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高考英语复习猜词


猜测词义微技能
高考阅读理解题设置的一个重要原则就是必须含有 一定量的生词,而根据上下文猜测词义是提高阅读水平 的重要途径。考生在应试中碰到一些不认识的词,这是 正常现象,大可不必惊慌失措,也不要对某个词的词义 纠缠不清,以致影响对文章的继续阅读、阅读的速度、 阅读的质量,从而影响解题的效果。因此,如何通过语 言环境和上下文联系,再结合正确的方法快速而准确地 猜测出生词

,对阅读理解和做好考题相当重要。有时, 必须将生词撇开,继续阅读下去,也许等到将全文阅读 完毕,你就会猜出生词的词义。另外,考生也可以通过 派生、分解、转换、加减前后缀等方法来获取生词的词 义。

1、同义词猜义
[例1] He replied quickly. But after he considered the problem more carefully, he regretted having made such a hasty decision. [例2] The old woman had a strange habit. She kept over 100 cats in her house. Her neighbors all called her eccentric lady.

[例3] :Your school may have done away with

winners and losers, but life has not. In some schools they have abandoned failing grades; they’ll give you as many times as you want to get the right answer. This doesn’t bear the slightest resemblance(相似) to anything in real life. The phrase ”have done away with” means A. have dealt with B. have got away with C. have got rid of D. have taken away with

[例4] : Doctors believe that smoking

cigarettes is detrimental to your health.
They also regard drinking as harmful.

2、反义词猜义
Unlike his brother, who is a truly handsome man, John is quite homely. Though Tom's face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby.

Rather than liking the movie, as I expected them to, all my friends abhorred it. If you agree, write “yes”; if you dissent, write “no”.

3、定义猜词 The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.
.

定义猜词时,文中常有解释性词语引出生词含义, 如that is, mean, stand for, namely, in other words, to be等,有时用破折号,括弧来表示,或 者用同位语、定语从句的形式出现。考生要通过 上下文来寻求线索,找到关键性的解释性词语或 短语。

It’s also common for them to go on what experts call food jags - that is, they want to eat the same few foods over and over again at every meal, while turning up their noses at anything new. He is a resolute man, i.e., once he sets up a goal, he will not give it up easily.

4、由对比关系猜词
[例1](NMET00)A篇: Thousands of people got stuck in lifts. But no one panicked. We passed the time telling stories.
句中panicked为生词,数千人困在电梯中,情 况应该不妙,可but 引出的后半句却告诉我们 “人们还在讲故事消磨时间”,因此panicked 应 为“慌张”、“恐惧”之意。 一般来说,表示对比关系时,句中常有两个意义相对比 的词,只要把握其中一词,就不难推出另一词的含义, 这时句中会有 unlike, although, but, while 等信息词。 考生可以凭借信息词进行推测词义。

2011重庆,A
There was a gardener who looked after his garden with great care. To water his flowers, he used two buckets. One was a shiny and new bucket. The other was a very old and dilapidated one, which had seen many years of service, but was now past its best. 1. What does the underlined world “dilapidated” probably mean? A. Dirty. B. Dark. C. Worn-out. D. Plain-looking.
?

5、由因果关系猜词义
There, his sister and brother, taking short and quick breaths and coughing, collapsed on the lawn. 表示因果关系时,上下文中常有连词because, as, since, so, therefore, so…that, such…that 连接,由已知的“原因”推出“结果”,反之亦 然。

6、由上下文情景关系猜词义
[例1](NMET99)A篇55题: What did Cory Luxmoore mean when he said “I’m on high”? A. I’m rich. B. I’m famous. C. I’m excited. D. Lucky

此题要求考生根据语篇情境猜测词语的意义。考 生从文中可以看出 Cory Luxmoore 丢失日记后, 深感难过,后来日记失而复得,他对记者说“It’s wonderful, I’m on high.”。由此可以推断出 “I’m on high”应是“快乐,激动”的意思。

2011全国II,E
It was four days after that life changing moment (she won the honor of Miss Teen USA 2004) for the seventeen-year-old high school student from Destrehan, Louisiana--she was still on cloud nine. 1. What do the words “on cloud nine” probably mean? A. frightened B. troubled C. vey happy D. very angry
?

2011英语辅导报复习9
How to go green and save money? ? If you don’t want your old cell phones, PDA’s and computers, you should discard them through your local sources, and most towns have pickups several times a year or drop off areas just for electronic waste. 43. What does the underlined word “discard” probably mean? A. Throw away. B. Hold on to. C. Know about. D. Trade in.
?

2011浙江,A
One evening in February 2007, a student named Paula Ceely brought her car to a stop on a remote road in Wales. She got out to open a metal gate that blocked her path. That’s when she heard the whistle sounded by the driver of a train. Her Renault Clio was parked across a railway line. Seconds later, she watched the train drag her car almost a kilometer down the railway tracks. Ceely’s near miss made the news because … The phrase “near miss” can best be replaced by ____. A. close hit B. heavy loss C. narrow escape D. big mistake
?

When writing an article, we often use simile, such as “as brave as a lion” and “quick like lightning”.
“simile” means“___________”.

Who moved my cheese?
“Cheese” – a metaphor for what we want to have in life, whether it is a job, a relationship, money, a big house, freedom, health, recognition(认可,赏识), spiritual peace, or even an activity like jogging or golf.

7、由构词法来猜测词义
利用构词法知识猜测词义,关键应在理 解词根的基础上,掌握前后缀规律,如re,non-,un-, im-, in-, dis- 等前缀和-able, -an, ive,-ist, -ise, -ty, -ness, -less 等,要懂得这 些词缀与词干结合起来可组成新的单词, 即派生词。近年高考试卷中出现的派生词 还真不少.

bi ? two
bimonthly biweekly bilateral bilingual bipartisan biplane

semi?half
semicircle semiconductor semifinished semidesert semiannual semimonthly

Negative prefixes:
1. in?not, without incorrect, informal, inhuman, incomplete 2. im?not, without (before b, p, m) impolite, imperfect, impossible, immoral, improperly, imbalance,

3. il?not, without (before l)

illegal, illogical 4. ir?not, without (before r)
irregular, irresponsible

5. un?not
unreal, unclear, unfriendly, unhappy, unequal, unfair , unfinished, unusual, unwelcome, unmanned, unchanged, 6. un ?opposite of , contrary to unlock, undress undress, unfold, untie

7. non?not nonstop, nonparty, nonwhite, nonsmoker, nondrinker, nonmember, nonmetal, 8. dis?not, without

dishonest, disabled, disappear, disagree, disbelieve, dislike, disadvantage

8、利用熟词的新词性来抽象词义
如 ( NMET00 ) D 篇 中 有 这 样 一 段 文 字 : When men and women lived by hunting 50,000 years ago, how could they even begin to picture modern life ?

[NMET00] D: However, most of our ideas about the future are really very short-sighted. Perhaps we can see some possibilities for the next fifty years. But the next hundred ? the next thousand ? The next million ?

9.通过同类关系推测词义
请看下题: I like many musical instruments such as piano, violin and saxophone.

同类关系常由such as, like, for example, for instance等词列举同类词汇。

1. Archaeology is the study of the buried remains of ancient times, such as houses, pots, tools and weapons. A. 地理学 B. 生态学 C. 心理学 D. 考古学 2.Though Mr. Smith has been general manager for just three months, he has already made much greater achievements than his predecessors. A. 上级 B. 前任 C. 同事 D. 下级 3. The football game was getting more and more exciting, however, the old lady was still as dozy as she usually was. A. 昏昏欲睡的 B. 亢奋的 C. 欣喜若狂的 D. 麻木的 4. All his attempts to unlock the door was futile, because he was using the wrong key. A. 成功的 B. 徒劳的 C. 有效的 D. 匆促的

1. “Ecopassages” may help animals cross the road without being hit by cars. They are paths both over and under roads. From the news story, we know an ecopassage is___. A. an underground path for cars B. a fence built for the safety of the area C. a bridge for animals to get over a river D. a pass for animals to cross the road

2. It is true that lighthouses were built in out-ofthe-way places. But on a pleasant sunny summer day, this very isolation has a natural beauty that many people will love to experience. The phrase “out-of-the-way” means __ A. far-away B. dangerous C. ancient D. secret

3. The house looked quite normal outside, but inside it was very exotic with fascinating objects on display. Which of the definitions is closest in meaning to the word "exotic"? A. Messy and untidy.
B. Rich and expensive

C. Comfortable and calming.
D. foreign and unusual

4. Where a composer (作曲家) begins, how he manages to keep going--- in fact, how and where he learns his trade--- all are covered in complete darkness. The composer, in short, is a man of mystery (神秘). The underlined words most probably mean ____ A. difficult to be made B. without any light C. black in color D. not known

5. Students who perform poorly on the exam are left feeling that it is all over. The low test score, they think, will make it impossible for them to get into a good college. And without a degree from a prestigious university, they fear that many of life’s doors will remain forever closed. “A prestigious university” is most probably ____ A. a famous university B. a technical university C.a traditional university D.an expensive university

6. The gunners like to describe what they do as character-building, but we know that to wound an animal and watch it go through the agony of dying can make nobody happy. ( 2004 江苏) The word “agony” most probably means _____ A. form B. condition C. pain D. sadness

7. Lions are opportunists. They prefer to eat without having to do too much work. … If another animal has made a kill, they will drive it off and take the kill for themselves. By describing lions as “opportunists”, the author means to say that lions _________. A. are cruel animals B. are clever animals C. like to take advantage of other animals D. like to take every chance to eat

8. The above are the main reasons for this problem, and therefore we have to encourage young people to be more active, as well as steering them away from fast food shops and bad eating habits. The word “steering” most probably means _____ A. forcing B. guiding C. driving D. moving

9. The plant is often pruned so that it remains only 60 to 90 centimetres high. Pruning is important because it encourages the growth of tender shoots, or young leaves. ( 2005 江西) The word “pruning” means ________. A. regular cutting of the plants B. regular watering C. regular use of chemicals D. growing the plants high in the mountain


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