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英语高考阅读表达精品课件.ppt


Reading expression

阅 读 表 达 答 题 技 巧

本节目标: 掌握 主旨概括; 补全句子; 翻译句子 答题技巧
舜耕中学 张银三

阅读表达中的非常6+X 1.主旨概括 3.翻译句子 5.封闭型问题 7.其它类型 2.补全句子 4.英文释义 6.开放型问题

题类型

常见问题 What’s the best title of the passage? What is the purpose of

主旨概括

the writer writing this passage? What’s the main idea of the article? What does the passage mainly talk about?

完成句子 英文释义 句子翻译

Please fill in the blank in the passage with proper words or phrases. Please find out the sentence which can be replaced by the

following one.
Translate the underlined sentence in the … paragraph into Chinese.

封闭性问题
开放性问题 其他类型

Regular Wh-Questions based on the passage.
What would you do if you were…? What other suggestions would you give? How would you settle the problem if you

were…?


前车之鉴
1.How do you find the following paper?

难度题目: 1.主旨概括题 2.补全句子 3.句子翻译
How to solve these problems?

阅读表达难度题目之一 ----主旨概括
What’s the best title of the passage? What’s the main idea of the article? What does the passage mainly talk about?

答题要求:归纳或概括全面;标题简洁、 新颖;书写格式正确

How to solve this kind of problem?

I.主旨大意题 答题技巧 1. 标题要围绕关键词; 简化主题句。 2. 简洁明了。 3. 全面涵盖文章内容,不能以片盖全,不能笼 统,抽象。 4.文章标题的形式:完整的句子,单词或短语。 5. 标题的首字母大写即可.

注意字数限制!!!

I. 主旨大意题

1. Winter sports are very popular in European and North American countries. These places usually receive a lot of snow during the winter months. Winter sports are not popular in China. The southern and coastal areas have no skiing and skating. And the snow-blanketed northeastern and southwestern areas have very poor equipment…

Q: What is the best title of this
passage?(within10 words) _______________________________. Winter sports in the world

2. A serious problem for today’s society is who should be responsible for our elderly and how to improve their lives. It is not only a financial problem but also a question of the system we want for our society. I would like to suggest several possible solutions to this problem. Q: What is the passage maily about?(within 8 words) Solutions to the problem with the elderly

Tip(小窍门)
Skim the first part as A dog chases a rabbit !

Passage 1 What is the best title of the passage?

Middle age is miserable for many, according to a study using data from 80 countries showing that depression is most common among men and women in their 40s. The British and U.S. researchers found that happiness for people in 72 countries ranging from Albania to Zimbabwe follows a U-shaped curve (曲线) : Life begins cheerful before 1.寻找主题句或主题段 turning tough during middle age and then returning to the joy of youth in 2. the golden years. 归纳 , 提炼 , 不能照搬 It happens to men and women, to single and married, 3. 注意字数限制 to rich and poor, and to those with and without children. Only in their 50s do people emerge from this low period.

(within 10 words)

Key: Middle age is depressing/ miserable

Passage 2 What’s the main idea of the passage? (within 10 words) Confidence: you’ve either got it or you haven’t, right? Wrong. Most people learn confidence as they go through life Even if you are shaking like a leaf on the inside, you’ll make a lasting impression if you can come across as confident. Here some confidence-building tips: tips Hereare are some confidence-building ●Fake it! If you can pretend you have confidence, your fake confidence will soon turn into real confidence. 1.寻找主题句(注意其位 ●Think it. For an instant encouragement to yourself-estee 置) give you positive emotions. recall three things that 2.归纳 , 提炼 , 不能照搬 ●Focus it. If you’re feeling anxious about yourself, stop 注意字数限制 thinking about you3. and focus on something else. Key: How to build your confidence/ How to be confident/ Tips on confidence-building (注:大小写)

一. 把握主旨不准, 难点: 二. 答案要点不全。

技巧总结:
1.寻找主题句,关键词 2.按语法规则归纳, 提炼主题或中心 思想, 不能照搬原文 3.注意字数限制 4.问句含有why,purpose等问题的回答?

What’s the main idea of the passage? 小试牛刀: (within 15 words)

Scientists have built a backpack that turns the spring in in your step into electricity for your cell phone. And, they sa it’s more comfort-able than the average backpack. Inventors designed the backpack to make use of the natural up-and-down motion of a person’s stride to generate electricity, either for immediate use or for storage. As humans walk, they vault their extended leg, causing the hip to rise five to seven centimeters on each step. ----------------------------------

Key: There is a new kind of backpack turning the spring in your step into electricity.

spring 弹力

【主旨概括】Question
What is the best title of the passage?

(Please answer within 10 words)

Escaping a fire is a serious matter. Knowing what to do before a fire breaks out can save a life. For example, people should know the safety measures to take before opening a hall door during a fire. Also, make sure everyone knows how to unlock doors that may be in the escape path. At times, a key is needed to unlock a door from the inside. So, keep the key in the lock in the lock. Or, you can put the key on a key ring and put it where it can be found easily.
Answer:Safety Measures / How to Escape from a Fire

阅读表达难度题目之二

----补全句子
Fill in the blank with proper words to complete the sentence. 答题要求:语法正确;句意通顺

How to solve this kind of problem?

Ⅱ.补全句子(要求:语法正确;句意通顺)
Passage 1 Monday has traditionally been thought of as __________ of the week, but according to psychologists, midweek gives more cause for concern in reality. Wednesday represented the lowest point in the week. 1. Fill in the blank with proper words to complete the sentence in the third paragraph. (within 15 words) ______________________________________________ Key: the lowest point /

the most depressing day
1.把握上下文语境,确定需要填写的是短语还 是句子 2.弄清上下文可能的逻辑关系: 递进、并列、对比、转折、因果等

Passage 2 A new study shows that having a television on in 1. 固定句型搭配 the house, even if the kids aren’t actively watching it can be enough to disturb their sleep patterns 2. 认真阅读上下文, significantly. 识别词组句型 All the exposure to TV was doing the kids’ sleep patterns no favors. In general, the greater number of hours of passive or active viewing, ___________ young children had in falling sleep, staying asleep, waking up in the morning and avoiding fatigue during the day. Please fill more in the difficulty blank with/trouble proper words or phrases Key: the ( Please answer within 5 words.)

难点: 上下文连贯
语法正确

技巧总结:
1.明确上下文逻辑关系,如递进、并列、对比、 转折、因果等。 2.把握上下文语境,确定需要填写的是短语还是 完整的句子。 3.明确所填内容的功能:承上,启下还是“承上 启下” 4.答案精简到位,还原于文中,看是否通顺。

Please fill in the blank with proper words or phrases 小试牛刀: (within 10 words.) Organisms have a great variety of ways of adapting. They may adapt in their structure, function, and genetics; in their development and production of the young; and in other aspects. Usually adaptations are an advantage, but sometimes an organism is so well adapted to a particular environment that, if conditions change, ____________ to readapt to the new conditions.

Key: it is difficult/ hard/ impossible for the organism

II. 补全句子练习

1. To get a thorough understanding of yourself is to know when to do yourself a favor. In time of sadness, do yourself a favor by sharing it with your friends so as to change a gloomy mood into a in time of tiredness cheerful one; ____________________, do yourself a favor by getting a good sleep or taking a tonic.(within 5 words)

2. By 2010, England is forecast to have two million overweight children. Apart from diet, the only thing that will save these children from their fatter disaster is to ________________. But schools and take exercise the Olympics don’t promote a love of exercise. They develop a love of winning…(within 8 words)

3. As the college exam draws near, many Senior 3 students begin to feel worried. ______________________________________ But please don’t worry so much./ take it easy _. Your score won’t have the final say in your future career, according to a recent survey.(within 8words)

1
Shopaholism seems to be a harmless addiction, but it can ______. Some of them can be psychological. If this is the case, people addicted to shopping should go to a support group to help them break this habit. However, the process, like for most addictions, is long, and they suffer a lot. It can also cause financial problems. They just think about ... (NMET山东)
(Please answer within 8 words)

cause / bring about / result in many problems

2 For the now study, the researchers ask 193 healthy adults to complete some standard measures of personalities and feeling styles. Those who tended to be happy, energetic and easygoing were judged as having a positive feeling style, while those __________had a negative style. (Please answer within 10 words.)
who were often unhappy, tense and depressed

3

Most American teenagers used to spend their summer vacations holding multiple jobs. However, with the increase in gas prices, teenagers chose to stay at home instead of going out of the town. "I wish the prices . The expense of driving to places is affecting our daily lives," said Alicia Still, a senior at Enochs High School in Modesto, California.
would go down / decrease / be as low as before / be as low as it was / be as low as it used to be

【句子填空】Question
Fill in the blank with proper words or phrases. (Please answer within 10 words.)

If your major is chemistry, or physics, or another science, you’ll also have to spend several hours a week in the lab, or laboratory, doing experiments. This means that science majors spend more time in the classroom than non science majors do. __________, people who major in subjects like literature or history usually have to read and write more than science majors do.
Answer:On the other hand

【句子填空】Question
Fill in the blank with proper words or phrases. (Please answer within 10 words.)

Happiness is for everyone. You don’t need to care about those people who have beautiful houses with large gardens and swimming pools or those who have nice cars and a lot of money and so on. Why? Because those who have cars may want to walk on the country roads in their free time. In fact, _____________ if you put your heart into it. When you are in trouble at school, your friends will help you; when you work hard at your lessons, your parents are always taking car of you and your health; when you get success, your friends will say congratulations to you;……
Answer:happiness is always around you

阅读表达难度题目之三
----句子翻译
Please translate the underlined sentence into Chinese. 答题要求:忠于原文;表达流畅

How to solve this kind of problem?

Ⅲ。翻译句子: 答题要求:信、达、雅 (忠于原文;表达流畅)。 1.Pubs play an important part in the social定从翻译 structure of Britain. They are places where all ages and social classes mix to talk, do business, or just spend a coupl of quiet hours before heading home in the evening. Please translate the underlined sentence into 状语位置 Chinese.
分析句子结构,找出句子主干 酒吧是各个年龄段、不同阶层的人聚在一起,谈 注意英汉差异,符合汉语习惯 天说地,洽谈贸易的地方,或者只是在晚上回家 (语序)

前安静地呆上几个小时的地方。

答题要求:信、达、雅 (忠于原文;表达流畅) 2. In short, although after-school programs have promising future, how they are designed and run matters. 如何翻译 Please translate the underlined sentence into Chinese.

简言之,虽然“课外学习项目”有美好的前景, 但是如何设计和操作很重要。
注:1. 恰当处理重点词汇 (注:熟词生义,一词多义现象) 2. 英文 “被动”→中文 “主动”

Daydreams are usually very simple and direct, 分析句子结构, quite unlike sleep dreams, which may be hard to 识别复杂句型 understand. It’s easier to gain a deep understanding of your life by paying close attention to your daydreams than by trying to examine your sleep dreams carefully. 3. Please translate the underlined sentence into Chinese.

通过高度关注你的白日梦,要比试图仔细审查 你的睡梦,让你更容易获得对生活的深刻理解。

难点: 汉语表达的准确性。 技巧总结:
1.弄清句子结构。注意主干与修饰成分 间逻辑关系;明确代词指代的具体词汇; 注意省略现象。 2.注意英汉差异(语序,被动语态),符合 汉语习惯,切忌字字对译。 3.恰当处理重点词汇,掌握一词多义, 灵活翻译。

【实战演练 】

III. Translation 1. It takes the most cool-headed drivers great patience to give up the desire to beat back when forecd to face rude driving. 面临粗暴驾驶时,即使是最冷静的司机也需要很 大的耐心去放弃还击的欲望。 2. In the 1880s the United States was a land sharply divided between the immensely wealthy and the very poor.

在十九世纪八十年代,美国是一个贫富悬殊的国家。

3. They are hooked on shopping and usually buy things that they don’t need.(山东)
他们购物上瘾,常买些不需要的东西。

1. Whatever the reason, my urban hellos were answered far less often than my rural ones . (NMET山东) 不管出于什么原因,我在城里打招呼得到的回应比 在乡村少得多。 2. After graduation , he got a job as a programmer in a big company that paid $1, 000 a month. 毕业之后,他到一家大公司做编程工作, 月薪一千美金. 3. The low-rent housing system launched by the government only covers a limited number of people and is therefore unable to drag down the housing price as the government expects. 政府颁布的房屋低租金制度只涉及有限数量的人群, 因此,不能像政府期望的那样拉低房价。 4. Distance from the event should make the memories less painful. 时过境迁,痛苦的往事会在记忆中淡漠。

阅读表达难度题目之四
----句子释义

【句子释义】
答题技巧 1.该类题目比较简单,而且缺乏较好的区分度, 在某种程度上有给考生送分的因素,因此, 考生应尽可能在该题上不丢分; 2.该类题目相当于传统阅读理解试题中的转换 理解,即用不同的语言表达方式表述相同的 内容、意义,所以要求考生能够识别表达相 同意义的不同文字。

【句子释义】Question:Which sentence in the passage can be
replaced by the following one? People can know something about different cultures in art museums.

Art museums are places where people can learn about various cultures cultures. The increasingly popular “design museums” various that are opening today, however, perform quite a different role. Unlike most art museums, the design museum shows objects that are easily found by the general public. These museums sometimes even place things like fridges and washing machines in the center of the hall. People have argued that design museums are often made use of as advertisements for new industrial technology. But their role is not simply a matter of sales, it is the honoring of excellently invented products. Answer: Art museums are places where people can learn about various cultures.

【句子释义】

Question:Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one? The foundation will carry out its tests in some areas to put those accidents under control.

Now the American Automobile Association Foundation(基 金会)for Traffic Safety in Washington D.C. is planning to repeat Japan’s success. Starting next year, the foundation will paint chevrons(人字形图) and other patterns of stripes on selected roads around the country to test how well the patterns reduce highway crashes. Too great Speed plays a major role in as much as one fifth of all fatal traffic according to the foundation. To help reduce those accidents, the foundation will conduct in areas areas where speed-related danger conductits its tests tests in are the greatest curves, exit slopes, traffic circles, and bridges. Answer:To help reduce those accidents, the foundation will conduct its tests in areas where speed-related danger are the greatest curves, exit slopes, traffic circles, and bridges.

阅读表达难度题目之五
----封闭式问题(细节理解)

【开放性试题设置题型有】
What would you do if you were…?

What other suggestions would you give?
How would you settle the problem if you were…?

When do you think the 44th Grammy Awards show was held? (Please answer within 10 words.) The Grammy Award is the granddad of all music awards, dating back over four decades; it is to music what Oscar is to the movies. The name “Grammy” is short for “gramophone (留声机)”, since the awards are shaped like those old-fashioned phonographs. Over the years L. A. and New York have played tug-of-war (拔河) with the Grammy Awards show. The result? The Grammy ceremony has been held 32 times in Los Angeles, 10 times in New York City; and once in Nashville. ... ... The 47th Annual Annual Grammy Awards show was held on Sunday, Feb. 13, 2005, at the Staples Center. The big winners for 2005 were the late Ray Charles, U2, Alicia Keys, Norah Jones, Los Lonely Boys, Kanye West, Usher, John Mayer, Tim McGraw and Maroon 5. Answer:The 44th Grammy Awards show was held in 2002.

【封闭性问题】 Question

阅读表达难度题目之六
----开放式问题

【开放性试题设置题型有】
What would you do if you were…?

What other suggestions would you give?
How would you settle the problem if you were…?

【开放性问题】Question:Suppose a boy said he was late for
school because he had a flat tire with his bike, how can you find he is telling halftruth? (Please answer within 20 words.)
Beware of those who use the truth to deceive. When someone tells you something that is true, but leaves out important information that should be included, he can create a false impression. For example, someone might say, “I just won a hundred dollars on the lottery. It was great. I took that dollar ticket back to the store and turned it in for one hundred dollars!” This guy’s a winner, right? Maybe, maybe not. We then discover that he bought two hundred tickets, and only one was a winner. He's a big loser! He didn’t say anything that was false, but he deliberately omitted important information. That’s called a half-truth. Half-truths are not technically lies, but they are just as dishonest. Untrustworthy candidates in political campaigns often use this tactic. Let’s say that during Governor Smith’s last term, her state lost one million jobs and gained three million jobs. Then she seeks another term. One of her opponents runs an ad saying, “During Governor Smith’s term, the state lost one million jobs!” That’s true. However, an honest statement would have been, “During Governor Smith’s term, the state had a net gain of two million jobs.” ... ... This kind of deception happens too often. It’s a sad fact of life: Lies are lies, and sometimes the truth can lie as well.

Answer:He didn’t tell that he took a bus to school. / He had a flat tire after he got to school.

【开放性问题】

Question:Please provide an example to show how to ask a pessimistic question and then give an optimistic answer. (Please answer within 20 words.) Question: Answer: Having one of those days or weeks when everything seems to annoy you? Even if you do nothing about it, your bad mood will probably go away after some time. But with a little effort, you can forget it much faster, often within a day or two. ? Walk it off Exercise is the most popular way to remove bad-mood. A person who's in a bad mood has low energy and high tension. Taking a fast ten-minute walk, or taking some quick exercise … ? Tune it out Listening to your favorite music for a while can also make tensions go away quickly, because music starts associations with past positive experiences we've had. ? Give yourself a pep talk Stop and listen to what's on your mind. Bad moods are often started by too many negative thoughts. Write them all down on paper, including the pessimistic messages you've been giving yourself and then give optimistic answers. ? Avoid things that won’t improve your mood TV may not help much: you need to increase your energy level and stimulate your mind. And before you reach for that piece of cake and coffee, think about how mood and food are linked.

Question: I still don’t have a job. Answer: I have two interviews next week. 解析:本题为开放性试题,但是应围绕文中的相关内容和 “pessimistic”及“optimistic”两词来设计问题。

Goodbye !


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