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高考阅读科技环保类专练及详解


科技环保类文章在高考英语试题中出现的频率最高,几乎每年都有一片,。此 类文章一般为说明文,但也常常夹杂着叙述和议论,并经常出现一些较新的科技名 词或术语。考生若经常阅读英语报刊,具备丰富的课外知识,并积累一定的时新词 汇,对解读此类文章会大有帮助。 A 难度: 难 字数:258 words 标准用时:6 minutes 实际用时:_________ ( NMET 山东 E 篇)

A device that stops drives from falling asleep at the wheel is about to undergo testing at Department of Transport laboratories and could go on sale within 12 months. The system, called Driver Alert, aims to reduce deadly road accidents by 20%—40% that are caused by tiredness. Airline pilots can also use it to reduce the 30% of all pilot-error accidents that are related to fatigue. Driver Alert is based on a computerized wristband. The device, worn by drives or pilots, gives out a sound about every four minutes during a car journey. After each sound the driver must respond by squeezing the steering wheel(方向盘). A sensor in the wristband detects this pressing action and measures the time between the sound and the driver's response. Tiredness is directly related to a driver's response time. Usually, a watchful driver would take about 400 milliseconds to respond, but once that falls to more than 500 milliseconds, it suggests that the driver is getting sleepy. In such cases the device gives out more regular and louder sounds, showing that the driver should open a window or stop for a rest. If the driver's response continues to slow down, the sounds become more frequent until a nonstop alarm warns that the driver must stop as soon as possible.
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The device has been delivered to the department's laboratories for testing. If these tests, scheduled for six months' time, are successful, the makers will bring the product to market within about a year. 1. According to the text, Driver Alert ______. A. aims to reduce tiredness-related accidents from sleeping C. has gone through testing at laboratories 12 months 2. How should a driver respond to the sounds from Driver Alert? A. By sounding a warning. C. By touching the wrist hand. wheel. 3. We can learn from the text that the driver needs to stop for a break when his response time is _____. A. about 400 milliseconds C. below 500 milliseconds B. over 500 milliseconds D. about 4 minutes B. By checking the driving time. D. By pressing the steering D. has been on sale for B. aims to prevent drivers

4. When the driver gets sleepy while driving, Driver Alert ______. A. moves more regularly driver C. stops working properly loudly B 难度: 易 字数:266 words 标准用时:4 minutes 实际用时:_________ D. sounds more frequently and B. opens the window for the

Alzheimer's disease is a major national health problem. Nearly 2 million Americans over the age of 65 have Alzheimer's disease. It is a leading cause
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of death among the elderly. But Alzheimer's disease is not confined(限于) to the aged. There may be a million or more people under the age of 65 suffering from the disease. At one time, people suffering from the disease were said to be "getting old". The disease was thought to be a natural part of growing old, but it is now known that Alzheimer's disease strikes young and old alike. It is an organic(器官的) disease that destroys brain cells.
Alzheimer's disease affects the patient's memory, speech, and movement. In the beginning stages of the disease, the patient may seem slightly confused. He may have trouble speaking. Then the suffering from the disease. At one time, people suffering from the disease were said to be "getting old". The disease was thought to be a natural part of growing old, but it is now known that Alzheimer's disease strikes young and old alike. It is an organic(器官的) disease that destroys brain cells. Alzheimer's disease affects the patient's memory, speech, and movement. In the beginning stages of the disease, the patient may seem slightly confused. He may have trouble speaking. Then the patient's memory begins to fail. He may forget dates, telephone numbers, names and plans. As the disease progresses, the patient may not recognize family and friends. These symptoms(症 状) often cause terrible anxiety in the patient. He may feel lost and frightened. Sometimes the patient reacts with wild and bad behavior. In the last stages of the disease, the patient may not be able to take care of himself. He may have lost the ability to speak and walk. Scientists don't know exactly what causes Alzheimer's disease. It may be caused by a virus(病毒). It may be caused by a poisonous substance(物质) in the environment. At present, there is no cure for the disease. But there are ways to slow its progress. Exercise and physical treatment can help the patients of this disease. 5. The main idea of the passage is that Alzheimer's disease _______.
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A. is a terrible part of the aging process C. can be cured by physical treatment

B. is an organic disease that affects young and old D. causes forgetfulness

6. All of the following are symptoms of Alzheimer's disease EXCEPT _______. A. forgetfulness B. difficulty in speaking C. loss of sight D. loss of the ability to walk

7. According to the passage, which of the following may be a cause of Alzheimer's disease? A. Poisons produced by the brain. B. Getting old. C. A virus. D. Lack of exercise.

8. The progress of Alzheimer's disease can be slowed by ______. A. operation B. a change in environment C. medicines D. physical treatment and exercise C 难度: 中 字数:303 words 标准用时:5 minutes 实际用时:_________

When I opened my e-mail the other day, a pretty woman named Rachel appeared on my computer screen. She greeted me by name and started talking with great enthusiasm. Every now and then she stopped to smile at me or blow a kiss. She was reading to me an e-mail from my brother, and a lot of it was about his getting the phone company to give him a high-speed Internet connection. It was pretty cool. Rachel was there thanks to a new technology called Facemail. Facemail lets you send e-mail that gets ready to the receiver by an attractive male or female form or by a clown(小丑). The software, which is free, can be downloaded at www. Facemail.com. Facemail faces are lifelike, and they simulate(模拟) emotions based on emotions that you put in your text. For example, type in-X, and Rachel blows a kiss. LifeFX, the company that develops the Facemail, is sure there are broad business uses. The reason e-business is not popular, the company says, is that buying over the Internet lacks the human touch. But what if you went to the Nike website and Michael Jordan greeted you by name, waited on you and personally closed the sale? And it is talking with Whirl(惠而浦公司) about using the technology in a computer screen on a fridge. Then if Morn can't be home when the kids get back from school, she can leave a note with voice and image telling them what there is to eat.
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Facemail could get hot fast. Personally, I'm a fan. But Facemail should be used with care. The clown looks lively and funny at first. But if you select the clown, put a few rude words in an e-mail and add some angry emotions, you've got a Psycho-mail(疯人型电子邮件). 9. The pretty woman that appears on the writer's computer screen was ______. A. a woman working on the Internet C not a real person B. his brother's girlfriend D. the picture of his pen-friend

10. The main advantage of Facemail is that ______. A. you can hire a beautiful woman to read the e-mail to you B. you can see the person who sends you the e-mail C. yon can send an e-mail free of charge D. e-mail can be attractive in a more lovely way 11. The writer mentioned Nike website and Michael Jordan to show that _______. A. Famous people like Michael Jordan also like to use Facemail B. Facemail can make shopping on the Internet more interesting C. Nike website will increase its sales by Jordan D. Michael Jordan will serve you himself on Nike website 12. What is the writer's attitude towards Facemail? A. He thinks it needs further improvement. C. He thinks it a danger to the Internet. B. He thinks it cool and funny. D. He thinks people should be careful with Facemail. D 难度: 中 字数:302 words 标准用时:5 minutes 实际用时:_________

Sheep, like turkeys and ostriches, are not considered the cleverest animals. British scientists said last Wednesday human may have underestimated(低估) the woolly creatures. They could be much smarter than we think. Researchers at the Babraham Institute in Cambridge, southern. England, have shown that animals have a good memory system and are extremely good at recognizing faces--which they think is a sure
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sign of intelligence. Behavioral scientist Keith Kendrick and his friends trained 20 sheep to recognize and distinguish(区别) 25 pairs of sheep faces and used electrodes(电极) to measure their brain activity, which showed they could remember 50 faces for up to two years. "If they can do that with faces, the fact is that they have to have reasonable intelligence, otherwise, what is the point of having a system for remembering anything else," Kendrick said in an interview. So hours of seemingly mindless eating grass may not be so mindless after all. Kendrick believes sheep got their reputation as dumb animals because they live in large groups and do not appear to have much individuality and are frightened of just about everything. "All animals, including humans, once they are frightened don't tend to show signs of intelligent action," he explained. In research reported in the science journal Nature, Kendrick and his team showed that sheep, like humans, have a specialized system in the brain, which allows them to distinguish between many different faces that look extremely similar. "The most important findings of the study is that they are able, both from a behavioral point of view and from looking at the way the brain is organized, to remember a large number of faces of individuals for a very long time," said Kendrick. "It is a very strange system. They are showing similar abilities in many ways to humans. " 13. From the first paragraph we can find that ______. A. people used to think sheep are smarter than the other animals B. people used to raise sheep in a wrong way C. people don't consider sheep as clever animals D. people have done a lot of research on sheep 14. From what Kendrick said in the interview we learn that ________. A. scientists have learned a lot about sheep's intelligence B. scientists have learned little about sheep's intelligence
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C. scientists can't do anything more about sheep's memory D. scientists don't have to research animals' memory 15. As is shown in the passage _________. A. sheep are among the weak animals B. it is not right for people to raise sheep in groups C. when sheep eat grass in the fields their minds may be active D. if people feel frightened, they may become more brave 16. When scientists found that sheep show similar abilities in many ways to humans they may think it _____. A. worrying B. moving E 难度: 中 字数:286 words 标准用时:5 minutes 实际用时:_________ C. frightening D. interesting

Disposing(处理) of waste has been a problem since humans started producing it. As more and more people choose to live close together in cities, the waste-disposal problem becomes increasingly difficult. During the eighteenth century, it was usual for several neighboring towns to get together to select a faraway spot as a dumpsite. Residents or trash haulers(垃圾托运者) would transport household rubbish, rotted wood, and old possessions to the site. Periodically(定期的) some of the trash was burned and the rest was buried. The unpleasant sights and smells caused no problem because nobody lived close by. Factories, mills, and other industrial sites also had waste to be disposed of. Those located on rivers often just dumped the unwanted remains into the water. Others built huge burners with chimneys to deal with the problem. Several facts make these choices unacceptable to modern society. The first problem is space. Dumps, which are now called landfills, are most needed in heavily populated areas. Such areas rarely have empty land suitable for this purpose. Property is either too expensive or too close to residential(住
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宅区的)neighborhoods. Long-distance trash hauling has been a common practice, but once farm areas are refusing to accept rubbish from elsewhere, cheap land within trucking distance of major city areas is almost nonexistent. Awareness of pollution dangers has resulted in more strict rules of waste disposal. Pollution of rivers, ground water, land and air is a price people can no longer pay to get rid of waste. The amount of waste, however, continues to grow. Recycling efforts have become commonplace, and many towns require their people to take part. Even the most efficient recycling programs, however, can hope to deal with only about 50 percent of a city's reusable waste. 17. The most suitable title for this passage would be ______. A. Places for Disposing Waste C. Ways of Getting Rid of Waste B. Waste Pollution Dangers D. Waste Disposal Problem

18. During the 18th century, people disposed their waste in many ways EXCEPT for ______. A. burying it C. burning it B. recycling it D. throwing it into rivers

19. What can be inferred from the fourth paragraph? A. Farm areas accept waste from the city in modern society. B. There is cheap land to bury waste in modem society. C. It is difficult to find space to bury waste in modem society. D. Ways to deal with waste in modem society stay the same. 20. The main purpose of writing this article is to ________. A. draw people's attention to waste management B. warn people of the pollution dangers we are facing C. call on people to take part in recycling programs D. tell people a better way to get rid of the waste

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Unit 1 科技环保类 A 1. A 细节理解题。根据第二段第一句内容可得出结论。 2. D 细节理解题。 答案在第三段第三句: “After each sound the driver must respond by squeezing the steering wheel”。 3. C 细节理解题。根据第四段最后一句内容可推出答案。 4. D 细节理解题。从文章倒数第二段的内容可得出正确答案。 B 5. B 这是一道主旨大意归纳题。本文主要讲的是老年痴呆症的一般知识,A,C 两项本身表 述有误,D 项是细枝末节。 6. C 这是一道细节理解题。从文章的介绍看,老年痴呆症能导致人们健忘,言语困难,生活 不能自理等,但没有提到失明,故 C 项不对。 7. C 这是一道细节理解题。从文章最后一段 Scientists don’t know exactly what causes Alzheimer's disease.It may be caused by a virus.It may be caused by a poisonous substance in the environment.两句看,这种病症可能是由病毒或环境中的有害物质引起的。A 项意为由大脑本身 产生的毒素引起,不符合文意。 8. D 这是一道推理判断题。从文章最后一段结尾一句 Exercise and physical treatment can help the patients of this disease.可知答案。 C 9. C 这是一道细节理解题。根据文章第二段的介绍,Rachel 是一种叫做 Facemail 的科技新 产品,能以一种颇为迷人的男性、女性或丑角的形象向电子邮件的接收者发送邮件。 10. D 这是一道细节理解题。 从第一段的描述、 第二段的介绍和第四段所举的例子可以看出, 用这种 Facemail 发送的电子邮件能够将其内容拟人化,并带有发送者所赋予的表情,这样就使 得阅读邮件的过程变得很有趣(funny)、令人感觉很舒适(cool)。 11. B 这是一道推理判断题。要求考生根据对文章的理解推断作者的意图。作者在此只是提 出一种假设:假如你进入耐克公司的网站,看到迈克尔?乔丹喊着你的名字与你打招呼、接待你
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并亲自与你进行交易的话会怎样?当然会令购物更有趣了。 其他三个选项都是陈述事实而非假设。 12. B 这也是一道推理判断题。 要求考生根据对文章的理解体会作者的言外之意。 从全文看, 作者对 Facemail 是持肯定和赞赏态度的,从第一段最后一句和上一题的选项都可得到提示。 D 13. C 这是一道细节理解题。从文章第一段的三句话可以明显看出。 14. B 这是一道细节理解题。Kendrick 在采访中的几句话都带有推测和不肯定的语气,这表 明目前人们对于绵羊的智力的研究还很少,没有肯定性的结论。 15. C 这是一道细节理解题。 从文章第五段 So hours of seemingly mindless eating grass may not be SO mindless after a11.一句可以看出。 16. D 这是一道推理判断题。根据常理推断,科学家们通过研究发现绵羊的智力在许多方面 与人相似之后,会对这种现象非常感兴趣。其余三项根据不合常理,可以排除。 E 17. D 本题考查对于全文主旨大意地把握并要求考生据此选择最佳标题。文章主要讨论垃圾 处理的问题(A 项),至于处理垃圾的地点(B 项)、垃圾污染的危害(C 项)和处理垃圾的方式(D 项) 都是垃圾处理问题的一个方面,不能以偏概全。 18. B 这是一道细节理解题。recycle 意为“循环利用” 。对于垃圾的循环利用是最近才开始的 一项技术,18 世纪的时候是没有的。文章二、三段明确提到其余三种垃圾处理方法。 19. D 这是一道细节理解题。文章第四段提到 landfills(垃圾掩埋法)和 long-distance trash hauling(垃圾长途拖运),可见现代社会人们所使用的垃圾处理方法还和以前一样。 20. A 这是一道作者意图推测题。C,D 两项很容易排除掉,B 项没有提到垃圾处理的问题, 偏离文章的主题;所以答案选 A。

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