（一）阅读是获得更综合、更复杂、更精确信息的必要手段，考生在做阅读理解 时， 不仅要看懂文章的字面意思，还需要针对不同题材和体裁的篇目运用不同的 方法作出正确的选择。一般来说，词汇、阅读速度和理解能力是阅读理解中三个 最重要且有相互联系的因素。 阅读的方法可以使用以下几种： 1.跳读：就是快速的一步阅读法。实际上是有选择阅读，找关键词。用这种阅读 方法回答 who、what、wh
en、where 之类的问题最为有效。 2.略读：指比跳读慢些的二步阅读法。即泛泛地、粗略地快速阅读，目的是了解 大意，对文章有个总的概念。此种阅读方法能回答 why、how 之类的问题。 3.精读：即最细致、最慢的深层阅读方法，目的是求得对所读文章的全部意义的 理解与掌握。 在使用阅读技巧时尽量做到以下几点： 1.带着问题阅读短文。 3.推断单词、句子和文章的含义。 （二）不同体裁文章的特点及解题技巧 1.记叙文 记叙文又可分传记类和故事类。 传记类文章在阅读中时间是全文的关键， 根据时间我们可以找到相关的事件，抓住文章的主要内容。故事类文章情节性较 强，阅读时要注意故事中的时间、地点、人物和发生的事件，这些都是文章中的 主要内容和信息，对于准确理解文章十分重要。 2.说明文 说明文是对事物的形状、性质、特征、成果或功用等进行介绍，解释或阐述 的文章。 把握所说明事物的特征和本质是理解说明文的关键。说明事物特征的方 法很多，主要有定义法、解释法、比较法、比喻法、数字法、图表法、引用法和 举例法等。 ? 数字说明文 在阅读数字说明文时要特别注意文中数字的含义，从这些数字中可以找到文章 的主要内容。 ? 解释说明文 2.找出主题句、确定中心思想。 4.尽快选择答案。
解释说明文着重说明事物的本质、特征和功用等。许多科普文章都属于这一类。 在阅读这类文章时要学会解决 what, how, why 等一类的问题。它们是文章的关 键。如能带着这些问题阅读，将会更迅速抓住文章的主题。 ? 比较说明文 比较说明文是通过对比方法说明问题。 在阅读这类文章时要善于把握全篇陈述的 基本倾向。作者在谈论一个有争议的问题时总要顾及到争议的各个方面。但是， 在一般情况下，作者的陈述总要倾向于某一种观点。 3.应用文 应用文涉及的范围比较广，包括广告、通知、书信等。应用文一般语言简洁，省 略及不规范的句子较多。 阅读时一般要求考生全面掌握文章中提供的信息，并运 用这些信息去解决问题。因此对题干的理解尤为重要。 阅读理解的考题分为客观理解题(是指在短文中客观存在的事实， 客观信息 的答案一般都可以在原文中找到。即理解文中的具体事实或抽象概念)和主观理 解题(这类问题都不可能直接从原文中找到答案，须通过阅读文章对文章主旨和 深层含义有更深理解，并据此进行判断和推理)。其中细节理解题和猜测词义题 属于客观题；主旨大意题和推理判断题属于主观题。针对不同类型的题目，要在 平时的练习过程中，结合具体的题目，给学生进行解题方法的指导和讲解。对于 客观题，要提醒他们阅读时关注文章的细节，如时间，地点或一些具体数字，在 选择答案时，务必从原文中找到确切的依据。 我们可将阅读理解归纳为以下四大题型，根据阅读理解题考查角度的不同， 可采用不同的解题技巧来应付。 Ⅰ .事实细节题 属于细节类型的阅读理解题一般只针对某个特定的细节，题型可以多种多 样。此类题型一般分两种。第一种是直接理解题，在原文中可以直接找到答案。 第二种是词义转换题， 正确选项是原文有关词语和句子的转换。做此类试题一定 要抓住事件发生的时间、地点、人物、发展过程和结局等环节，所选答案一定要 符合原文，切不可望文生义。这类题型的主要提问方式常为： ① Which of the following is true/NOT true in the passage? ② Which of the following statements is NOT discussed/mentioned in the passage? ③ Which is the right order of the events given in the passage? ④ All the following statements are NOT true except .
细节题的破解一般采用寻读法，即先看试题，再读文章。对有关信息进行快 速定位，再将相关信息进行整合、甄别、分析、对比，有根有据地排除干扰项， 选出正确答案。此法加强了阅读的针对性，提高了做题的准确率，节省了宝贵的 时间。 寻读法还特别适用于对图形表格类题材的理解。做此类型的题目还要特别 注意句子的逻辑关系。 英语中有许多功能词， 如： 表因果关系的 because, since, as 等；表转折关系的 but, however ,on the contrary, on the other hand 等等。 Ⅱ .猜测词义题 在高考阅读题中， 考生遇到的最大障碍往往有两个：一是被已认识的单词的 某一熟知含义所误导； 二是被完全不认识的单词的意思所阻碍，从而出现理解偏 差或理解困难， 影响阅读的速度。其实解决这两个困难的一个重要法宝是考生在 心目中树立起上下文观念，要学会"顺藤摸瓜"，通过构词，语法，定义，同位， 对比，因果，常识，上下文等线索确定词义。在阅读解题时要注意从以下七个方 面着手： 1）根据定义或解释、说明猜测生词的词义 在 be，be called，call 等判断词出现的判断句中，或定语从句及标点符号，可以 根据已知部分， 猜测生词的含义。 例如：The herdsman, who looks after sheep, earns about 650 yuan a year.通过理解定语从句的意思，能猜出 herdsman 是“牧人”。 2）根据对比关系猜测生词的词义 在 but， however， yet， otherwise， though 这些表示意义转折的连词出现的句子中， 其前后的词有明显对比关系，根据已知的内容，通过这种对比关系，就很容易猜 出生词的词义了。例如： Though Tom’s face has been washed quite clean, his neck still remains grubby. 和 clean 意思相对的便是“肮脏的”了， 因此可猜出句中 grubby 的意思是“肮脏的”。 3）通过因果关系猜测词义 because, since 与 as 是连接原因状语从句的从属连词，so 是连接表示结果的状语 从句的连词，so...that 与 such...that 中的 that 是连接结果状语从句的。当这些信息 词出现在有生词的句子中，通过因果关系，依据已知部分就能猜出生词的词义。 例如：She wanted the hairdresser to trim her hair a bit because it was too long. 根据 because 从句所讲的意思，我们就可推测 trim 就是“修剪”之意。 4）根据生活常识猜测词义 运用逻辑推理能力，自身的生活经验及生活常识。再联系上下文能读懂的部分， 可以正确猜出词义。例如：Most of the roses are beginning to wither because of the cold. 根据句子意思及生活经验，wither 表示“枯萎”。
5）根据同等关系猜测词义 同等关系，指的是一个词，一组词或短语在句中作同一成分，而且它们的词义都 属于同一范畴。明显的标志是，这样的词组或短语中间常常用并列连词 and 或 or 来连接。 例如： At forty-two he was in his prime and always full of energy. 从“年 龄 42 岁”以及与 prime 具有同等关系的 full of energy 可以猜出 prime 的意思是“盛 年时期”。 6）根据列举的事例猜测词义 You can take any of the periodicals: “The World of English”. “Foreign Language Teaching in Schools”, or “English Learning”. 从后面列举的例子中，可以猜出 periodical 是“期刊，杂志”的意思。 7）根据构词法知识猜测词义 根据学过的构词法知识， 知道词根和前缀或后缀的意义，就可猜出由它们组成的 新词词义。例如在 2006 年福建的高考题文章中有这样一句： The schools are reluctant to take off — even teachers with tickets for the England-Argentina game had trouble getting the day off. A.kind B.unwilling C. free D.careless 为 B. Ⅲ .推理判断题 做这类题要求考生在阅读理解整体语篇的同时，又要求学生对作者的态度、意图 及文章细节的发展作正确的推理判断，力求从作者的角度去考虑，不要固守自己 的看法或观点。不要主观臆断，凭空想象，任意发挥，而走入误区。学生要学会 运用主题句去推测、揣摩文字背后作者的意图，运用归纳、对比、演绎技能，运 用背景知识去挖掘文章深层含义，从而正确理解作者的言外之意，同时认真体会 文章的语气与感情基调(如：否定、厌恶、反问、讽刺等)。这类试题常以如下句 式发问： ① What can you conclude/ imply from this passage? ② What’s the author’s attitude（态度）towards...? ③ We can infer /learn from the passage that... 如： Once there was something wrong with a machine in a factory. The workers could do nothing but turn to a German engineer for help, who drew a line on it and said, “Take off the part where the line is and change it for a new one. ”The machine, with a new line on, began running well again. The engineer then asked for $ 30,000 for what 【解题思路】通过破折号可知正确答案
he had done. The following were what he wrote on a bill, “The new part only costs one dollar, and knowing where the problem with the machine is costs $ 29,999.” Q: What can you conclude from this passage? A. the engineer asked for too much money money C. the knowledge is worth money
B. the workers should pay the D. the new part could cost more
这篇短文是作者讲的一个故事，那么通过这个故事我们可以判断出什么呢？ 虽然作者没有言明，但是我们可以断定，发现问题的所在需要智慧和知识，知识 是创造价值的源泉，因此此题的正确答案应为 C。 Ⅳ .主旨大意题 这种题型要求考生能够把握文章的总体，并真正理解主题和中心；要求能较好地 运用概括、判断、归纳、推理等逻辑思维方法解题，难度较大，属于高层次题。 一般主旨大意题可以分为两类： 1．确定文章的标题和主题(title or topic) 标题位于文章之首，用来高度概括文章内容，点明文章主题。它可以是单词，短 语，也可以是句子。要确定文章标题，首先，要在阅读原文的基础上，考虑标题 是否与主题密切相关；其次，看标题是否能概括全文内容。不能只概括短文中的 某些事实或细节；然后，要注意标题范围不应太大或太小；最后，标题应简练并 能吸引读者。即:1、独特新颖 2、概括性强 3、短小精炼。 常见的标题型题干： 1) The best title/ headline for this passage might be________. 2) The text (passage) could be entitled 3) What is the best title for the passage? 4) What’s the topic of the article? 如：In the 1930s, a lot of people in the USA were out of work. Among these people was a man named Alfred Butts. He always had an interest in word games and to fill his time he planned a game which he called “Lexico”. However, he was not completely satisfied with the game, so he made a number of changes to it and changed its name from “ Lexico” to “Alph” and then to “Criss Cross”. He wanted to make some money from his new game but he didn’t have any real commercial(商业性 的)success. ______.
Q: The text is mainly about________. A. Lexico B. Three men C . A word game D. Alfred Butts.
【解题思路】答案 A 和 C 以偏概全。因此此题的正确答案应为 D。 2.主题句（topic sentence）及主旨大意(main idea)的概括 一篇文章一般表达一个中心内容或主题。 这个中心内容或主题通常用一个句子来 概括。此句叫做主题句。一般来说，说明文和议论文都有主题句，而且多位于文 章的开头，有时也位于文章的中间或末尾。但有时不能在文中直接找到主题句， 要求读者把握每段的主题句，弄清段于段之间逻辑关系的基础上自己归纳总结。 主题句必须能简洁明了地概括全文的主要内容，具有高度的综合性和概括性。文 章或段落的其他句子都是对主题句的进一步解释,说明,论证或扩展. 常见的主题句和主旨型题干： 1) What is the topic sentence of the passage? 2) This article/text/passage mainly tells that _____________. 3) Which of the following gives a general idea of the passage? 4) Which of the following is the main idea of the passage? 如： Joshua Bingham studied 4 years at the University of Paris and decided to leave his graduation. He transferred to the University of Berlin and graduated with honors. Harvard Law School and, later, Boston College provided him with an excellent legal background. He is presently a corporation lawyer in Miami, Florida. Q: What is the main idea of the passage? A. How Joshua Bingham became a lawyer. student. C. Joshua Bingham received an excellent education. education. B. Bingham is a diligent
D. A good lawyer needs good
【解题思路】 此文没有主题句。全篇共四句，只陈述了四个细节(detail)性的事 实。因此就答案本身看，个个都对。读者只能将所有的 details 综合起来，进行 逻辑推理，才能构成一个没有言明的主题思想(unstated main idea)。由于文中主 要涉及了 Joshua Bingham 接受教育的情况，即作者想告诉我们的是：Joshua Bingham 接受过良好的教育，所以答案是 Ｃ。 总之， 阅读水平的提高不是一两天的阅读就可以见效的。 想要提高阅读能力， 一是要培养良好的阅读行为习惯；如：要用眼光看，不要用手指去点；要默读，
不要小声读。二是要积累大量的词汇，把阅读中的高频难词熟记，每次阅读后要 整理好生词，然后记住其意思。三是要广泛地做课后阅读，坚持每天读 1-2 篇文 章。四是不要一遇到生词就查字典，要先猜其意义，等做完题目后再查字典，以 免影响阅读速度。 基础练习 故事类 (1) Son’s Help Mr. Lang worked in a factory. As a driver, he was busy but he was paid much. His wife was an able woman and did all the housework. When he came back, she took good care of him and he never did anything at home. So he had enough time when he had a holiday. A few friends of his liked gambling(赌博) and he learned it soon. So he was interested in it and hardly forgot anything except gambling. He lost all his money and later he began to sell the television, watches and so on. His wife told him not to do it but he didn’t listen to her. She had to tell the police. He and his friends were punished for it. And he was hardly sent away. After he came out of lockup(拘留所), he hated her very much and the woman had to leave him. It was New Year’s Day. Mr. Lang didn’t go to work. He felt lonely and wanted to gamble again. He called his friends and they came soon. But they were afraid the police would come. He told his five-year-old son to go to find out if there were the policemen outside. They waited for a long time and didn’t think the police would come and began to gamble. Suddenly opened the door and in came a few policemen. “I saw there weren’t any policemen outside, daddy,” said the boy, “so I went to the crossing and asked some to come.” 1. Mr. Lang was paid much because _______. A. he was a driver B. he worked in a factory C. he had a lot of work to do D. he had worked there for a long time 2. Mrs. Lang did all housework because _______. A. she couldn’t find any work B. she thought her husband was tired C. her husband spent all time in gambling D. she wouldn’t stop her husband gambling 3. _______, so he was put into lockup. A. Mr. Lang often gambled B. Mr. Lang was late for work C. Mr. Lang didn’t help his wife at home D. Mr. Lang wasn’t polite to the police 4. The woman had to leave Mr. Lang because _______. A. he didn’t love her any longer B. he wouldn’t stop gambling C. he had been put into lockup D. he was hardly sent away by the factory 5. Which of the following is right? A. The boy hoped his father to be put into lockup again.
B. The boy thought his father needed some policemen. C. The boy hoped his father to stop gambling soon. D. The boy hoped his mother to come back. 【答案与解析】本文讲一个赌棍想要赌钱，因此叫他的儿子把风，可他的儿子却 把警察找来的故事。 1. C。细节题。根据第 1 段第 2 句话 As a driver, he was busy but he was paid much 可知答案为 C。 2. B。推断题。根据第 1 段第 3 句话 His wife was an able woman and did all the housework. When he came back, she took good care of him and he never did anything at home 可知答案为 B。 3. A。推断题。根据 His wife told him not to do it but he didn’t listen to her. She had to tell the police 可知答案为 A。 4. A。 细节题。 根据 …he hated her very much and the woman had to leave him 可知 答案为 A。 5. B。语义理解题。根据最后一句话 I saw there weren’t any policeman outside, daddy, so I went to the crossing and asked some to come 可知答案为 B。
教育类 （2） Students in many countries are learning English. Some of these students are small children. Others are teen-agers. Many are adults. Some learn at school, others by themselves. A few learn English by learning the language over the radio, on TV, or in film. One must work hard to learn another language. Why do all these people want to learn English? It is difficult to answer this question. Many boys and girls learn English at school because it is one of their subjects required for study. They study their own language and maths and English: Some people learn it because it is useful for their work. Many people learn English for their work. Many people learn English for their higher studies, because at college or university some of their books are in English. Other people learn English because they want to read newspapers or magazines in English. 1. People learn English _______. A. at school B. over the radio C. on TV D. not all in the same way 2. Different kinds of people want to learn English _______. A. together with other subjects B. for different reas** C. for their work D. for higher studies at colleges 3. From this passage we know that _______. A. we can learn English easily B. English is very difficult to learn
C. English is learned by most people in the world D. English is a useful language but one must work hard to learn 4. Which of the following is right? A. We don’t need to learn any foreign languages. B. We can do well in all our work without English. C. English is the most important subject in schools. D. We should learn English because we need to face the world. 【答案与解析】这篇文章探究了学习英语热潮的现象和发生这种现象的原因。 1. D。 由第 1 段我们可以知道学习英语的形式可以 over the radio, on TV, or in film 等不同的方式。 2. B。根据第 2 段人们学习英语的原因有 required for study, useful for their work, for high studies 等几种。由此可推知人们学习英语的原因是不同的。 3. D。由于人们学习英语的各种原因可以发现英语是非常有用的。但从 small children 到 adults(成年人)都用各种形式去学， 说明英语必须靠人的努力才能学好。 4. D。由于文章中说很多国家都学习英语，那么如果不学习英语就不能融入现代 社会。所以学习英语的目的是 we need to face the world(我们需要面对这个世界)。