当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题 第二部分 词法篇-其他词类 专题1 名词素材 外研版


专题 1 名词

◆名词的核心考点 1.可数名词的数 这里主要讲其不规则变化。 (1)单、 复数同形。 如: means, aircraft, deer, fish, Chinese, Japanese, sheep, works(工 厂),cattle。 (2)合成名词的复数。如:boyfriend→boyfriends,go?between→go?betweens(中间人), grown?up→grown?ups。 (3)有些名词通常只用作复数。如:glasses 眼镜,clothes 衣服,goods 货物,trousers 裤 子, belongings 所有物, wages 工资, riches 财富, surroundings 环境, ashes 灰尘, compasses 圆规, cattle 家畜, congratulations 祝贺, have words with sb.同某人吵架, in high spirits 情绪高涨地, give one’s regards to sb.向某人问好, in rags 衣衫褴褛, It is good manners to do sth.做某事是有礼貌的。 (4)集体名词的数。有些集体名词通常只用作复数,如:people,cattle,police;有些名词 只用作单数,如:machinery,furniture,mankind,jewellery;有些名词既可用作单数又 可用作复数,单数看作整体,复数看作集体的各个成员。如:The crew is large.船员人数 很多(指整体)。The crew are all tired.船员们都累坏了(指个体)。 2.不可数名词的数 (1)一般说来抽象名词为不可数名词, 但当抽象名词表示具体的东西时, 可用作可数名词且词 义发生变化,主要类型如下: ①抽象名词表示具有某种特性、状态、感情情绪的人或事。 抽象名词(不可数) in surprise 惊讶地 win success 获得成功 win honour 赢得荣誉 failure 失败 by experience 靠经验 with pleasure 乐意 具体化(个体名词,可数名词) a surprise 一件令人惊讶的事 a success 一个(件)成功的人(事) an honour 一个(件)引起尊敬的人(事) a failure 一个失败者/一件失败的事 an experience 一次经历 a pleasure 一件乐事

②抽象名词与 a(an)连用,淡化了抽象概念,转化为似乎可以体验到的动作、行为或类别。 A knowledge of English is a must in international trade.

1

Would you like to have a walk (swim,bath,talk) with me? It is a waste of time reading such a novel. She made an apology to her mother for her wrong doings. (2)物质名词是不可数名词,但表示数量或种类之多时,可以用作可数名词。 物质名词有形或数的相应物体时,有单、复数。如:some coffee 一些咖啡,a coffee 一杯 咖啡,three coffees 三杯咖啡;some drink 一些饮料,a drink 一杯饮料,three drinks 三杯饮料;his hair 他的头发,a few grey hairs 几根白发;glass 玻璃,a glass 一只玻 璃杯。 3.名词所有格 (1)’s 所有格 the boy’s mother,the children’s toys, the teachers’ books,Lucy and Lily’s bedroom(共用),Lucy’s and Lily’s bedrooms(各自的) (2)“of+名词”所有格 the roof of the house,the cover of the book,the name of the girl wearing a red coat, a picture of my father(=a picture that my father is in) (3)双重所有格 a friend of my brother’s(=one of my brother’s friends), a picture of my father’s(= one of my father’s pictures) (4)“’s”所有格的特殊表示形式有: ①用于表示人的名词或表集体、机构的名词后,如:Tom’s home,the doctor’s, the company’s new factory 等。 ②用于表示时间、距离、价格、重量等的名词后,如:today’s newspaper,five minutes’ walk(drive),five pounds’ weight,ten dollars’ worth of coffee。 ③用于表示国家、世界、城市等地方的名词后,如:the world’s population,China’s industry,New York’s parks。 (5)所有格的句法功能 ①表所有关系 Jack’s brother ②表主谓关系 Mr Wang’s praise ③表动宾关系 the famous star’s admirers ④表修饰关系 a doctor’s degree ⑤表同位关系(只用 of 所有格)the city of Beijing 4.名词的功能 (1)可作主语、表语、宾语、宾语补足语 Mary turned nurse.
2

He bought a new book. We made him monitor of our class. (2)作定语 英语中有些名词没有其对应的同根形容词,这些名词可以直接用来作定语修饰另一个名词。 ①分类意义 air pollution 空气污染 boy friend 男朋友

coffee cup 咖啡杯 body language 身体语言 road accident 交通事故 the Nobel Prize 诺贝尔奖 ②时间、地点、称呼等 Doctor Jack 杰克医生 Professor Li 李教授 evening school 夜校 winter sleep 冬眠

③表目的、手段、来源、所属意义 reception desk 接待台 sports field 田径场 stone table 石桌 color TV 彩电 (3)作状语 名词作状语多为表时间或距离等概念的名词。 The war lasted eight years. (4)作同位语 Tom,our monitor,left school last year.

◆名词与语法填空 在语法填空中,对于名词的考查主要涉及可数名词的复数、名词的所有格以及词类变换。 典题试做 1 用括号内所给词的正确形式填空 1.In addition to their simple beauty,what makes the adobe dwellings admirable is their (able) to “air condition” a house without using electric

equipment.(2015·全国Ⅱ) 答案 ability 解析 形容词性物主代词 their 之后应当用名词,故将 able 转化为其名词形式 ability。 2 .I’d skipped nearby Guilin, a dream place for tourists seeking the limestone mountain tops and dark waters of the Li River that are pictured by artists in so many Chinese (painting).(2015·全国Ⅰ)
3

答案 paintings 解析 由于该名词由 so many 修饰,故填该名词的复数形式 paintings。 3.While there are amazing stories of instant transformation,for most of us the (change) are gradual and require a lot of effort and work,like cleaning up a polluted river.Just be patient.(2014·新课标全国Ⅰ) 答案 changes 解析 考查名词复数。前面是定冠词 the,因此后面要用名词,再由谓语动词 are 可知此空 要用其名词的复数形式,故填 changes。 4.I feel my legs shaking.I cannot do this any longer...Unbelievable!Oh...,if you don’t mind,I’ll stop and take a deep 答案 breath 解析 考查根据上下文语境填词。根据语境可知,说话者对于现在正在进行的活动感到体力 不支,因此需要停下来深吸一口气。take a deep breath 深吸一口气。 5.But Jane knew from past experience that her pleased her father.(2009·广东) 答案 choice 解析 空格前有形容词性物主代词,所以空格处应填名词,choose 的名词形式是 choice。 应对策略 1 首先要弄清数与格,即名词是否该用复数,是否要用所有格;其次,注意有关名词的构词法, 即有关名词的词类转换。这就要求考生要搞清楚名词在句中作什么成分,近几年常考名词作 主语、宾语、表语的情况。 ◆名词与短文改错 短文改错中对于名词的考查最可能考查名词的数与格。 汉语中的名词在形式上没有复数变化, 而是通过在其前加数词或量词等方式来表示。而英语则不同,除了在名词前加数词外,如果 是可数名词,还须用其名词复数形式,而不可数名词没有复数形式。其次名词的考查还会涉 及词性转换方面的错误。 典题试做 2 单句改错(每小题 1 处错误) 1.The airs we breathe in is getting dirtier and dirtier.(2015·全国Ⅰ) 答案 airs→air 解析 由后面的定语从句 we breathe in 可知,此处先行词的意思是“空气”,air 当“空 气”讲时为不可数名词。故 airs 改为 air。 2.One day,little Tony went to a shopping center with his parent.It was...his parents were missing...Tony saw his parents.(2015·全国Ⅱ)
4

.(2014·辽宁)

(choose) of ties hardly ever

答案 parent→parents 解析 从后文可以看出 Tony 的父母一起和他去的购物中心,后文两次出现 parents,所以应 该将 parent 改为 parents。 3.As I told you last time,I made three new friend here.(2015·四川) 答案 friend→friends 解析 名词 friend 为可数名词,其前有 three 修饰,需要用复数形式,故把 friend 改成 friends。 4.My old classroom was interesting because three side of the classroom were made from glass.(2015·浙江) 答案 side→sides 解析 前面有 three 修饰,故 side 要用复数形式 sides。 5.Mum taught me some basic step of baking.(2015·陕西) 答案 step→steps 解析 根据前面的 some 可知,step 应该用复数形式。 6.For example,we can do reading for one and a half hour and play sports for one hour every day.(2014·新课标全国Ⅱ) 答案 第一个 hour→hours 解析 由 one and a half 可知,hour 应用复数形式。 7.We’ve called several time about Cleo’s early morning barking.(2014·辽宁) 答案 time→times 解析 time 在此处意为“次数”,为可数名词,再根据前面的 several 可知,应用 times。 8.This made for the grow in the porcelain industry.(2013·新课标全国Ⅱ) 答案 grow→growth 解析 定冠词 the 后面应跟名词形式,故 grow 应改为 growth。 9.He has ruined his healthy.(2013·辽宁) 答案 healthy→health 解析 在形容词性物主代词后应用名词,所以应把 healthy 改为 health。 10.When I finally arrived at my friend he lent me lots of clothes.(2011·新课标 全国) 答案 friend→friend’s 解析 根据句意可知,当我最后到达“我朋友的家”(my friend’s)时,他借给我许多衣服。 故 friend 应改为 friend’s。 应对策略 2 遇到名词首先注意区分它是可数名词还是不可数名词;其次还可以根据名词前的修饰语或谓
5

语动词的单复数来判断。此外,还要注意名词的所有格以及名词的句法功能,判断是否存在 词性转换方面的错误。 ◆书面表达中名词易错点聚焦 1.写作中对于复数名词易疏漏?s 或?es,如: (误)I’d love to make friend with you. (误)All the picture displayed are of great value. 2.部分名词的复数变化错误,如:familys,knifes,difficultys,pianoes,heros,woman doctors,tooths,childrens,medias。 3.部分词性易混作名词,如: 动词误作名词 动词 succeed affect 形容词误作名词 名词 success effect 形容词 honest healthy 名词 honesty health

4.可数与不可数名词混淆。如: 不可数 take action some advice take exercise make progress information 可数 take measures some suggestions eye exercises

6

Ⅰ.单句语法填空 1.He had witnessed too many (die) and wounds at the Battle of Solferino in

Italy four years earlier,in which 40,000 people were killed,wounded or missing. 答案 deaths 解析 考查词性转换。这里指的是“死亡”,是可数名词,在句中作及物动词 witness 的宾 语,空前的 too many 暗示应用 death 的复数形式。 2.Apple’s new machine,the Lisa,proved to be an expensive 答案 failure 解析 考查派生词的用法。 从空前的“an expensive”可知此处缺少一个名词, 故填 failure。 failure 在此处意为“失败的事”,为可数名词。 3. I ran into my neighbor, Dennis, yesterday afternoon.He asked if I wanted two tickets to the theater.He had season tickets but couldn’t go to this 答案 performance 解析 根据 this 的提示可知,此处应该使用 perform 的名词形式。 4.Tourism should also advance the wealth and 答案 happiness 解析 根据 and 平行关系及其前名词 wealth 可知,应填 happy 的名词形式。 5.These people have made great 答案 contributions 解析 考查固定短语 make contributions to“对??作贡献”。 6.They get advice from “ usually go to people they know. 答案 strangers 解析 考查名词的复数。根据下一句中的“don’t”及“people they know”可知,空处意 为“陌生人(stranger)”。stranger 为可数名词,其前面没有限定词,应填复数形式。 7.My first 答案 impression 解析 形容词性物主代词 my 之后应当用名词,故应填 impress 的名词形式 impression。 8.Those who suffer from headache will find they get medicine. 答案 relief
7

(fail).

(perform).

(happy) of local inhabitants.

(contribute) to China with their work.

(strange)”.When they need advice,they don’t

(impress) of him was that he was a kind and thoughtful young man.

(relieve) from this

解析 动词 get 后缺少宾语,故应用 relieve 的名词形式 relief。get relief from 因?? 得到缓解。 9.—Why do you choose to work in an international travel agency? —Well,you know,English is my 答案 strength 解析 分析句子结构可知,谓语动词 is 后缺少表语,故应填 strong 的名词形式 strength。 10.I made a (decide) to look at the flight monitors to see if there was an (strong).So it is my best choice.

earlier flight to San Francisco. 答案 decision 解析 考查词性转换。make a decision 意为“作出一个决定”。 Ⅱ.单句改错(每小题 1 处错误) 1.Within the next few minute,my grandfather also caught a fish. 答案 minute→minutes 2.You told me the name of different plants and their characteristics. 答案 name→names 3.Mom,I know I have never expressed my thank to you before. 答案 thank→thanks 4.The food was wonderful with reasonable prices,and we enjoyed several local dish. 答案 dish→dishes 5.Another way is to watch our everyday use of water and electric at home. 答案 electric→electricity 6.From the time I was about four until I was about six,I destroyed each of my toy. 答案 toy→toys 7. We, as well as animal, cannot live without water and neither agriculture nor industry can go without it. 答案 animal→animals 8.In early January this year,the rate of UFO reports was steady,around three per weeks. 答案 weeks→week 9.Tom was having much troubles getting up in the morning and was always late for work. 答案 troubles→trouble 10.It felt very strange to travel without any luggages. 答案 luggages→luggage
8

Ⅲ.语法填空 A(名词专练) Born on August 23,1988 in America, Jeremy Shu?How Lin is a professional basketball 1.player(play) with the Huston Rockets 2.of the National Basketball Association (NBA). But, to some degree, many Chinese fans and 3.coaches(coach) take him as a Chinese guy or at least are willing to imagine him 4.a Chinese just because he has a typical Chinese face and his parents were born in China. Jeremy Lin has recently become 5.a success and attracted the world’s 6.attention(attend),which gives Chinese people a lot of 7.imagination(imagine) and pride.As we know,in most 8.people’s(people) eyes,Jeremy is a miracle. In June,2012,when Jeremy took his third trip to China,a large crowd came to meet him,among whom there were various fans including some 9.families(family), some children and even some 10.women(woman) players. B China will allow all couples to have two children,11.giving (give) up its decades?long one?child policy, the Communist Party of China (CPC) 12.announced (announce) after a key meeting on Thursday. The change of policy is intended to balance population development and meet the challenge of an aging population,according to a communiqué(公报) 13.issued (issue) after the Fifth Plenary Session of the 18th Communist Party of China (CPC) Central Committee held from Monday to Thursday. The proposal must be approved by the top legislature(立法机关) 14.before it comes into force. China’s family planning policy was first introduced in the late 1970s 15.to control (control) the rapid 16.growth (grow) of population by limiting most urban couples 17.to one child, and as to rural couples, they can have two children on condition that their first child born was a girl.The policy was later relaxed.Parents 18.who/that were both only children in their family could have 19.a second child. The one?child policy was 20.further (far) loosened in November 2013 after the Third Plenary Session of the 18th CPC Central Committee,and couples are allowed to have two children if one of them is an only child.

9


相关文章:
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题 第二部分 ...
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题 第二部分 词法篇-其他词类 专题4 介词和介词短语素材 外研版_英语_高中教育_教育专区。专题 4 介词和介词短语 介词...
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题 第一部分 ...
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题一部分 词法篇-动词 专题1 动词的时态和语态素材 外研版_英语_高中教育_教育专区。专题 1 动词的时态和语态素 ...
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题 第一部分 ...
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题一部分 词法篇-动词 专题3 情态动词和虚拟语气素材 外研版_英语_高中教育_教育专区。专题 3 情态动词和虚拟语气 ...
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题 第一部分 ...
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题一部分 词法篇-动词 专题2 非谓语动词素材 外研版_英语_高中教育_教育专区。专题 2 非谓语动词 1.非谓语动词作...
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题 第三部分 ...
【步步高】2017版高考英语一轮复习 语法专题 第三部分 句法篇 专题1 定语从句素材 外研版_英语_高中教育_教育专区。专题 1 定语从句 1.功能:相当于形容词,修饰...
【走向高考】2017年高考英语一轮复习 第二部分 语法专...
【走向高考】2017高考英语一轮复习 第二部分 语法专题15 构词法 新人教版_英语_高中教育_教育专区。语法专题 15 构词法Ⅰ.根据语境,用所给词的适当形式填空 ...
...(全国通用)2017高考英语一轮复习 语法专题14 构词法...
【高优指导】(全国通用)2017高考英语一轮复习 语法专题14 构词法 新人教版_英语_高中教育_教育专区。语法专题十四 构词法用括号内所给词的适当形式填空 1.(2015...
通用版2017高考英语二轮复习第一部分语法突破专题2形容...
通用版2017高考英语轮复习一部分语法突破专题2形容词和副词第2词类转换对点巩_初三英语_英语_初中教育_教育专区。第 2词类转换 1.(2016·四川卷)...
导学教程2017届高三英语二轮复习第一部分高考题型攻略...
导学教程2017高三英语轮复习第一部分高考题型攻略篇高考题型之五语法填空专题十一语法填空之提示词类_英语_高中教育_教育专区。专题十一 语法填空之提示词类 [限时...
2016高考英语二轮复习_第二部分_专题十三_构词法(词类...
2016高考英语轮复习_第二部分_专题十三_构词法(词类转换)练习_高考_高中教育_...【语篇解读】 本文主要讲述了著名足球运动员 Lionel Messi 的成长故事。 1.a ...
更多相关标签: