Warming up and Reading I
Unit 3 Inventors and inventions
Warming up-I (4m)
In groups, discuss the inventio
ns you know and then make a list.
Do you know what these inventions are and when did they happen?
colour television 1940
air conditioner 1902
electronic digital computer 1942
Atomic bomb 1945
Credit cards 1950
Warming up – II (2m)
Among the inventions above, which invention do you think is the most important one? Why?
Warming up-III (2m)
What is an invention? An Invention is something that is created by a human being. Inventing is a scientific activity.
What is a discovery?
A discovery merely makes known something that already existed in nature.
Pre-reading – I (4m)
Look at the pictures below and discuss in pairs which pictures show inventions and which show discoveries.
An amphibious car(2003) This is the first car that can travel safely on water and on land. When moving on water, the wheels of the car turn sideways and move into the body. The underneath of the car is strong enough to sail as a boat. It is a prototype and is not yet being produced for sale. This is an interesting modern invention.
Stephenson’s “Rocket” (1781-1848) George Stephenson was one of the first men to design engines for the railways which were new at that time. One of the first tracks to be laid was between Stockton and Darlington. Stephenson was one of the first railway engineers and in 1825 he drove the first train along the line.
The structure of DNA This was a discovery of Francis Crick and James Watson and published in 1953. These two scientists were the first to show that our genes consist of two spirals of DNA (called the double-helix). This work led directly to the human genome project in 2003, which discovered the Structure of DNA.
Pre-reading – II (3m)
Do you know the stages every inventor must go through before they can have their invention approved? Inventing is a scientific activity and so follows similar stages to those used in scientific research. Look at the list and work out a suitable order.
Applying for a patent Finding a problem Doing research Testing the solution Thinking of a creative solution Deciding on the invention
The suitable order: Finding a problem Doing research Thinking of a creative solution Testing the solution Deciding on the invention Applying for a patent
Patent office (专利局) plays the role of deciding what is an invention and what is not. And only inventions can get patens and so be recognized and protected.
Reading The problem of the snakes
Skim the whole passage and get the main idea: The text narrates _______________________ the problem of the snakes and presents _____________________ them the procedures of catching a patent and applying for ________.
Reading – II (5m)
Divide the text into four parts and work out the main idea for each paragraph.
The discovery of the problem of the snakes. Part II (Paras2-3) The research on the approaches to solve the problem. Part III (Para. 4-6) The attempts to catch the snakes. Part IV (Para.7-8) The requirement of getting a patent.
Part I (Para.1)
Reading –III (7m)
Scanning: Find out which paragraph or paragraphs deal with each inventing process in the passage and find the examples: paragraph Stages Find a problem 1 Do research 2 3 Examples in this story The snake must be ________but not______ harmed removed Look for ________ of methods removal; the ______ of habits snakes three Identify _______ possible approaches: one choose______.
Think of a creative solution
three Test the Try_____ times to make solution it work____________ efficiently several times
Apply for a patent 7
Fill in the form and filed patent application with the Paten Office
Reading – IV (5m)
Detailed reading: Answer the following questions:
1.What was the mother upset about?
2.Why was the writer happy to help her mother?
3.What are the three creative steps that the writer takes to catch the snakes without hurting them?
4.Why did cooling make the snakes less active?+
5.Discuss with your partner what the advantages might be of getting a patent.
1. What was the mother upset about? The mother was upset because a family of snakes had made their home near the house. 2. Why was the writer happy to help her mother? The writer was happy because it gave her an opportunity to help her mother and invent something to catch the snakes without hurting them at the same time.
3.What are the three creative steps that the writer takes to catch the snakes without hurting them? Step 1: She bought a stainless steel ice cream maker and froze the bowl. She added ice cubes to the top of the bowl to keep it cold. She placed it over the snakes’ habitat during the day so that the snakes would become sleepy and could be easily caught. Step 2: As above she did the same but placed the bowls over the snakes’ habitat in the evening. Step 3: As above but added a net to catch the snakes.
4. Why did cooling make the snakes less active? Snakes do not have a way of keeping warm in their bodies. They get warmth from the sun and become more active at this time. When the sun goes down at night they cool down and become less active. So extra cooling to the snake would make them even less active and easier to catch.
5. Discuss with your partner what the advantages might be of getting a patent.
You are able to prove that you are the first person to make the invention;
You are recognized as a real inventor; You can make money if you sell your invention to others.
Reading – V (3m)
Match the different writing characteristics with each writing styles: Formal language with few adjectives, not emotional, factual Vivid use of words with similes and metaphors, emotional to describe atmosphere, not factual but imaginative Creative writing/ story Description
Not use vivid or emotive language and sticks to the facts. It is clearly set out and follows the framework for the inventing process Vivid use of language and more informal style, imaginative but can be based on fact
Creative writing/ story Description
Reading –IV (5m)
1.What’s the writing purpose of the writer? 2.What should we learn from this text?
1. What’s the writing purpose of the writer?
The writer wants to inform us of the scientific methods to solve present problems so that we students can not only broaden the horizons but become more skilled in discovering and considering carefully the problems in daily life. We are also encouraged by the writer to be creative and hardworking as well as thinking independently.
2.What should we learn from this text?
We can learn from the text the way of doing scientific researches and how to apply for a patent. We can also learn that it takes an inventor great determination persistence to achieve his or her ambition and persistence to achieve his or her ambition in life.
Apply what we learn: In pairs look at the following problems. Choose one and use the scientific stages to design a new invention to solve it. Remember to include one change to your invention in case it doesn’t work the first time. (This can be done after class.)
Problem 1: the apples growing on your apple tree are too high for you to reach them. What can you invent to pick your apples in comfort? Problem 2: You need to make a house but you only have fishing nets and many plastic bottles. How can you solve it? Problem 3: You want to catch fish but not hurt them when you do so. Design a fishing rod that will solve this problem.
Assignment 1.Go over the whole passage. 2.Recite the key sentences in the text.
3.Prepare for Learning about Language in the textbook.