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【高考调研】(新课标)2014高三英语总复习 Unit 16 Stories课件 北师大版


Units 16~18
Unit 16 Stories
?基础知识梳理 ?词汇梳理 1. ________ n. 受害者 2. ________ n. 长篇小说家 ________ n. 小说 3. ________ vt. 保护;保存 ________ n. 保护;储存 4. ________ v. 目击 ________ n. 目击者

> 5. ________ vi. 发生 6. ________ adj. 原作的;真正的 7. ________ n. 纪念碑;纪念堂 8. ________ adj. & n. 典型的;性格;特点 ________ n. 人物;角色 9. ________ vi & vt. 聚集;采集 10. ________ n. 悲伤;难过 ________ adj. 悲伤的;难过的 11. ________ n. 同情 12. ________ vi. 爆炸;冲;闯

13. ________ n.? 重要性;意义 ________ adj. 重要的;有意义的 14. ________ adj. 反常的 ________ adj. 标准的;正常的 15. ________ n. 艰难;困苦 16. ________ n. 起源;开端;祖先 ________ adj. 原创的;最初的 17. ________ vt. 使泄气;打击 ________ vt. 鼓励;激励 18. ________ n. 遭遇;遭受 ________ vt & vi. 遭受;受苦 19. ________ adj. 令人钦佩的;极佳的 ________ vt. 钦佩;羡慕;欣赏

20. ________ adj. 极为严厉的;严重的 21. ________ adj. 引起麻烦的 ________ n. 麻烦 22. ________ n. 限制 ________ vt. 限制;约束 23. ________ adj. 直截了当的;坦率的 24. ________ adj. 宝贵的;热衷的 25. ________ adj. 渴望的;热切的 26. ________ adj. 逐渐的 27. ________ v. 扩大;扩充 ________ n. 扩大;扩展

28. ________ adj. 复杂的 ________ n. 复杂 29. ________ adj. 明显的;显而易见的 30. ________ n. 温暖 31. ________ n. 突破;重大的发现 32. ________ adj. 不确定的 33. ________ adj. 讨厌的;令人厌倦的 ________ v. 讨厌;厌倦;厌烦

34. ________ adj. 笨拙的;难看的 35. ________ adj. 紧张的 36. ________ vi & vt. 鼓掌 37. ________ adj. 头晕目眩的 38. ________ vt. 放弃;遗弃

自我校对 1. victim 2. novelist; novel 3. preserve; preservation 4. witness; witness 5. occur 6. authentic 7. monument 8. characteristic; character 9. gather 10. sorrow; sorrowful 11. sympathy 12. burst 13. significance; significant 14. abnormal; normal 15. hardship 16. origin; original 17. discourage; encourage 18. suffering; suffer 19. admirable; admire 20. severe 21. troublesome; trouble

22. restriction; restrict 23. straightforward 24. precious 25. eager 26. gradual 27. expand; expansion 28. complex; complexity 29. apparent 30. warmth 31. breakthrough 32. uncertain 33. tiresome; tire 34. awkward 35. tense 36. applaud 37. dizzy 38. abandon

?短语梳理 1. ________ 出现 2. ________ 从前 3. ________ 堵住;封锁 4. ________ 从某种程度上来说 5. ________ 侧身 6. ________ 在去??的路上 7. ________ 断绝关系;分成小部分 8. ________ 既然;由于 9. ________ 以??命名

10. ________ 偶然遇见 11. ________ 支撑起 12. ________ 依靠 13. ________ 理解;弄清楚;算出来 14. ________ 以??结束;以??告终 15. ________ 特别;尤其是

自我校对 1. come into view 2. once upon a time 3. block out 4. in a way 5. on one’s side 6. on one’s way to 7. split up 8. now that 9. name after 10. come across 11. hold up 12. count on 13. figure out 14. end up 15. in particular

?重点知识探究 ?重点单词 1. abandon vt. 放弃;遗弃 n. 放纵 Jackson has abandoned his old car. 杰克逊把他那辆旧车扔了。 I’m sorry I abandoned you like that. 很抱歉我那样突然抛下你走了。 We will never abandon our principles. 我们应该坚持原则。 People were shouting and cheering with abandon. 人们兴高采烈,纵情欢呼。

知识梳理 with abandon 纵情地;放任地 abandon oneself to 沉湎于;陷入 abandon doing sth. 放弃做某事

求同存异 abandon, desert, quit, forsake
比较 abandon 相异点 强调“完全、永远地遗弃”, 尤其是指遗弃以前感兴趣或 负有责任的人或物 强调“违背誓言、命令、责 任、义务等” 强调“突然或无意地弃去”, 常指“停止” 指“遗弃某人以前所爱的人 或物”,强调“断绝情感上的 依恋” 相同点 ①都含有 “放 弃”、“遗 弃” 的意思 ②都是及物 动词

desert quit forsake

巧学助记

探究练习 Because they were fearing further attacks, most of the population had ________ the city. A. expanded B. abandoned C. fled D. escaped

【解析】 B 考查动词辨析。abandon表示“抛弃;遗弃”。 而expand是“扩展”;flee和escape表示“逃跑”时是不及 物动词,后面应该接介词from,再接宾语;用作“逃避”之 意时是及物动词。

2. preserve vt. 保护;保存 We must preserve our natural resources. 我们必须保护自然资源。 The society was set up to preserve endangered species from extinction. 成立这个协会是为了保护濒危动物不至于灭绝。 The vase has been preserved intact. 这个花瓶保存地完好无损。

发散思维 preserved adj. 受到保护的 preservation n. 保护;保存

求同存异 preserve, protect, defend
比较 preserve protect defend 相异点 指“防护、保护……以免 被分解或腐烂” 指“保护……以免遭危险 或伤害” 指“保卫;防御”,应用 范围很广,对象可以是具 体的,也可以是抽象的 相同点 均为及物动词; 均可以表示 “保护”之意; 均可以与介词 from连用

探究练习 Unfortunately, many peacekeepers, who are devoted to ________ peace in Haiti lost their lives in the earthquake. A. sparing B. reserving C. protecting D. preserving

【解析】 D 句意:不幸地是,许多在海地致力于维护和平 的维和人员在这次地震中丧生。spare“挤出;匀出”; reserve“保留;预定”;protect“保护”,preserve peace“维护和平”,符合句意。

3. witness v. 目击;作证 n. 目击者;见证人 She was a witness of the incident. 她是事件的目击者。 He gave witness on behalf of an accused person. 他为被告作证。 I witnessed the accident. 我亲眼目睹了这场事故。 No one could witness that he was present. 没有人能证明他在现场。

知识梳理 witness for 作证;为??作证 witness against 作不利于??的证词 witness to 为??作证;出庭证明 in witness of 作为??的证明

巧学助记

探究练习 The book was written in 1946, since when the education system ________ great changes. A. witnessed B. has witnessed C. had witnessed D. saw
【解析】 B 由句中的时间状语since ... 可知,此处应该用 现在完成时,故选B项。witness表示“见证”之意,相当于 see。

4. occur vi. 发生;存在;被想起;被想到;浮现(+to) I hope this won’t occur again. 我希望不要再发生这种事情。 The word “gratitude” did not occur in his words. “感激”两字在他的话中是见不到的。 Earthquakes occur frequently in this area. 这一地区经常发生地震。 Do giraffes occur in Africa only? 长颈鹿是不是只在非洲才有? It occurred to me to visit my teacher. 我想到要去看看我的老师。

知识梳理 sth. occur to sb. 某人突然想到某物 It occurs / occurred to sb. that 从句 ??的念头突然浮现在 某人的脑海中

求同存异
比较 occur 相异点 表示“发生”时,属正式用语,指 “按计划使某事或效果发生”,通 常所指的时间和事件都比较确定, 在以具体事物、事件作主语时,可 与happen互换 相同点 均可以表示 “发生”之 意;均是不 及物动词

happen 为常用词语,指“一切客观事物或 情况的偶然或未能预见地发生” take place 指“发生事先计划或预想到的事 物”

探究练习 — Why are you so late? — I was on the way when it ________ to me that I had left my notebook home, so I had to fetch it. A. occurred B. hit C. happened D. reminded

【解析】 A 考查了sth. occur to sb. 表示“某人突然想到某 事”之意。句意:当我在路上的时候,我突然想到我把我的 笔记本忘到家里了,所以我不得不回家去拿。hit“击中”; happen“发生”; remind“提醒”,均为干扰项。

5. tremble vi. 颤抖;发抖 n. 震颤;发抖;震动 The room is warm now, but he is still trembling. 房间里现在暖和了,但他仍然哆嗦。 There was a tremble in her voice. 她声音颤抖。 His voice trembled with anger. 他的声音因愤怒而发抖。

求同存异 shake, tremble, quake
比较 shake tremble 相异点 常用词,指“上下来回短 促而急速地摇动” 指“由于恐惧、悲愤、 兴奋等情绪或因寒冷、 疲劳等引起无意识地颤 抖” tremble 换用,但较 可与 相同点 均可以表示“摇 动;震动”

quake

为正式, 指“强烈地颤动”

探究练习 When he came out of the water, he was ________ with cold. A. shaking B. waving C. trembling D. declining 【解析】 C 考查了tremble表示“颤抖;发抖”之意的用法。 句意:当他从水中出来时,浑身冻得发抖。 shake“摇晃”; wave“挥动”; decline“下降;下滑”,均为干扰项。

6. burst vi. & vt. & n. 爆炸;冲;闯;破裂;突发 The dam burst under the weight of water. 那水坝在水的压力下决口了。 The town is bursting with tourists. 镇上到处都是游客。 Don’t burst into my bedroom without knocking. 不要不敲门就闯进我的卧室来。 They all burst out laughing at the expression on her face. 看到她的表情,他们都大笑起来。 Hearing the news, the students burst out shouting. 一听到这一消息,所有的学生都大叫起来。

知识梳理 be bursting with 充满 burst into / out of 突然冲进/冲出 burst into laughter / tears 突然大笑/大哭起来 burst out doing 突然开始做?? 点津提示 burst into 和burst out 都可以表示“突然干某事”;但是 burst into 后面接名词;而burst out 后面接动名词。

巧学助记

探究练习 On hearing the bad news, the student ________ crying suddenly. A. burst out of B. burst out C. got into D. knocked into

【解析】 B 考查了burst out doing 表示“突然干某事”之 意的用法。burst out of“突然从??中冲出来”之意; get into “进入”; knock into“撞上”之意,均不符合句意。

7. discourage vt. 使泄气;使灰心 He is never discouraged by difficulties. 他从没因困难而泄气。 He discouraged me from doing so. 他劝阻我不要那样做。 His parents are trying to discourage him from being an actor. 他的父母竭力试图阻止他当演员。

发散思维 discouraging adj. 令人泄气的 discouraged adj. 泄气的;灰心的 discouragement n. 泄气;灰心 encourage vt. 激励;鼓舞 encouraging adj. 令人鼓舞的;激励人的 encouraged adj. 受到鼓舞的 encouragement n. 鼓舞;激励

知识梳理 discourage sb. from doing sth. 阻止某人干某事;打消某人 干某事的念头 be / get discouraged 变得灰心;泄气 encourage sb. to do sth. 鼓励某人干某事

探究练习 He tried all the means to ________ his daughter ________ the unreasonable deed. A. encourage; to do B. discourage; from doing C. encourage; from doing D. discourage; to do

【解析】 B 考查了discourage sb. from doing sth.表示“阻 止某人干某事;打消某人干某事的念头”之意的用法。句意: 他尝试了一切方法想打消他女儿做不明智事情的行为。

8. particularly adv. 特别地;特定地 He isn’t particularly clever but he is very industrious. 他并不特别聪明但是特别勤奋。 I am particularly fond of this book. 我特别喜爱这本书。

求同存异 particularly, especially, specially
比较 particularly 相异点 “尤其;特别;格外”,通常指以 不同寻常的方式突出某事物的个 性或独特之处,它常与especially 通用,但是它更加强调与众不同 相同点 三个单词 均有“尤 其地;特 别地”之 意

especially

指非普通、非寻常的,主要解释 为“尤其地”,一般不能够与 specially 混用
非一般地、非正常地、非广泛地, 主要含义是“专门地;特殊地”

specially

探究练习 These books will be ________ helpful to those who wish to improve their English. A. exactly B. particularly C. generally D. honestly

【解析】 B 考查了particularly表示“特别地;尤其地”之 意的用法,修饰形容词helpful。句意:我认为这些书对于那 些渴望提高英语成绩的学生来说将会特别有用处。exactly是 “确切地;恰当地”;generally是“通常地;一般地”; honestly是“诚实地”,均为干扰项。

9. expand v. 扩大;扩充 The ranks of the teachers are constantly expanding. 教师队伍日益扩大了。 The petals of many flowers expand in the sunshine. 许多花瓣在阳光下绽放。

求同存异
expand “展开;扩大”,不仅指尺寸的增加,还可 指范围和体积的扩大
extend “伸出;延伸”,指空间范围的扩大,以及 长度、宽度的向外延伸,也可指时间的延长

spread “伸开;传播”,一般指向四面八方扩大传 播的范围,如传播(疾病)、散布(信息)等 stretch “伸展;拉长”,一般指由曲变直、由短变 长的伸展,不是加长

巧学助记

探究练习 As children grow older, they ________ their interests and become more confident. A. extend B. expand C. enlarge D. increase
【解析】 B 考查了及物动词expand表示“扩展;扩充”之 意的用法。extend是“延伸;伸张”;enlarge是“使变大”; increase是“增加”,均不符合语境。句意:随着孩子们的 年龄的增长,他们的兴趣会变广,而且也会更加地自信。

?重点短语 1. knock over 撞倒;撞翻;使某人惊奇 Coming too fast down the road, I knocked over a child on a bicycle. 由于车开得太快,我把一个骑自行车的小孩撞倒了。 He was knocked over by a motorbike when he was crossing the street. 当他过马路时,被一辆摩托车撞倒了。 The unexpected news fairly knocked me over. 那意外的消息着实使我吃了一惊。

知识拓展 与knock有关的其他短语: knock at / on 敲门 knock down 打(撞)倒;驳倒;拆除;拆开 knock in (把钉子)钉入 knock into 把(某种知识)灌输给??;与??相撞 knock it off [美俚]住嘴! 别吵了! 住手;别胡闹了 knock off 敲掉;击倒;下班休息;罢工 knock oneself out 把自己弄得精疲力竭;尽最大努力 knock out 敲出;敲空(烟灰等);击倒;打昏 knock over 弄翻;打倒 knock through 把(两个房间的隔墙)拆除;打通 knock up 敲门叫醒;赶做;匆匆安排

探究练习 用与knock有关的短语填空。 (1) He ________ the challenger in the first round. (2) I am sorry. I have ________ the glass and broken it. (3) The portable device easily ________. (4) The little boy was ________ by the big student. (5) I don’t know who is ________ the door.

【答案】 (1) knocked down (2) knocked off (3) knocks down (4)knocked over / down (5)knocking at / on

2. in a way 从某种程度上 In a way, it is good to be working alone. 从某种程度上来说,独自一个人干活很不错。 In a way, it was one of our biggest mistakes. 从某种程度上说,这是我们所犯的最大的错误之一。

知识拓展 与way有关的其他短语: on the way 在路上;即将来临 in the way 挡道;碍事 in no way 决不;无论如何都不 in some ways 在某些方面 in one way 在某一方面 by the way 顺便说一下 by way of 经由;取道 make one’s way to ... 在去??的路上

探究练习 ________ I can see what you mean, even though I don’t share your opinion. A. In a way B. On the way C. By the way D. In the way 【解析】 A 考查了in a way表示“从某种程度上”之意的用 法。句意:尽管我的看法和你不一样,从某种程度上来说, 我明白你的意思。on the way是“在路上”; by the way是 “顺便问一下”; in the way是“挡道”。

3. come across 偶然遇到;邂逅 I came across him in the street yesterday. 昨天我在街上无意中碰到了他。 I came across an old photo taken when I was 8 years old. 我偶然发现了一张我8岁时照的照片。

知识拓展 与come有关的其他短语: come about 发生 come across 偶然碰见;无意中找到 come alive 活跃起来;显得像真的似的 come along 一起来;一道走;同意;赞成 come and go 来来往往;作短暂访问;变化不定 come at 攻击;扑向;达到;得到 come between 在??中间;离间;使分开 come by 经过;从旁边过去;来串门;拜访

come of 出身于;由??引起;是??的结果 come off (从??)离开;走开;从??跌下;分离;脱落 come on 偶然遇见(某人);来临;袭来 come upon 偶然遇见(某人);来临;袭来 come out 出来;出现;(芽)生出来;(花)开;出版 come to 达到;总计为;终于;结果是;苏醒(过来) come to oneself (昏迷后)苏醒过来 come up 走近;上(楼)来 come up with 提出(建议) come with 伴随??发生;与??一起供给

探究练习 That day I ________ my best friend in the street who had been to America since he graduated from the university. A. came on B. came across C. went by D. came at

【解析】 B 考查了come across 表示“偶然遇到”之意的 用法。句意:我在街道上偶然遇到了我的好朋友,他自从大 学毕业后就去了美国。come on 是“加油”; go by 是“经 过;遵守”; come at 是“攻击”,均为干扰项。

高考体验 (2011·天津)She ________ an old friend of hers yesterday while she was shopping at the department store. A. turned down B. dealt with C. took after D. came across

【解析】 D 本题考查动词短语的辨析。句意:昨天她在百 货商店购物的时候碰到了一个老朋友。come across“偶遇; 碰见”;turn down“拒绝”;deal with“处理;对付”; take after“像;相似”。根据句意选D项。

4. hold up 支撑起;支持;推迟;耽误 Hold the negative up to the light so we can see it clearly. 把底片对着光拿着,好让我们看清楚。 The building work has been held up by bad weather. 由于天气不好,建筑工程被耽搁下来。

知识拓展 与hold有关的其他短语: hold back 抑制;保守(秘密);隐瞒 hold on (打电话时)不挂断;握住不放;坚持住 hold out 伸出;保持(要求);不屈服 hold off 避开;抵挡;使不靠近 hold water 合乎逻辑的;站得住脚的

探究练习 ________ by the heavy fog, the flight will arrive two hours later. A. Held on B. Held up C. Held out D. Pulled out

【解析】 B 考查了hold up 表示“耽误;耽搁”之意的用法。 句意:由于受到大雾的耽搁,航班将要晚点两个小时。hold on是“不挂断;稍等”; hold out是“伸出;保持”; pull out 是“(车)驶出;使摆脱困境”,均为干扰项。

5. count on 依靠;指望 Don’t count on him to help you. 你别指望他来帮助你。 As the children, we have to count on our parents for money. 作为孩子,我们不得不依靠父母获得经济来源。 点津提示 表示“依靠”的其余的表达法有:rely on / rest on / depend on / lean on 等。

探究练习 If you are in trouble, don’t turn to him for help, because he is not a person who can be ________. A. counted B. counted on C. depended D. based on

【解析】 B 考查了count on 表示“依赖;依靠”之意的用 法。句意:当你遇到困境时,不要向他求助,因为他不是一 个可以依靠的人。count与depend表示“依靠”时是不及物 动词,故应该与介词on连用; be based on 是“建立在?? 的基础上”之意,不符合语境。

6. figure out 理解;想出;算出 Have you figured out how much the holiday will cost? 你计算出假期得花多少钱吗? I figure out that he will finish the homework in ten days. 我猜想他得10天后才能够完成作业。

知识拓展 与figure有关的其他短语: figure in 算进;参加;包括进去; figure on / upon 计划;估计;仔细考虑;指望 figure up 总计;把??加起来 点津提示 表示“算出;想出”的类似的表达法还有work out / find out 等。

探究练习 The present situation is very complex, so I think it will take me some time to ________ its reality. A. make up B. figure out C. look through D. put off

【解析】 B 考查了固定短语figure out 表示“弄清楚”之意 的用法。句意:目前的形势非常复杂,因此我认为要花费我 一段时间来弄清楚它的实际情况。make up是“构成;弥补; 化妆;言和”; look through是“浏览;仔细检查”; put off是“推迟;拖延”,均为干扰项。

7. end up 以??结束;以??告终 How does the story end up? 这故事的结尾是如何的? You will end up in prison if you don’ t give up such bad habits. 如果你不戒掉这些坏习惯,你会最终进入监狱的。 At the dinner, we usually begin with soup and end up with fruit. 在宴会上,通常开始的一道菜是汤,而结束的一道菜是水果。

知识梳理 end up in 以??告终;结果是?? end up with 以??结束(指以某种方式结束) end up as 作为??而结束 点津提示 end up in表示“以某种方式结束”;而end up with表示“以 某种结果结束”

探究练习 He ________ hospital because he worked day and night without the necessary rest. A. ended up B. ended with C. ended up in D. ended up at

【解析】 C 考查了end up in 表示“最终进入了??;最终 以??告终”之意的用法。句意:因为他日夜辛劳,没有必 要的休息,所以最终住进了医院。end up多用作不及物动词 短语;end with是“以某种结果告终”,后面多接具体的名词。

8. put up with 容忍;忍受 I can’t put up with her another day — she never stops complaining. 她整天抱怨,我一天也不能忍受了。 I could hardly put up with the big noise. 我几乎不能够忍受这种噪音。

知识拓展 与put up with相似的短语有: come up with 提出;想出 keep up with 赶上;跟上 catch up with 追上;赶上 be fed up with 厌烦;厌倦

探究练习 Although the job is very tiring, I think I have the ability to ________ it and I won’t resign from the position. A. put up with B. stand by C. bear up D. come up with

【解析】 A 考查了put up with表示“容忍;忍受”之意的用 法。句意:尽管这份工作很是累人,但是我认为我可以忍受 这种劳累,而且,我也不会辞职的。stand by 是“站在?? 一旁;支持”;bear是及物动词,表示“忍受;容忍”; come up with是“提出;想到”,均为干扰项。

高考体验 (2011·江西)Smell the flowers before you go to sleep, and you may just ________ sweet dreams. A. keep up with B. put up with C. end up with D. catch up with 【解析】 C 本题考查动词短语辨析。句意:睡前闻闻这些 花,你可能就会做美梦。keep up with“跟上”; put up with“忍受;容忍”; end up with“以??结束”; catch up with“追上;赶上”。C项符合句意。

9. now that 既然 Now that you are grown-ups, you must stop this childish behaviour. 既然你们已经成为成年人了,你们必须得停止这些幼稚的行 为。 Now that you have known it, I will not bother to tell it to you again. 既然你已经知道了这件事情,我就不用再费事告诉你一遍了。

求同存异 now that, because, since, as, for
比较 相异点 相同点

now that now that与since相似,语气较弱,均可以表示 强调人们已经知道的事实 原因,“因 because because通常表示直接的原因, 为或既然” 表示按照因果关系的推断,语气 之意

很强,用来回答why的问句的。 一般位于主句之后

because because通常表示直接的原因, 表示按照因果关系的推断,语气 很强,用来回答why的问句的。 一般位于主句之后 since
as

均可以表示 原因,“因 为或既然” 之意

since是“既然”,语气较弱, 强调已经知道的事实
as语气比because弱,所引导的 从句表示的是不言而喻,显而易 见的原因和理由,其从句一般是 放在主句前 for是并列连词,表示推断的原因, 或对前一分句补充说明理由

for

探究练习 ________ you have already put all your heart into your work, you should achieve the great success. A. Now that B. Only if C. As soon as D. On condition that 【解析】 A 考查了now that表示“既然;因为”之意的用法。 句意:因为你已经尽全力做你的工作了,你应该获得成功。 only if 是“只要”; as soon as 是“一??就??”之意; on condition that是“条件是”,均为干扰项。

10. refer to 查阅;提到;涉及;提交 Complete the exercise without referring to a dictionary. 请在不查阅词典的情况下完成练习题。 We agreed never to refer to the matter again. 我们一致同意永远都不再提这件事情了。 点津提示 其他表示“查阅”的表达法:consult / look up / turn to 等。

探究练习 The president spoke at the business meeting for nearly an hour without ________ his notes. A. bringing up B. referring to C. looking for D. trying on 【解析】 B 考查了refer to 表示“参考;查阅”之意的用法。 句意:总统在会议上讲了接近一个小时而没有参考笔记。 bring up 是“抚养;教育;呕吐”; look for 是“寻找”; try on 是“试穿;尝试”,均为干扰项。

?重点句型 1. Now that Helen understood the key to language, she was very eager to learn more and use it as much as she could. 既然海伦理解了语言之谜,她非常渴望学习更多的词语并且 尽可能多地使用它们。 句中的eager 是形容词,表示“渴望的”之意;多用于be eager to do 或be eager about / for / after sth. 的句式中,表 示“渴望做某事或渴望某物之意。如: Tom is eager to go to university. 汤姆渴望上大学。 There was a queue of eager schoolchildren outside the theatre. 剧院外排着一队急切的学童。

求同存异 eager, anxious, worried eager强调对成功的期望或进取的热情;含有积极向上的意 思。 anxious强调“担心或焦急”;对结果感到不安,含有消极的 意义。 worried是“担忧的;忧心忡忡的”;强调“害怕”。

探究练习 I don’t like such kind of person like Mary. Because she is always ________ to please her boss. A. anxious B. eager C. positive D. optimistic

【解析】 B 考查了be eager to do 表示“热切干某事”之意 的用法。而anxious是“焦急的”; positive是“积极的”; optimistic是“乐观的”,均为干扰项。

2. Her words puzzled me very much because I did not then understand anything unless I touched it. 她的话使我感到非常困惑,因为那时我若是不用手触摸就什 么都不理解。 句中unless是连词,引导条件状语从句。表示“除非;要是 不的话”之意,相当于if ... not 。 I won’t go to his party unless invited. 除非我受到了邀请,否则,我是不会去参加他的宴会的。 Unless you explain the word to her, she won’t understand the true meaning of it. 除非你向她解释一下这个单词,否则,她是不会理解这个单 词的真正的含义的。

求同存异 unless, until unless是“除非;如果不”之意;引导的是条件状语从句。 until是“直到”之意;引导的是时间状语从句。

探究练习 ________ our national football team lost the game to a weak team as Syria by 2 to 3, I held no doubt about the new coach’s ability. A. Until B. By the time C. Unless D. After

【解析】 A 句意:我从来没有怀疑过新教练的能力,直到 我们国家足球队以2?3输给实力较弱的叙利亚队。题中用到 的结构为: not ... until ... “直到??才??”。这里是将 until引导的从句前置,表示强调。

高考体验 (1)(2011·天津) ________ regular exercise is very important, it’s never a good idea to exercise too close to bedtime. A. If B. As C. Although D. Unless

【解析】 C 考查连词。句意:尽管定时锻炼很重要,但临 睡前锻炼绝不是个好主意。although“虽然;尽管”; if“如果”; as“由于;因为”; unless“如果不”。依句 意可知C项正确。

(2)(2010·大纲全国)The little boy won’t go to sleep ________ his mother tells him a story. A. or B. unless C. but D. whether 【解析】 B 考查连词。句意:除非妈妈给他讲故事,否则 小男孩就不去睡觉。or“或者”; unless“除非”; but“但是”; whether“是否”。根据语境可知,选B。

(3)(2010·山东)The school rules state that no child shall be allowed out of the school during the day, ________ accompanied by an adult. A. once B. when C. if D. unless 【解析】 D 考查状语从句。句意:学校制度规定:在白天, 除非有大人陪同,不允许孩子走出校园。once“一旦”; when“当??的时候”; if“如果”; unless“除非”。

(4)(2009·大纲全国)All the dishes in this menu, ________ otherwise stated, will serve two to three people. A. as B. if C. though D. unless

【解析】 D 句意:这个菜单上所有的菜,除非有特别说明, 会满足两到三人的需要。本题unless后省略了主语和谓语动 词,补全后为:unless all the dishes are otherwise stated(=unless all the dishes are stated in a different respect)。题干中的otherwise为副词,意为“用别的方法; 不同地;在其他方面”。

3. Uncertain about how to fix them, she stopped to think carefully. 由于不能够肯定怎样改错,她停下来仔细思考。 uncertain about how to fix them 是形容词短语在句中作原因 状语。形容词或形容词短语在句中作状语时,多表示句中主 语具有的性质或特点。 He was standing there, curious to know what to do next. 他站在那里,想知道下一步该如何做。 He went to the school, running, eager to know the result. 他跑向学校,急切地想知道结果是什么。 He lay in the bed, angry. 他生气地躺在床上。

点津提示 副词作状语多是修饰句中的谓语动词;而形容词作状语多是 修饰句中主语具有的性质。

探究练习 When he heard the news of his success, the boy was unable to say a word to me, but only standing there, ________. A. exciting B. excited C. excitement D. to excite 【解析】 B 考查了形容词excited作状语修饰句中主语he的 用法。句意:听说他成功的消息后,他激动地什么也说不出 来,只是站在那里。

?随堂基础闯关 Ⅰ. 单项填空 1. It suddenly ________ to me that we could use the computer to do the job. A. struck B. occurred C. happened D. saw

答案 B 解析 句意:我突然想起我们可以用电脑来做这个工作。It occurred to sb. that ....“某人突然想起??”,符合句意; It strikes sb. that ....“某人想起??”;而happen、 see无此 用法。

2. Drunk driving, which was once a ________ occurrence, is now under control. A. general B. frequent C. normal D. particular 答案 B 解析 考查形容词词义辨析。句意:酒后驾车,以前是经常 发生的事,现在已得到控制。 frequent“经常的”,与语境 相符。 general“一般的;大体的”; normal“正常的”; particular“特殊的”,均与语境不符。

3. In summer, large quantities of fruit may be ________ by freezing or bottling. A. defended B. protected C. preserved D. developed 答案 C 解析 考查动词词义辨析。句意:夏天大量水果可以通过冷 藏或瓶装加以保存。defend“保卫;防御”; protect“保 护”; preserve“保存”符合句意; develop“发展;研 制”。

4. The police are questioning the ________ of the traffic accident. A. witness B. observer C. audience D. listener 答案 A 解析 考查名词词义辨析。句意:警察正在询问这起交通事 故的目击者。witness“目击者;证人”; observer“观察 员”; audience“观众”; listener“听者”。

5. — What happened? — Oh, a bee appeared on Kate’s face, and her sudden ________ of cry scared us. A. break B. burst C. attitude D. expression

答案 B 解析 考查名词辨析。答句句意:??她突然的哭泣使我们 很震惊。 burst在此意为“感情的突然释放或突然迸发”,符 合句意; break“间歇;中断”; attitude“态度;看法”; expression“表情;表达”。

6. The scale of alcohol is restricted ________ people over the age of 18. A. for B. on C. in D. to 答案 D 解析 句意:18岁以上的人限制酒量。 be restricted to“限 制??”,符合句意。

7. He ________ his wife and went away with all their money. A. abandoned B. disappointed C. threw D. quitted 答案 A 解析 由句意可知此处指“抛弃妻子”,只有abandon “抛 弃”适合; disappoint“使失望”; throw“扔”; quit“停 止”。

Ⅱ. 短语应用 1. The wish of fully making use of the natural resources will eventually(最终) ________. A. come into being B. come into effect C. come into power D. come true

答案 D 解析 句意:充分利用自然资源的愿望最终会实现的。 come into being“形成”; come into effect“生效”; come into power“上台”; come true“变成现实”,符合句意。

2. I decided to ________ on the news until he was sure of it. A. hold out B. hold on C. hold back D. hold up
答案 D 解析 考查动词短语辨析。句意:我决定暂缓发布消息,直 到我确信准确无误。 hold up“阻挡;延误”,符合句意。 hold out“拿出;维持;伸出”; hold on“稍等(别挂电话)”; hold back“退缩;阻挡”。

3. Without enough sleep, I just can not ________ an original thought no matter how hard I try. A. come up with B. come across with C. get along with D. get in touch with 答案 A 解析 句意:由于缺乏足够的睡眠,无论我怎么尝试,我连 最初的思路也没想出来。 come up with“想出”; come across “偶遇”; get along with“相处”; get in touch with“与??联系”。

Ⅲ.单词拼写 1. The kids hurled pieces of wood on the fire with ________ (放纵). 2. I think these traditional customs should be p ________. 3. The temples and theatres all bear ________ (目击者;证 人) to the city’s former greatness. 4. Didn’t it o ________ to you that your husband might be late? 5. As soon as he opened his mouth, everyone b________ out laughing.

6. Learners can get ________ (泄气的)if an exercise is too difficult. 7. The students were ________ (热切的) for the success. 8. Metals e ________ when they are heated. 9. I have no ________ (同情) for Jane. It is all her own fault. 10. So far, research has not produced anything of very great ________ (意义;重要性)。

答案 1. abandon 2. preserved 3. witness 4. occur 5. burst 6. discouraged 7. eager 8. expand 9. sympathy 10. significance

Ⅳ.翻译句子 1. 不要指望别人来帮你。 _______________________________________________. 2. 一方面,他们想要孩子,但是另一方面,他们又不想放弃 自由自在的生活。 _______________________________________________ 3. 噪音即将达到我们无法承受的地步了。 _______________________________________________ 4.气球被充气时会膨胀。 _______________________________________________ 5.既然大家都到齐了,我们就开会吧。 _______________________________________________

答案 1. Don’t count on others to help you. 2. On one hand, they’d love to have kids, but on the other hand, they don’t want to give up their freedom. 3. Noise is coming to the point where we can’t put up with it. 4. A balloon expands as it is filled with air. 5. Now that everyone is here, let’s begin the meeting.


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