅读不是看语言文字堆积成的语言表象材料,而 应读懂语言背后的意思。

根据 2009 年福建省《考试说明》要求,在阅读理解推理判断能力方面,考生应能:理解文章主旨;能做出简单的判断 和推测;能理解作者意图、观点和态度。了解作者设题的思路,掌握解题的技巧,是提高阅读理解的关键。考生必须对 相应的题型有相当的了解。下面笔者就常见类型作简单说明。

一、主旨大意题

主旨大意就是反映文章主题思想,主题思想往往借助与主题句来体现,主题句往往存在于文章开头,结尾或中间。

1.用演绎法展开的文章,经常把主题句放于段首,先概括,后论证。第一句是主题句。

Scientists have worried for a long time over the effect of a seriously large asteroid hitting the Earth. After all, it is likely that the force of such an object from space wiped out the dinosaurs 65 million years ago.These fears were reignited on October 8 when a huge asteroid hit the atmosphere above an island in Indonesia……

What really concerns scientists is that our telescope were unable to detect the object……

There have been surface hits by asteroids in the quite recent past……(Teens 高三 11 期第 6 版 2009 年 11 月 9 日)

The article is mainly about __________.

A. worries about asteroid hit

B. the damage caused by asteroid hit

C. predictions of the next big asteroid hit

D. ways to protect the Earth from asteroid hit

2.用归纳法展开的文章,中心句一般放于段末。作者先向读者呈现事实,再得出结论。

There was a mirror inside the coffin: Everyone who looked inside it could see himself. There was also a sign next to the mirror that said: “ There is only one person who is capable of setting limits to your growth: it is YOU.…“

Your life changes when YOU change, when you go beyond your limiting beliefs, when you realize that you are the only one responsible for your life (Teens 高三 17 期第 8 版 2009 年 12 月 21 日)

The writer’s purpose in writing the article is to tell us that_________.

A. changing our life is down to us.

B. our work and life are closely connected with others.

C. the harder we work, the more successful we’ ll become.

D. we’ll have a better future if people do not hinder our development.

3.主题句位于文中,前后段均为说明、支持主题思想的段落。如下面文章,前面两段描述了孩子地位在不同时代的变化, 用 therefore 和 also resulted in 引出结论。最后,作者再用一段来详细说明教育方式变化的具体体现。黑体部分是 主题句。

In the complex and technological society that the United States has become, each member must fulfill a number of personal and occupational roles and be in contact withmany other members.

Therefore, viewing children as necessary members of society means that they are regarded more as people in their own right than as those of subordination. This acceptance of children as equal participants in the family is reflected in various laws protecting the rights of children and in the social and public welfare programs.

This new view of children and the frequent contact between the members of society also resulted in an increasing interest in child-raising techniques. People today spend much time seeking the proper way to raise children.(2008 福建完形填空)

The text tells us that _______.

A. the position of children in the family and in the society has greatly improved

B. the change of the raising-children way results from the improvement of the position of children

C. children lived a more miserable life than adult

D. the position of children becomes important with the development of society.

4.无明显主题句,作者把主题思想分散于文章中,需要读者运用抽象概括、推理判断能力归纳出文章的主题思想。这类 文章经常出现在描写文中。黑体字是文中的主要线索。

Anthony Horowitz was miserable as a child. He couldn’t win the attention of his very healthy parents, who sent Horowitz to a boarding school where he was also bullied by his classmates. He did badly in his studies, and his teacher had a low opinion of him. The only one thing he remembered was his desire to write. When he was ten years old, he asked his parents to get him a typewriter for his birthday because he wanted to be a writer.

Now, at 55, Horowitz is one of the world’s most successful children’s book authors.

His Alex Rider series has sold more then 5 million copies, and the eight book featuring the young spy, Crocodile Tears, came out this month…

That style has also made Horowitz a successful writer of television shows for adults in Britain because, he said, writing books for kids is a lot like writing television for grown-ups.

Now, Horowitz couldn’t be happier with his life. He sums up his success: “ …you can be anything you want to be if you just believe in yourself. I do believe it completely.”(Teens K 三 14 期 2009 年 11 月 30 日)

The text is mainly about ____.

A. Horowitz’s popular book Alex Rider

B. Horowitz’s miserable childhood

C. Horowitz, a successful children’s writer

D. Horowitz’s special writing style

二、写作目的与意图

推断作者的写作目的和意图应该运用抽象的概括能力。读者可通过已知材料的几个方面,进行概括性总结,从而推断篇 章目的与意图。如下文:

Reading a simplified Romeo and Juliet may perhaps lead to a reading of Shakepeare’s actual play. If that is the case then I welcome the trend. But do not make the mistake of thinking that it is the same thing.

Shakespeare is a poet. His greatness is in his language. Reading someone else’s rewriting of his work is like peeling a banana, throwing away the fruit, and eating the skin. Take on the original. It really is worth the effort. (Teens 高三 15 期第 8 版 2009 年 12 月 7 日)

这是一篇说理性文章,作者通过自己的亲身体会,用生动的例子表明读简易读本与阅读原著的巨大差别,从而达到写作 的目的----“要阅读原著,这是值得用功的事情”。划线部分就是文章中作者所表达的几个观点,通过对几个观点的把握, 读者能推断该篇文章的写作意图。

The author intends to _____.

A. criticize the youth not to read the classic

B. to tell us reading simplified readings is as interesting as reading the original

C. encourage people to read the original

D. describe how he comes to like literature

三、是非推断题

是非判断题经常在语言文字上做文章,在概念上巧设疑,用一般常识干扰选项。同时,通常不是对某一句的简单理解推 断,而往往是贯穿全文相关信息的判断。因此,做题时要注意文字意思的甄别,把准数字概念,紧紧依靠文章材料,不 要受主观意识影响,这样才能准确辨认是非,选好选项。看下文:

Now the university, Irvine ( UCI ) is welcoming a new discipline: video games.

The campus is one of a number of schools offering courses for a generation that grew up playing computer games.

A decade ago, computer science instructors at CUI who tried to get approved a minor in computer games were laughed at. Now things are different.

A lot of people, when they hear’games’and’ university’, they see nothing in common. They think games are mindless and not something to be studied seriously Like Many new disciplines, there’s often a high degree of skepticism.

However, the appeal of video game studies is broad, attracting even studio art majors such as 22-year-old Joel Youkhanna.He changed to CUI because it was one of a few schools that offer gaming as a course of study.

Dan Frost, a lecturer at CUI and other faculty believe videogames studies are gaining acceptance, despite the critics. Frost said: “People said it isn’t serious. The attitude has changed.” (Teens 高三 17 期第 6 版 2009 年 12 月 21 日)

According to the text, which of the following statements is true?

A. Computer game science was unheard of 10 years ago.

B. UC Irvine is the first university to offer video games studies as a discipline.

C. The course offered by UC Irvine has mass appeal to students in related majors.

D. The majority of people don’t think video games are something that deserves serious study.

从四个选项的陈述中找出关键词, 对应材料相应部分, 做出准确的甄别。如A选项中表示的“10 years ago” 与文中 “ a decade ago”所发生的事情是完全不同的,但学生容易抓住某个相同的词,没认真阅读句中内容就选题,答错 A 项的比 率还是高的。第二个选项学生没认真对比 “ first” 与 材料中 “ one of a number of schools” 。第三个选项中 “ mass” 与文中 “ broad” 所蕴含的意思一样,意义为“电脑游戏有广泛的吸引力”,所以是正确的选项。第四个选项 “ majority”与文中的 “ a lot of people” 概念上有差异。

四.易错点拔

1.主旨大意题

主题句、标题和主旨大意是针对整个语篇,而不是针对某段或文中的某个方面。考生做题往往把思维和注意力过度集中 在某个段落或文中的某个点,最终得出太泛或以偏概全的结论。

2.目的意图题

每篇文章都有一个特定的写作目的,或是向读者传递某个信息,或是娱乐读者,或是阐述某个观点。这些信息通常以叙 述的形式展现出来,作者并不发表自己的观点,因此主题往往比较含蓄。但是许多学生会分不清现象与本质,把现象等 同于作者的意图。

3. 情感态度题

该题型应当忠实于原文,以文章提供的事实和线索为依据,立足已知,推断未知。在作者的态度倾向一般不会明确表明, 往往隐含其中。学生应借助语境,尽量找到相关提示词,感受所用词语的褒贬来判断。避免主观臆断,用自己的观点代 替作者的观点。

总之,做好推理判断题必须对文章的表面信息进行挖掘加工,由表及里、由浅入深,从具体到抽象,从特殊到一般,深 入到语言的实质,通过分析、综合、判断等,进行深层处理,才能做出符合逻辑的准确推断。


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