PSC 124, 9th and 10th section, October 28 and November 4, 2004 International Relations during the Cold War, 1945 - 1991
Postwar institutions: o United Nations: Collective Security elemen
ts – refrain from use of force and Security Council may take action to restore peace o Bretton Woods Institutions: International Bank for Reconstruction & Development, International Monetary Fund Kennan’s Containment: George Kennan provides a detailed analysis of perceived Soviet intentions and suggests a strategy of containment in his “Long Telegram”. Successful containment would eventually lead “either to the break-up or the gradual mellowing of Soviet power.” US Policy: o weakened UK withdraws from areas of influence, creating power vacuums riddled by conflict (India, Pakistan, Greece) o Truman Doctrine (March 1947): US military aid “in support of free peoples who are resisting attempted subjection by armed minorities or by outside pressures.” o Marshall Plan: Massive aid to rebuild Europe along market principles, including occupied zones of Germany Early Cold War in Europe: Berlin airlift (1948), Establishment of NATO (1949), Soviet atomic bomb (1949), West German unification (1954), Establishment of Warsaw Pact (1955), “Iron Curtain” Early Cold War in Asia: Communists victory in Chinese civil war (1949), Nationalist government on Taiwan, Korean War (1950 – 1953) Test of containment and UN collective security system, Sino – Soviet split Decolonization o process by which colonies of European powers dismantled and new sovereign states created (number of states nearly doubled 1940 – 1970) o decolonization often a violent process: Indochina, Palestine, India, Algeria o new states became involved in US – Soviet competition: opportunity to win allies and control strategic area, client states and proxy wars, non-aligned movement Major Cold War Conflicts: Vietnam - Vietminh resist French and Japanese rule - Vietnam divided: Vietminh in the North, French in the South - US initially supports Vietminh in favor of self-determination, then backs French as part of containment strategy, French defeated (1954) - Escalation under Kennedy and Johnson - Nixon withdraws US troops (1973), Saigon falls (1975) Major Cold War Conflicts: Arab-Israel UK withdrawal 1948 War: Israel captures all land UN designated to be divided to create a Jewish and Palestinian state 1956 War: In response to nationalization of Suez Canal, UK, France, and Israel invade Egypt, No US support - 1967 War: Israel captures Sinai, Gaza Strip, Golan Heights, West Bank (including Jerusalem)
Nuclear Weapons ? Cuban Missile Crisis (1961): The closest the world has come to nuclear war was the Cuban Missile Crisis. The Soviets had installed nuclear missiles in Cuba, just 90 miles off the coast of the United States. U.S. armed forces were at their highest state of readiness. Soviet field commanders in Cuba were authorized to use tactical nuclear weapons if invaded by the U.S. The fate of millions literally hinged upon the ability of Kennedy and Khrushchev to reach a compromise. ? Second-Strike Capability: The ability to survive a first strike with sufficient resources to deliver an effective counterblow.
Mutual Assured Destruction (MAD): doctrine of a situation in which any use of nuclear by either of two opposing sides would result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. each side has enough weaponry to destroy the other side and that either side, if attacked for any reason by the other, would retaliate with equal or greater force. expected result is that the battle would escalate to the point where each side brought about the other's total and assured destruction. payoff of this doctrine was expected to be tense but stable peace. Deterrence: strategy of MAD according to which the deployment of strong weapons is essential to threaten the enemy in order to prevent the use of the very same weapons.
Nuclear Arms Control ? MAD allowed for arms control negotiations ? SALT (1972): the Strategic Arms Limitation between the United States and the Soviet Union which resulted in a number of agreements relating to the offensive nuclear arsenals of the two nations and a reduction of the nuclear arms race. was an important element of Détente. ? ABM Treaty (1972): The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty between the US and the USSR on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. In 1972, Nixon and Brezhnev signed it. Was in force for thirty years, from 1972 until 2002. In 2002, the US withdrew from the treaty. ? Détente: the general reduction in the tension between the Soviet Union and the United States and a "warming" of the Cold War that occurred from the late 1960s until the start of the 1980s. More generally, it may be applied to any international situation where previously hostile nations not involved in an open war "warm up" to each other and threats de-escalate. Collective Security during the Cold War o Permanent veto power inhibited UN’s ability to act as effective collective security system o US and USSR not deterred from invasions: US Dominican Republic (1965), Grenada (1983), Panama (1989), USSR Hungary (1956), Czechoslovakia (1968), Afghanistan (1979) o UN Security Council only authorized military action twice: Korean War (1950), Iraq War (1991) Alternatives to Collective Security in the Cold War: peacekeeping, norm promotion (human rights), provide forum for debate, inquiries, mediation, adjudication, create “positive peace” End of Détente: Soviet support of communist revolutions in Angola (1975) and Nicaragua (1979), Iranian revolution (1979), Soviet invasion of Afghanistan (1979), Egypt – Israel Peace (1979), US deployment of intermediate nuclear weapons in Western Europe (1983), US invasion of Grenada (1983) and support for anticommunists in Central America, Strategic Defense Initiative and US arms build-up End of the Cold War: Stagnation of Soviet economy, Gorbachev initiates policy of reform 1) Perestroika (restructuring), 2) Glasnost (new thinking), dismantling of Soviet empire (1989 – 1991) Origins of the Cold War? Realists = given anarchy, two great powers come into conflict and attempt to survive via arms races, alliances, and spheres of influence ? Liberals = lack of interdependence, institutions, and democracy ? Constructivists = historical animosity created social context of fear and mistrust ? Idealism = a conflict of values ? ? ? Why was the Cold War “cold?” Realism = bipolarity Liberalism = spread of nuclear weapons, communication, and information contributed to interdependence; growth of institutions (Helsinki agreement); spread of democracy ? Constructivism = shared understandings about rules of the game (e.g., respect spheres of influence, respect anomalies) UN’s role in the Cold War? Realism = instrument of powerful states Liberalism = provides information, facilitates issue linkages, and increases iteration Constructivism = “seal of approval”, norm promotion
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