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高考英语动词和动词词组专项复习


高考英语动词和动词词组专项复习
【备考策略】 动词和动词短语是英语中最灵活、最难掌握的词之一,在历年高考题中所占比例也最大, 设题时往往都是给出四个不同的动词或短语来测试考生在具体语境中对动词短语意义的 理解和运用能力。主要出现在语法填空及完形填空中。要求考生构建以下比较完整的知 识网络。 I.动词的分类 根据意义和句法作用,英语动词可分为四类: 1.行为动词(实义动词

) ①及物动词:带宾语的动词 ②不及物动词:不带宾语的动词 注意:英语里及物动词和不及物动词不是截然分开的,有的动词既可以是及物动词也可 以是不及物动词。 It is important for you to learn how to learn. 第一个 learn 是及物动词,后面有宾语 how to learn;第二个 learn 是不及物动词。 不及物动词向及物动词转化需要借助于介词、副词等构成短语动词。 He is working hard at English. ③状态动词(相对静止):contain, exist, own, prefer, belong ④动作动词:延续性(work, stay);非延续性(marry, go, come) 2.系动词 ①表示人或事物的特征和状态:be, feel, look, seem, taste, appear, sound ②表示状态的变化:turn, go, become, get, fall, grow ③表示某种状态的延续或持续:remain, keep, stay 注意:绝大多数连系动词又是实义动词,在解题时要正确区分,否则就会出错。 请看下列这道选择题: good,the food has been sold out. A.Tasted 是连系动 词,应该选 C 才对=Because the food tastes good,… 3.助动词(与动词原形或分词构成复合谓语): be(am,is,are),do(does,did);have(has);will,would,shall 4.情态动词:can(could),may(might),must,shall(should)等等 II.短语动词常见的构成方式及其注意点 1.动词+副词所构成的短语动词分及物的和不及物的两类 Please turn every light in the house off. 请把房子里的每一盏灯都关掉。(及物) Harry turned up after the party when everyone had left. 晚会后,人们都已离去,哈里出现了。(不及物) B.Having been Tasted C.Tasting D.To taste 本题考生如果把 taste 当成实义动词去理解的话,就会误选 A 或 B。其实 taste 在本句中

注意:①如果宾语较长,就应避免把副词同动词分开 She turned off all the lights which had been left on. 她关掉了所有还在亮着的灯。 ②如果宾语是人称代词,只能放在动词和副词之间。 She gave them away.她送掉了它们。 ③同一动词和不同副词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异。 ring back 回电话, ring off 挂断电话, ring up 打电话 put away 放好, put on 穿,上演, put up 挂起,举起。 ④不同动词和同一副词搭配时,在意义上有很大的差异。 break out 发生,爆炸 out 分发 set out 出发 get down 下车 2.动词+介词(及物) I'm looking for my glasses.我在找我的眼镜。 注意:①当它跟宾语时,不能把介词放在宾语后面。 ②同一动词和不同介词搭配时,意义上有很大的差异。 look after 照料,look at 看,look for 寻找 3.动词+副词+介词 I look forward to seeing you soon. 我盼望不久就见到你。 注意:“动词+介词”、“动词+名词+副词”、“动词+副词+介词”,这三种搭配都是及物的, 如变成被动语态,不可漏掉介词。 In this way both grain and vegetable can be well looked after. (不能漏掉 after) 这样一来,粮食和蔬菜都能兼顾了。 III.动词及短语动词词义辨析 动词及短语动词是各类考试的重点,高考试题中,单项填空、完形填空等题型中,动词 及短语动词辨义的比重较大,并逐年增加。动词及短语动词辨义主要指: 1.形似动词及短语动词之间的辨析; 2.意似动词及短语动词之间的辨析; 3.动词及短语动词与其它词形相近、意义相似的词和短语之间的辨析; 4.意义不同,但容易混淆的动词及短语动词的辨析。 5.某些常用动词及短语动词习惯用法的辨析。 动词及短语动词词义辨析要靠考生的日积月累,考生才能在高考中应付自如。 IV.动词和短语动词的常见辨析方法 (一)从语法搭配、习惯用法上进行辨析 1.宾语不同,意义也不同 go on doing(继续干同一件事) regret doing(后悔干了某事) forget doing (忘记已做过的事) remember doing(记得已做过的事) mean doing(意味着干) try doing(尝试做) consider doing(考虑去做) go on to do(接着去干另一件事) regret to do(相当于 be sorry to do) forget to do(忘记要去干的事) remember to do(记住要去干的事) mean to do(想干…) try to do(设法做) consider to be/have done(认为是/认为已经做了) carry out 进行,开展 look out 当心 go out 熄灭 sell out 卖完 come down 落下来 break down 出毛病 hand let out 放出 take out 取出 take down 取下

work out 算出

write down 写下

2.接宾语或宾补(主补),形式有不同 某些动词如 forbid,advise,allow,permit,admit,consider 等直接接动词作宾语时要用动名词, 但接宾补(主 补)时,宾补(主补)要用不定式。 We forbid smoking here.(宾语,用动名词) We forbid you to smoke here.(宾补,用动词不定式) You are forbidden to smoke here.(主补,用动词不定式) 3.宾语形式不同,意义相同 有些词如 need,require,want,deserve 等后可接不定式(要用被动形式),可接动名词(要 用主动形式表 被动意义),两种形式意义相同。 The room requires to be cleaned.=The room requires cleaning 4.主动形式表示“被动”意义的动词 有些动词 sell,open,close,wash,teach,burn,measure,cut,lock,cost,read,write,tear,wear,pull, clean,add,cook 等,它们的主语是事物,且又是表示主语的固有特征和状态,与行为方式 状语连用时,要用主动形式表被动意义: My pen writes smoothly.我的笔好写。 Oil burns easily.油易燃烧。 5.意义上基本相同,但是在用法上﹑习惯搭配上有不同之处的词 buy/cost/pay/spend/take 都可以指花钱买东西;spend/take 都可指花时间;但是它们在用 法、习惯搭配上 有较大的区别。 The watch cost him thirty-six thousand francs. He spent thirty-six thousand francs on the watch/ (in) buying the watch. It took him thirty six thousand francs to buy the watch. He paid thirty-six thousand francs for the watch. He bought the watch for thirty-six thousand francs. 以上句子所表达的意思基本相同:他花了 36,000 法郎买了这只手表。 (二)从组成形式和它们的恰切含义上辨析 词汇间的微小差别对我们来说既是重点又是难点。要从词义的内涵和外延上进行辨析。 1.以构成形式为突破口进行辨析 如有无介词 for,意义不同:answer(回答)/answer for(对……负责、偿还) 常见的还有: search(对人、物或场所搜查)/search for(搜寻人、物或场所) leave(离开某地)/leave for(去某地) run(经营;跑)/run for(竞选) 2.以意义为突破口进行辨析 ①意义内涵不同型:几个词它们的内在含义不尽相同。 defend, protect, guard 都与 “保护”有关。 defend 指采用办法消除存在的危险或击退正在进行的攻击。 reach(到达;拿到)/reach for(伸手去拿) stand(站;忍受)/stand for(代表) prepare(准备)/prepare for(为…作准备) enter(进入)/enter for(报名参加) pay(付钱、债给某人)/pay for(付钱买某物)

protect 指使用某种遮盖或外力,外物防御可能的伤害或毁坏。 guard 指小心警惕,防止实际存在的或可能发生的危险。 They raised a large army to defend the country. 他们招募了一支庞大的军队来保卫这个国家的安全。 The entrance to the palace were well guarded. 进宫殿的入口处门卫把守得很严。 Clothing is worn to protect us from cold. 穿衣服是为了御寒。 ②动作结果不同型:动作动词和结果动词: 英语中有些动词虽然意义相同,但用法不同, 有的表示某个动作,而另一个则表示该动作所产生的结果。 advise(劝说)/persuade(劝服) I advised him but I couldn’t persuade him. 我劝过他,但未能劝服他。 这类常见的动词还有: look for(寻找)/find(找到) look(看)/see(看见) listen(听)/hear(听到) try(试 图,不说明是否成功)/manage(设法,侧重做到) ③动作状态不同型:begin(开映:动作非延续性)/be on(开映:状态延续性) The film began at 5 o’clock and has been on for half an hour. 电影 5 点开映,已开映半小时 了。 ④客观主观不同型:receive(客观上:收到)/accept(主观上:受到) I received her present but I didn’t accept it.我收到了她的礼物,但没有接受。 ⑤直接间接不同型:hear(直接:听)/hear of(间接:听说) I heard him singing. 我听到她在唱歌。 I have heard of him.我听说过他的有关情况。 V.重点所要背诵的短语动词 根据笔者对 2006-2009 四年全国及各省市高考单项选择题中考查所涉及到的短语动词的 统计(见文后的附录),我们建议考生 2010 复习迎接高考中重点所要背诵的短语动词如 下(仅供参考): 1.以 a 开头的动词为中心的词组 accuse…of…(=charge… with)控告/指控某人犯有……罪 add to 增添 add up 加起来 add up to 加起来达……,合计达…… adapt…to 使……适应 adjust…to 使……适应 agree with 同意某人意见(接 sb.或 idea, view 等);适应;与……一致 agree to (one’s plan/ proposal) 同意某人的计划或提议 answer for 对……负责 apply for 申请,请求 appeal for 恳求,呼吁 attach…to…将……系在…..,使隶属/附属于……,将……缚在……

approve of 赞成 apologize to sb for sth 因……向某人道歉 be absorbed in 埋头于……,专心于…… be accustomed to(=get used to=be used to)习惯于…… be addicted to 沉迷于/沉溺于……,迷恋…… be admitted to/into 获准进入……,被……录取 be annoyed with sb. at/about sth 2.以 break 为中心的词组 break away from 脱离,逃离,打破 break down vt.破坏,粉碎,瓦解;vi.出故障,抛锚;衰弱 break in 闯进,打断;使顺服 break into 闯入;强行进入;突然开始 break out 爆发,发生;准备使用;起锚 break off 打断,断绝,折断,突然终止 break through 突破,克服,挤过去 break up vt.开垦,破碎;解散,分解;vi.结束 3.以 build 为中心的词组 build on / upon 建立在…上,依赖,指望 build up 增加,增进,建成,振兴 4.以 burst 为中心的词组 burst forth 爆发,喷出,忽然出现 burst in 闯进,突然出现 burst into 闯进,突然……起来,突然发出 burst into tears/laughter 嚎啕大哭/放声大笑 burst out 迸发,爆发,突然发出,大声叫喊 burst out crying / laughing 嚎啕大哭/放声大笑 5.以 bring 为中心的词组 bring about 导致,引起,促使 bring back 带回,使回忆,使恢复 bring down 使下降,浓缩,收缩,击落 bring forth 开(花),结(果),发表,提出 bring forward 提出 bring into action 使行动起来,使生效 bring into effect/practice 完成,实现,实施, bring out 拿出,公布,发表,出版,生产 bring through 治愈,使度过困难/危险时期 bring to mind 使想起,回忆起 bring up 抚养,养育,培养,使停止 6.以 call 为中心的词组 call at 访问(某地),停泊在 call away 叫走,把(注意力)转移开 call for 需要,要求,接(某人),

call in 召集,收集,请入,引入 call off 取消,下令停止 call on 拜访(某人),号召 call out 大声喊,唤起 call up 打电话给…; 召集; 使想起 7.以 carry 为中心的词组 carry about 随身携带 carry away 冲走,带走,冲昏某人头脑 carry back 拿回,运回,使想起 carry……into effect/practice 执行,实行,实现,完成 carry off 带走,夺去……的生命,获得(奖品) carry on 坚持,继续,进行 carry out 贯彻,执行,实施,完成 carry through 坚持到底,贯彻,完成 8.以 catch 为中心的词组 be caught doing 被发现做某事 be caught in the rain 淋雨 catch /take fire 着火 be caught in the traffic 遭遇交通阻塞 catch one’sword 听懂某人的话 catch sight of 发现,瞥见 catch sb’s attention 引起某人注意 catch the point of 抓住…的要点 9.以 clear 为中心的词组 clear away 扫除,消除 clear off 清除,清理,(云雾)消散,(雨)停 clear out 清除,扫出 clear up(天)变晴;打扫,消除 10..以 come 为中心的词组 come aboutvi.发生,改变方向 come across 偶尔发现,想起;越过;偿付 come at 达到,求得,得到;扑向,袭击 come back 回来;恢复,复原 come down 倒下;降落;跌落;病倒 come into being 发生,产生,出现,形成 come into power 开始执政,当权,当选 come into effect/ force 开始生效,开始实行 come into existence 形成,产生,开始存在 come into fashion 开始流行 come into operation 开始运转,实施,生效 come into use 开始使用,获得应用 come round/around 拜访,绕道

come to 苏醒,复原,共计,达到,归结于,渐渐,说到/提及到 come to an agreement 达成协议 come to a conclusion 得出结论 come to a decision 作出决定 come to an end 终止,结束 come to a stop 结束,停止,停顿, come to an understanding 取得谅解 when it comes to…就…而论,谈到 come to know/realize/understand 开始了解到/意识到/明白 come to life 苏醒,栩栩如生 come to light 明朗化,出现,显露出来 come to oneself 苏醒 come true 实现,成为现实;证实 come up 走近;上楼;流行起来;发芽,上来;(问题)被提出;(风浪)猛烈起来 11.以 compare 为中心的词组 be compared to 被比作,与…相比 be compared with 与…相比 beyond /without compare 无可比拟的,无法比较的 compare notes with 和…交换意见/核对笔记 compare …to…把..比作,把…与…相比 compare …with…把…与…相比 12.以 devote 为中心的词组 be devoted to 贡献给,致力于 devote one’s attention to 专心于 devote oneself/one’s life to 献身于,致力于 devote to 献身于,专心于 13.以 divide 为中心的词组 be divided by…被…除 be divided on…对于…有分歧 divide sth. among / between…在…之间分配 divide A from B 把 A 同 B 分开 divide…into… 把…分成 divide up 分割,瓜分,划分,分配 14.以 die 为中心的词组 die away 渐熄(减弱,消失) 侧重于减弱直至“消失”(尤其指声音,光,风) die down 渐渐消失,平息(尤其指火势,大海,脾气) die of 死于(疾病、饥饿、寒冷、情感等内因) die from 死于(灾害、事故等外因) die off 死去 die out 灭绝,消失,熄灭 15.以 do 为中心的词组 do a good deed 做一件好事

do the deed 付诸行动,生效 do away with 去掉,废除;弄死;浪费 do /cause damage to 损害 do good to (=do sb. good)有益于 do harm to (=do sb. harm)有害于 do wrong to (=do sb. wrong)冤枉某人 do one’s best / utmost 尽某人最大努力 do sb. a favor /do a favor for sb. 帮助某人 do up 捆,扎,系,扣,收拾,刷新 do with 忍受,处理(对比:deal with) do without 不需要…也行,不用 16.以 drive 为中心的词组 drive away vi.开车走掉 vt.赶走,驱赶 drive off 驱散 drive out 逐出,乘车出去 drive through 乘车穿过(街道等) drive sb.mad 使某人发疯 17.以 fall 为中心的词组 fall ill /asleep /silent 生病/睡着/沉默 fall back 撤退,后退 fall behind 落后,落伍,落在后面 fall down 倒下,落下,掉下,病倒,失败 fall in love with…爱上(某人) fall into a habit of 养成…习惯 fall off 掉下,衰退,减少 fall to pieces 破碎,崩溃,瓦解 fall into ruins 成为废墟 18.以 fix 为中心的词组 fix a date / time for…为……安排日期/时间 fix up 修理,安装,安排,建造,提供 fix on / upon 确定,决定 fix one’s eyes on/upon 注视,凝视 fix one’s attention on/upon 专心于,把注意力集中在 19.以 get 为中心的词组 get about 徘徊,走动,旅行;流传 get accustomed to 习惯于,对……习以为常 get across 度过,通过,横过;说服,使被理解 get ahead of 胜过,超过 get along 前进,进步;同意;离去,相处 get along with 与……相处 get around 走动,传播,影响,说服 get away 离开,逃脱,出发,开始度假

get back 取回,回来;报复 get close to 接近,靠近 get down to 认真对待,静下心来 get/catch/seize/take hold of 获得,取得,抓住 get in touch with…与…取得联系 get into/out of debt 欠债/不欠债 get off 送走;脱下(衣服);下车;动身 get over 越过;恢复,痊愈;克服;完成 get rid of 除去,去掉;免除,摆脱 get through 拨通,到达,完成,通过;及格 get together 积聚,积累;商谈,取得一致意见 20.以 give 为中心的词组 give away 赠送;牺牲;泄露;颁发 give back 归还,反射 give forth 发出,放出;发表 give in 屈服,让步,投降 give off 发出(烟,气味) give out vt.分发,公布,发出,使筋疲力尽 vi.用完 give rise to 引起,导致;使~~发生 give up 放弃;停止 give way to 让步,退却;屈服于 given that…假定,给定,已知 21.以 go 为中心的词组 go about 走来走去,(谣言等)流传 go across 度过,越过 go after 追逐,追求,跟随 go against 反对,不利于 go ahead 前进,进展,继续 go all about 鼓足干劲,全力以赴 go along with… 陪伴,和…一道走 go back to 追溯至 go bad 变坏,腐败 go beyond 超过,胜过 go by 经过,过去 go down 下降,沉没,垮台,(风等)平静 go for 支持,赞成,适用于,去(取,拿) go in for 喜欢,参加,赞成,从事, 为…而努力 go into 进入,参加,调查,从事,深入研究 go off 走开,爆炸 go on 继续,接下去 go on to do 接着做(另一件事) go on doing 继续做(同一件事)

go on with…继续做,忍受 go out 出去,熄灭,离开,下台,退休 go over 温习,检查,越过 go through 审查,履行,通过,经历,忍受 go up 上升,上涨,攀登 go without 无需,没有…也行 go wrong 出故障,走错路 22.以 hold 为中心的词组 hold back 隐瞒,阻止,克制,扣留 hold to / by 坚持,固守 hold down 压制,压低,缩减 hold off 耽搁,不接近,离开 hold out 伸出,提出,支持,主张 hold up 举起,竖起,支持,使停滞 hold with 和…意见一致,赞成 23.以 keep 为中心的词组 keep away (from) 不接近,避开,远离 keep back 阻止,扣留,隐瞒 keep company with…和…结交 keep …from…阻止 keep in mind 记住 keep in touch with…与…保持联系/不断接触 keep off 不接近,远离 keep on doing 继续,不停地做 keep one’s balance 保持平衡 keep out 使…不入内 keep pace with…跟上,同…步调一致 keep up 继续,坚持,保持,维持 keep up with…赶上,跟上 ,与…并肩前进 keep watch 守望,值班,注意 24.以 lay 为中心的词组 lay aside 把..放在一边,抛弃,贮藏 lay down 放下,使躺下,放弃,牺牲 lay off (暂时)解雇,放弃,停止 lay out 花费,投资,不置,打昏 25.以 leave 为中心的词组 leave about 乱放,乱丢 leave alone 听任,任其自然 leave…as it is.听其自然 leave behind 留下,忘记携带 leave for (离开某地)去某地 leave out 省去,遗漏,不把…计算在内

leave off 停止,脱去,戒除 leave office 离职,下台 leave over 留下,剩下,延期 leave room for 为…让出地方 leave school 毕业 leave sth, to / with sb 把…交给/留给某人. leave sb, sth. 把…交给/留给某人 leave word / a message 留言,留信 26.以 look 为中心的词组 look about 四下环顾;查看 look after 照顾,看管 look around 东张西望 look back on / upon …回顾 look down on /upon 俯视;轻视 look forward to 盼望,期待 look into 窥视;调查;浏览 look on /upon 旁观;面向 look on / upon …as…把…看作 look out 向外看;注意;当心,提防 look over 从上面看过去;检查,忽略 look through 透过……看去;看穿;浏览,彻底调查 look to 面向,注意 look up 查阅,仰视,涨价 look up to 仰望,尊敬 27.以 make 为中心的词组 be made from 由……原料制成 be made (out) of 由……材料制成 be made up of 由……组成 make an appointment with sb.与…约定 make a difference 有差别,有关系,很重要 make a fool of 愚弄,欺骗 make a point 阐述观点 make a point of doing 强调;决心,坚持 make a will 立下遗嘱 make advantages/use of 使用,利用 make believe 假装 make certain / sure 确信,把……弄清楚 make contact with 接通,与……接触,与……联系 make for 去向,向……前进;有利于 make oneself at home 随便,别拘束 make oneself understood 让别人理解自己 make out 填写;开支票;理解;辨认

make preparations for 为…作准备 make the best/ most of 尽量利用;极为重视 make up 弥补,修理,赔偿,起草,编造,化装,配制,占…比例 make up to 接近,巴结;向……求爱 make way for 为……让路,让路于 make it 就这么定了,成功,达到某一特定目标, 赶到。 28.以 meet 为中心的词组 meet the need/demand/requirement of 满足…需要 meet with 偶然碰见,遭受, meet…by chance/accident 偶然碰见 make ends meet 使收支相抵 29.以 owe 为中心的词组 owe … to…把…归功于,把…归因于, owe much to 多亏了,在很大程度上归功于 owe it to…that…归功于,幸亏 owe sb. sth. (=owe sth. to sb.)欠某人… 30.以 pass 为中心的词组 pass away 去世,(时间)过去 pass by 经过,(时间)过去 pass on/upon 传递,通过 pass out of one’s mind 被人忘掉 pass over 忽视,置之不理 pass through 经历,经过,贯穿 31.以 pick 为中心的词组 pick one’s words 精选用词 pick out 挑出,辨别出 pick up 接(某人),接收,获得,搭载,收拾,恢复,爬起,捡起,学会,认识 pick up with…结识,与…交朋友 32.以 put 为中心的词组 put aside 把……放在一边;搁置;排除 put away 把……放好,把……收拾;储藏; put back 把……放回原处;拨回 put down 放下;镇压;记下;削减;降落 put an end to 结束,终止,废除 put forward 提出;拨快;建议,推荐;提倡, put in 驶入,进入 put…(down) in writing 把…写下来 put …… into 把……放入;插入;翻译成 put…into use 应用 put…into practice 把…付诸于实践 put…into action 把…付诸于实践,实施,使生效 put…into effect 把..付诸于实践,实施,使生效

put…into operation 将…投入生产,实施,开动 put…into production 将…投产,开始生产 put off 推迟,延期;消除;推脱,脱下 put on 上演,穿上,戴上,增加,拨快(钟表),推荐 put one’s heart into 全神贯注,专心致志 put out 熄灭,伸出,拿出,制造,刺杀 put through 完成,(电话用语)拨通,使穿过 put up 举起,挂起;提名,推荐;陈列 put up with 忍受,容忍 33.以 refer 为中心的词组 refer to 指,提及,参考,查阅 be referred to 和…有关,归功于,被提交…处理 refer oneself to…依赖,求助于 refer to…as…把…称做,认为…是… 34.以 see 为中心的词组 see after 照料,照顾 see into 识透,调查 see out 送某人到门口/屋外, see off 送行 see through 看透,识破,支持(某人)到底 see to 照顾,处理,注意 see to it that…照料,努力使,注意把 seeing that…因为,鉴于,既然 35.以 send 为中心的词组 send away 解雇,赶走,把…送往远处 send down 把…向下发送,开除,降低(价格,温度) send for 派人去叫/请/拿 send off 发出,寄出,解雇,送别 send out 发出,散发,长出(树叶等) send up 发射,使上升,向上传递 send word 通知,转告,捎信 36 以 set 为中心的词组 be set in 以……为背景 set about(doing)着手,开始 set an example to sb.给某人树立个榜样 set aside 取消,放在一边,放弃,忽视,拒绝 set back 把(钟表)往回拨 set down 放下,卸下,登记,记载 set fire to (= set…on fire) 放火烧毁 set free 释放(某人) set off vi.出发 vt.使爆炸,拨出(钱等) set out vi.出发 vt.开始,着手(to do),布置

set up 建立,设立,开办,引起(疾病等) 37.以 take 为中心的词组 take a chance / an opportunity 碰运气,抓机会 take a seat 就坐 take a shower 淋浴,洗澡 take advantage of 利用,乘…之便 take after 仿效,与…相似,长得像 take aim 瞄准,设立目标 take away 拿走,减去;夺去 take back 收回,取消 take ……by surprise 出奇制胜,突袭 take sb.by surprise 使惊讶 take care to do 务必做,留心做 take ……for/as…把……当作 take charge of 负责,主管 take down 取下,记下,占领,拆毁,病倒 take effect 生效,起作用 take … for example 以…为例 take … for granted 认为…理所当然 take in 吸收,接纳,欺骗,轻信,领会 take…into account / consideration 考虑,重视 take it / things easy 别紧张,从容 take measures / steps 采取措施 take off vt.脱去,除去;vi.起飞,起程,成功,成名 take office 就职,上任 take on 呈现,雇佣,承担,担任 take one’s place 就坐,入坐,代替 take one’s time(to do) 慢慢做 take out 拿出,取出,去除,取得(专利权) take over 接管,接任,接收 take possession of 占有,拥有 take the place of 代替 take the shape of 呈/取……的形状 take the size of 量…的尺寸 take pride in 以……为荣,对……骄傲 take…seriously/calmly 严肃认真/冷静从容地对待 take sb. by the arm 拉某人的胳膊 take sb.in one’s arms 拥抱某人 take turns(to do) 轮流做 take up for 袒护 take up with 致力于,忍受,对…发生兴趣 38.以 think 为中心的词组

think about 考虑 think aloud 自言自语 think highly / well/much/a lot of 对…评价很高 think little/ill/nothing of 轻视,看不起 think of 想,想着,想做 think of …as…把…看作 think out 仔细考虑,想通 think over 仔细考虑 think through 想通 think to oneself 沉思,暗自想 think up 想出,想通,想起 39.以 turn 为中心的词组 turn away 把……打发走,解雇,转脸不采,使转变方向 take one’s turn to do 轮到做 turn a blind eye to 对……视而不见 turn a deaf to 对……充耳不闻 turn against 背叛,采取敌对态度 turn back 折回,往回走 turn down 折叠,翻下,驳回,拒绝考虑 turn into 走进;变成,变为 turn to ……for help 求助于 turn off 关上,解雇,避开(问题) turn on 打开;反对;依靠,依赖,取决于 turn one’s attention to 把注意力转向 turn out 培养;证明是;制成;实际情况是 turn out to be 原来是,证明是,结果是 turn over a new leaf 翻开新的一页, 改过自新 turn (a)round 旋转,转过身来;改变意见; turn to 变成;着手于 turn upside down 颠倒过来,翻过来 40.以 watch 为中心的词组 keep (a) watch 守望,值班,留心 watch one’s time /opportunity 等待时机 watch out (for)当心,监视,注意,提防 watch over 查看,监视,看守 watch one’s weight 留心体重 watch one’s step 当心,留心 考点解析 考点一、动词意义的辨析 ①Recently, these companies have _______ some workers because of the drop in economy. A. hired B. dismissed C. refused D. employed

【解析】答案为 B。四个选项都是及物动词,且都可以与 worker 构成动宾关系,但从题 干中的 the drop in economy 可知,只有 B 项符合题意。 ②When his brother was to cross the street, he was knocked down by a truck and badly _______。 A. injured B damaged C. harmed D. destroyed 【解析】答案为 A。这四个动词都有“伤害,损害”之意,但具体用法不同。injure 指在 意外事故中“受伤”;damage 主要指对于物体的不彻底的破坏,这种破坏或因自然灾害所 致,或因人为造成,常含可以修复之意;harm 用于肉体或精神上的伤害,有时可指引起 不安或不便;destroy 表示毁坏十分彻底,常含无法修复再用之意。 考点二、动词的固定搭配 ①I it as a basic principle of the company that suppliers of raw materials should be given a fair price for their products. A. make B. look C. take D. think 【解析】答案为 C。take...as...意为“把……当作/认为……是”;另外,“look on...as...”和“think of...as...”也有此意。若用 A 项,需要把 it 后面的 as 去掉。 ②Her shoes her dress; they look very well together.? A. suit B. fit C. compare D. match 【解析】答案为 D。suit 指“符合某人的口味,或颜色、款式等的相配或适合”;fit 指“强 调尺寸、大小或形状上的吻合”;compare 意为“比较、对照”;match 指“两个物体大小、 色调、形状、性质等方面很相配,显得很协调”。 ③With modern equipment, many mysteries have _______ to light in recent years. A. bought B. come C. thrown D. appeared 【解析】 答案为 B。 题意为“由于有现代化的设备, 近年来许多谜团被揭开”。 “揭露, 将…… 曝光”是 come to light,故答案为 B 项。 ④The card reads: “Dear Mom and Dad, they are _______ everyone write home. Love, Joey.” A. advising B. suggesting C. letting D. making 【解析】答案为 D。分析句子结构可知,空缺处后面的 write home 是无 to 的不定式,作 everyone 的宾语补足语,由此可排除 A 项;suggest 后面不能跟不定式作宾补,更不用说 无 to 的不定式,由此排除 B 项;let 作为使役动词时,无进行时态,也排除;只有 make 后面是跟无 to 的不定式作宾补的,所以答案为 D。 考点三、连系动词的辨析 ①The effect of the medicine on this kind of disease remains______ _. A. seen B. to be seen C. seeing D. to see 【解析】答案为 B。题意为“这种药对这种疾病的效果尚待观察”。由题意可知,remain 在此是用作系动词,且 see 这一动作还没有发生,答案锁定在 B 和 D 中间;“the effect” 和“see”之间存在逻辑上的被动关系。 ②On hearing the news of the accident in the coal mine, she ______pale. A. got B. changed C. went D. appeared 【解析】答案为 C。“got” 作系动词时,表示人为所致成一个相对长的过程;“changed” 是实义动词,不能接形容词作表语;“went”作系动词时表示情况变坏、糟糕;“appeared” 表示表面是这样而事实上并非如此。

③It was already past midnight and only three young men _______in the tea house. A. left B. remained C. delayed D. deserted 【解析】答案 B。为句意:早已过了半夜,仅有 3 位年轻人还留在茶房。“remain”作系动 词,后可跟名词、介词短语、现在分词、过去分词,不定式的被动式作表语。 考点四、不同动词构成的动词短语的辨析 The present situation is very complex, so I think it will take me some time to its reality. A. make up B. figure out? C. look through D. put off 【解析】答案为 B。make up 意为“组成、化妆、编造”;figure out 意为“理解、弄清楚”; look through 意为“浏览”。句意:目前的形势非常复杂,因此我认为要花费我一段时间来 弄清楚它的真实性。 考点五、由同一动词与介词或副词构成的短语辨析 It’s going to rain. Xiao Feng, will you please help me______ the clothes on the line? A. get off B. get back C. get in D. get on 【解析】答案为 C。get off 意为“下车”;get back 意为“回来”;get in 意为“收集,收获”; get on 意为“前进,进展”。表示“收衣服”要用“get in clothes”。 考点六、有同一介词或副词与动词构成的短语辨析 ①In modern times, people have to learn to all kinds of pressure although they are leading a comfortable life. A. keep with B. stay with? C. meet with D. live with 【解析】答案为 D。live with 和 put up with 类似在此意为“忍受”。句意:在现代社会,人 们尽管过着舒适的生活,但他们还得学会忍受各种各样的压力。 ②______a moment and I will go to your rescue.? A. Go on B. Hold on C. Move on D. Carry on 【解析】答案为 B。go on 意为“继续”;hold on 意为“抓住不放、坚持”;move on 意为“继 续前进”; carry on 意为“继续进行”。 根据后句的 I will go to your rescue 可知, 这里应是“坚 持住、别松手”。句意:坚持一会儿,我会救你的。 考点七、动词+副词+介词短语的辨析 —Have you________ some new ideas?? —Yeah. I’ll tell you later. A. come about B. come into? C. come up with D. come out with 【解析】答案为 C。come about 意为“发生”;come into 意为“进入、得到”;come up with 意为“想出、提出”;come out with 意为“发表,公布、说出”。句意:“你想出新的主意了 吗?”“是的,我过会儿告诉你。” 考点八、动词+名词+介词短语的辨析 The media can often help solve problems and draw attention _______ situations _______ help is needed. A. in; that B. to; which C. in; where D. to; where 【解析】答案为 D。draw/pay attention to 意思是“注意;关心”。名词“attention”前可以有 “more,little, careful,close, no,some”等形容词修饰,“to”后接名词、代词或动名词。

第二空中用“where”引导定语从句。句意:媒体常常能帮助解决问题,关注需要帮助的对 象。

五年高考 A组 2012 年全国高考题组 1.【2012 浙江卷,15】 Armed with the information you have gathered, you can_______ preparing your business plan. A. set out B. set about C. set off D. set up 【考点】动词词组词义辨析 【答案】B 【解析】根据句意:有这么些个你所收集的信息,你可以着手(set about doing sth)准 备你的商业计划了。Set out to do sth 着手;set off 出发;set up 建立,均不符合语境,故 排除。 2. 【2012 浙江卷,12】According to scientists, our mental abilities begin to______ from the age of 27 after reaching the highest level at 22. A. differ B. shrink C. fail D. decline 【考点】动词词义辨析 【答案】D 【解析】根据句意:根据科学家研究,我们的精神气在 22 岁达到高峰值之后便从 27 岁 开始下滑(decline)。Differ 不同;shrink 缩水;fail 失败、衰竭,均不符合语境,故排除。 3.【2012 湖北卷,21】Two lawyers have donated $50,000 to ________ our school’s campaign “Help the Needy”, which was started by our former headmaster three years ago A. sponsor B. launch C. organize 【答案】A 【考点】考查动词辨析。难度中等。 【解析】该句意为:两位 律师捐赠了 5,0000 美元赞助我校“帮助贫困生”活动…… A 项意为“赞助”,符合句意;B 项意为“发射,开办”,C 项意为“组织”,D 项意为“计划”, 都与句意不同。故 A 项正确。 4.【2012 江苏卷,26】 — OK, I've had enough of it. I give up. —You can't your responsibilities. A. run off with 【答案】D 【解析】run away from 意为“逃离,躲避”,run off with 意为“偷走;与……私奔”;run up against 意为“偶遇”;run out of 意为“用完”。句意为:——好了,我已受够了,我放弃。 ——你不能逃避你的责任。根据句意,应选 D 项。 5. 【2012 安徽卷,28】The athlete's years of hard training gold medal. A. went on B. got through C. paid off D. ended up when she finally won the Olympic B. run up against C. run out of D. run away from 【考点】动词短语辨析 D. plan

【答案】C 【考点】考点本题考查动词词组。 【解析】pay off 有很多含义:1 付清某人的工资并解雇他 偿清欠款等等 2. 对某人或某 事进行报复 3.使人得益,有报偿 4.贿赂 6. 【2012 江西卷,30】 We were all agreed that the cottage would the family. A.make B.turn C.take D.have 30 答案:A 考点:考察动词的用法 解析: 我们一致同意, 这个小舍将会给我们的家庭营造一个完美的假日家园。 make 表“可 以用作,可发展为”,与 for 连用。Turn 表示“变为”,一般后跟 into。 7. 【2012 全国 II,12】We ______ to paint the whole house but finished only the front part that day. A. set about B. set up C. set out D. set down 【答案】C 【解析】此处 set about 开始做. . .,后接名词、动名词;set up 建立;set out 开始做. . ., 后接不定式;set down 写下,记下。根据 to paint 可知选 set out。句意:那天我们开始 粉刷整个房子但只完成了前面的部分。 【考点】考查动词短语的含义。 8.【2012 湖北卷,22】 Finally, my thanks go to my tutor, who has offered a lot of suggestions and comments on my paper and ________ every page of my draft. A. approved B. quoted C. polished D. folded 【答案】C 【考点】考查动词辨析。难度中等。 【解析】句意为:最后,我要感谢我的辅导老师,他给我的论文提出了很多批评和建议, 并对每张稿件作了推敲。C 项意为“推敲”,符合句意,故 C 项正确。A 项意为“通过”,B 项意 为“引用”,D 项意为“折叠”,都与句意不符。 9.【2012 湖北卷,23】 Walking alone in the dark, the boy whistled to ________ his courage. A. hold up 【答案】B 【考点】考查动词短语辨析。难度中等。 【解析】句意为:独自在黑暗中行走,男孩吹口哨保持勇气。B 项意为“维持,不使低落”, 符合句意。A 项意为“举起”,C 项意为“建立”,D 项意为“拿起”,都与句意不符。 B组 2008-2011 年全国高考题组 1. 【2011 安徽卷, 34】 If you _____faults but you still want the bicycle, ask the shop assistant to reduce the price. A. come across B. care about C. look for D. focus upon 【答案】A 【考点】考查短语动词的辨析。 【解析】句意为“如果你发现这辆自行车有毛病但还是想要,你就要求这家商店的营业员 减价。”come across 偶然遇到;care about 关心,在乎;look for 寻找;focus upon 专注于。 2. 【2011 浙江卷,6】 The school isn’t the one I really wanted to go to ,but I suppose I’ll just have to __________it, A. make the best of B. get away from C. keep an eye on D. catch up with B. keep up C. set up D. take up a perfect holiday home for

【答案】A 【考点】考查短语动词的辨析。 【解析】句意为“这所学校并不是我原来真正想去的,但我现在想尽量好好利用它 了。”make the best of 充分利用,尽量好好去做;get away from 逃离;keep an eye on 照 看,,留心; 注意;catch up with 追上,赶上。对照现在和过去对学校态度的变化,选 A。 3.【2011 浙江卷,12】He decided that he would drive all the way home instead of ______at a hotel for the night. A. putting down B. putting off C. putting on D. putting up 【答案】D 【考点】考查短语动词的辨析。 【解析】句意为“他决定一路驾车回家,不在旅馆留宿。”put down 放下,平定, 镇压,记 下;put off 推迟;put on 穿上,戴上,上演,假装,增加;put up 举起,建立,张贴, 投宿。根据句意选 D。 4.【2011 四川卷,7】To get a better grade, you should __________the notes again before the test. A. go over 【答案】A 【考点】考查短语动词的辨析。 【解析】句意为“为了获得好成绩,你应该在考试前好好复习这些笔记。”go over 审查, 复习,重温从头到尾检查一遍;get over 越过,完成,克服(困难),从(疾病、失望、震惊 等)中恢复过来;turn over 翻身,翻转,把……移交;take over 接管; 接替。 5.【2011 陕西卷,25】Some insects________the colour of their surroundings to protect themselves. A. take in 【答案】C 【考点】考查短语动词的辨析。 【解析】take in 吸收,欺骗;take off 拿走, 取下,脱去(衣服等),起飞;take on 承担, 呈现,雇用;take out 把…带出去,清除, 除掉。句意为“一些昆虫为了保护自己,让自己 的体色与其周围环境的颜色相似。” 6.【2011 湖北卷,29】The government has taken measures to _________ the high prices of daily goods to keep the market stable. A. take down B. bring down C. hand down D. tear down 【答案】B 【考点】考查短语动词的辨析。 【解析】句意为“政府已经采取措施来降低日常生活用品的价格以保持市场的稳定。”take down 拆卸,记录,记下;bring down 使(某物或某人)掉下〔倒下〕, 击败,降(价);hand down 把…传递下来,遗留; 流传;tear down 拆毁; 拆卸。根据后面的“保持市场的稳定” 选 B。 7.【2010 浙江卷】The majority of people in the town strongly playground for children. A.consider 【答案】B B.support C.confirm D.submit the plan to build a B. take off C. take on D. take out B. get over C. turn over D. take over

【考点】本题考查动词辨析。 【解析】分析四个选项的意思:consider 考虑, 思考, 认为等;support 支持, 拥护, 维持; confirm 证实, 确认;submit 使屈服, 使经受。根据语境:镇上的大多数人都积极地拥护 为孩子们建造运动场的计划。 8.【2010 浙江卷】After that, he knew he could the best of his ability. A.get away with B.get on with C.get through D.get across 【答案】C 【考点】本题考查与 get 相关的短语辨析。 【解析】分析四个选项的意思:get away with 侥幸逃脱;get on with 与……有好相处;get through 接通, 顺利通过, 完成;get across 被理解, 越过。根据语境: 经过那件事之后, 他 明白了他能尽一切可能去顺利解决任何突发情况。 9.【2009 浙江卷】The good thing about children is that they _______ very easily to new environments. A. adapt B. appeal C. attach D. apply 【答案】A 【考点】本题考查动词词义。 【解析】根据句意, “关于孩子们美好的事情就是孩子们能很容易适应新的环境”。adapt to“适应”; appeal to“有吸引力, 有感染力;呼吁;求助于;上诉”等; attach to“粘上, 附上”; apply to“应用于, 适应于”。 10. 【2009 安徽卷】 Just as Professor Scotti often attitude. A. gets 【答案】C 【考点】动词辨析 【解析】正像 Professor Scotti 提出的, 成功是来自 99%的汗水。 11.【2008 浙江卷】American Indians about five percent of the U.S. population.? A. fill up B. bring up 【答案】C 【考点】考查动词短语辨析。 【解析】 句意为: 美洲印第安人占美国人口的 5%。 fill up 填充; bring up 培养, 抚养; make up 占据;set up 建立。 12.【2008 江苏卷】—Is Peter there?? — , please. I’ll see if I can find him for you.? A. Hold up 【答案】B 【考点】考查动词短语辨析。 【解析】hold on 意为 “不要挂断, 请等一会儿”, 符合句意, 其余选项均不是打电话时的 用语。 三年模拟 A组 2012 年全国高考题组 1.(浙江省 2012 届高三六校联考 12) B. Hold on C. Hold out D. Hold off C. make up D. set up B. makes C. puts D. means it, success is ninety-nine percent mental any emergency by doing what be could to

---- Did you see Jay Chou at his album signing? ---- Not really. We waited in line for an hour, only to be ______ at the door. A. turned away B. turned out C. turned off D. turned up 2.(浙江省 2012 届高三六校联考,14)Parents who _____ to sing to their children may help with children’s development of language skills. A. add B. tend C. amount D. focus 3.(浙江省 2012 届重点中学协作体高三第二学期 3 月调研,12) ---Did you enjoy the movie? ---Sure, it is _____ a beautiful country town with a variety of cultures. A. put on B. set in C. taken on D. got in 4. (浙江省苍南县灵溪中学 2012 届高三高考模拟, 5) Fully ________ in doing the housework, she doesn’t have time to enjoy various activities in the club any longer. A. attached B. occupied C. contributed D. devoted 5. (浙江省苍南县灵溪中学 2012 届高三高考模拟, 13) In the questionnaire, the subjects are questioned whether they ________ no smoking in the public area. A. agree B. comment C. advocate D. conduct 6. (浙江省苍南县灵溪中 学 2012 届高三高考模拟 ,14 ) --- Mom, I can’t see any point in working hard at all the subjects at school. --- Come on, dear. Years of hard work will surely ________in the future of your career. A. make out B. pay off C. bring back D. get away 7.(浙江省苍南县灵溪中学 2012 届高三高考模拟,18)These chemicals in the food supply ________ in people’s bodies over time. A. bring up B. take up C. build up D. pull up 8.(浙江省苍南县树人中学 2012 届高三第一次月考 ,22)The car was out of order halfway and the heavy snow also______ the helplessness of the woman driver. A. added to B. resulted from C. turned out D. made up 9.(浙江省苍南县树人中学 2012 届高三第一次月考,24) —Isn’t David an efficient manager? —Er, David is really great but sometimes he has problems ______ his ideas. A. getting around B. getting along C. getting across D. getting off 10.(浙江省苍南县树人中学 2012 届高三第一次月考 ,26)She______ in a chair with a book and a cup of tea, watching TV. A. seated B. settled down C. settled on D. settled 11.(浙江省苍南县树人中学 2012 届高三第一次月考,22)A truly creative pe rson can tell the same story time after time and still ______ with fresh ideas. A. come along B. come on C. come up D. come out 12.(浙江省苍南县树人中学 2012 届高三第一次月,34)Oprah(奥普拉), the queen of American daytime talk TV, is_____ one of the most powerful women in the world.

A. raised B. recognized C. requested D. recommended B组 2010-2011 年全国高考题组 1.(2010 学年浙江省第二次五校联考,5)The news of the mayor’s coming to our school for a visit was ______ on the radio yesterday. A. turned out B. found out C. given out D. carried out 2.(2010 学年浙江省第二次五校联考,6)When asked to move away, the other three _____ but Mary was unwilling to do so. A. adopted B. confirmed C. advocated D. submitted 3.(2010 学年浙江省第二次五校联考,8)Was the large amount of wood ______ our bridge cut from that large forest a long time ago? A. used to build B. used to building C. was used to building D. was used to build 4.(宁波效实中学 2011 年高三模拟,5)I’ve read a variety of science fictions, but few of them the one that you lent me yesterday. A.suit B.compare C.match D.beat 5.(宁波效实中学 2011 年高三模拟,6)Could you please tell me where you bought the dress you yesterday? A.tried on B.put on C.had on D.pulled on 6.(2010-2011 学年尔雅高考新课标第三次模拟预测卷,9)To the great disappointment of the poor peasant workers, a great part of their salaries were _____ by the boss for no right reason. A. kept away B. kept off C. kept back D. kept up 7.(浙江省长兴三中 2010 届高三第一次月考,21)The moment I saw her, I _________ her, although she changed a lot through years. A. know B. realized C. recognized D. noticed 8.(浙江省长兴三中 2010 届高三第一次月考,22)You’d better ________ your coins, and see how long you can last. A. add up to B. add to C. add up D. add 9.(浙江省长兴三中 2010 届高三第一次月考,24)He spends all his spare time collecting stamps. He seems to _____ this. A. be crazy about C. be native to B. be concerned about D. play a part in

10. (杭十四中 2009 学年第一学期 9 月月考,17) The further falling of the stock market as reported today has ______a fresh wave of selling. A. give off B. set off C. put off D. got off


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