当前位置:首页 >> 英语 >>

2015语法填空讲解


专题四

语法填空

A (2014· 新课标卷Ⅱ 语法填空)One morning, I was waiting at the bus stop, worried about __41__(be) late for school. There were many people waiting at the bus stop, __42__

some of them looked very anxious and __43__(disappoint). When the bus finally came, we all hurried on board. I got a place next __44__ the window, so I had a good view of the sidewalk. A boy on a bike __45__(catch) my attention. He was riding beside the bus and waving his arms. I heard a passenger behind me shouting to the driver, but he refused __46__(stop) until we reached the next stop.Still, the boy kept __47__(ride). He was carrying something over his shoulder and shouting. Finally, when we came to the next stop, the boy ran up to the door of the bus. I heard an excited conversation. Then the driver stoop up and asked, “__48__ anyone lose a suitcase at the last stop?” A woman on the bus shouted, “Oh dear! It is __49__(I).” She pushed her way to the driver and took the suitcase thankfully. Everyone on the bus began talking about what the boy had done, and the crowd of strangers __50__(sudden) became friendly to one another. 语篇解读:这是一篇记叙文。一件小事改变了人们对彼此的看法。 41.解析:being 考查非谓语动词。worry about 表示“担忧”,介词后接名 词或动名词。 42.解析:and 考查连词。前后句之间是顺承关系,应用 and。很多人在 候车,一些人看起来很担忧、失望。 43.解析:disappointed 考查词性转换。 look disappointed 是系表结构, 表示“看起来感到失望”。 44.解析:to 考查介词。next to 是固定搭配,表示“紧挨着”。 45.解析:caught 考查时态。catch one's attention 表示“引起某人的注意”, 根据文中的时态可知应用一般过去时。 46.解析:to stop 考查非谓语动词。refuse to do sth. 表示“拒绝做某事”。 47.解析:riding 考查非谓语动词。 keep doing sth.表示“一直做某事”。 48.解析:Did 考查助动词。结合语境可知这里询问说话之前的情况,故 用一般过去时。 49.解析:me/mine 考查代词。一名女士惊呼,“是我丢东西了/那是我的 箱子”。 50 .解析: suddenly 考查词性转换。陌生的人群突然间变得友好起来。 修饰动词应用副词。 B (2014· 辽宁语法填空) Jonny:Hey! I'm just practicing Tai Chi (太极). Would you like to join me? Peter:I know nothing about it. Is it difficult? Jonny:It seems easy, but you need a lot of practice. You just follow me like this. Peter:OK. Don't laugh __61__ me. I may look funny. Jonny:Bend your knees slightly and reach out your arms like tree branches,

naturally and __62__ (soft). Try to keep your body straight. Move slowly, then be sure to keep your balance and don't let your body shake. Peter:I cannot control my body well. My legs become __63__ (pain). Jonny:Keep __64__ (hold) your position for a while. It helps develop your strength and flexibility. Raise your leg and let __65__ stay in the air for seconds. Peter:I feel my legs shaking. I cannot do this any longer. Jonny:Be patient! Tai Chi __66__ (call) “shadow boxing” in English. It asks you to act like water: to be flexible as well __67__ strong. In real competition, a Tai Chi master borrows the strength of the competitor and uses this energy to fight back. The __68__ (hard) you try to beat him, the more likely you will get hit. He controls you! Peter:Unbelievable! Oh ..., __69__ you don't mind, I'll stop and take a deep __70__. 语篇解读:这是一篇对话。该对话让我们了解了不少有关太极的知识。 61.解析:at 考查固定搭配。laugh at 为固定搭配,意为“取笑;嘲笑”。 根据下面一句 I may look funny“也许我看上去很滑稽”,所以先提醒对方不要嘲 笑我。 62.解析:softly 考查副词。本句应该使用副词 softly 与前面的 naturally 一起作为状语修饰前面的动词。要很自然柔和地弯曲膝盖伸展胳膊。 63.解析:painful 考查形容词。become 为系动词,其后需要跟形容词作 表语,painful“疼痛的,疼的”。 64.解析:holding 考查非谓语动词。keep doing sth.“一直做某事”;本句 表示要一直维持住这个姿势一段时间,会帮助发展你的力气和灵活性。 65.解析:it 考查代词。句意:抬高腿让它在空中停滞几秒钟。其中的 it 指代的是前面出现的 your leg。 66.解析:is called 考查动词时态和语态。此处表示 “太极拳在英国被叫 作 shadow boxing”,应用一般现在时的被动语态。 67 .解析: as 考查固定搭配。本句是一个固定搭配 as well as “…… 和……,也……”。太极要求你动作如水,不但要灵活而且要强劲。 68.解析: harder 考查比较级。此处与下句中的 “the +比较级 ” 构成 “the +比较级, the +比较级” 结构,意为“越……越……”。 你越用力击打他,你越 可能被击中,他能够控制你。因为对方会借力打力。 69.解析: if 考查连词。考查上下句之间的关系。句意:如果你不介意, 我得停下来深呼吸一下。 70.解析:breath 考查名词。Peter 认为这样的事情是不可能的,所以他 想深呼吸让自己平静下来。故使用 take a deep breath“深呼吸”。 2014 年新课标卷样题(对话体)展示: Mum:(putting on her coat) I'm going to have to go down to the shop for more bread. Alan:Why? Mum:I'm not sure what __1__ (happen). I made some sandwiches earlier and left them on the table __2__ I went to answer the phone. But someone must have taken them because they're __3__(go). Alan:Oh, it must have been Dad. I'm sure he was in the kitchen __4__(early).

Mum:No, he went off to his tennis match before I finished __5__(make) them, so he couldn't have done it.__6__, he couldn't carry a plate of sandwiches as well as all his tennis stuff, so I'm sure __7__ wasn't him. Alan:(opening the fridge door) Well, it wasn't me. But Mum, look! Are these your sandwiches here on the bottom shelf of __8__ fridge? Mum:Are they there? Oh, my goodness. I __9__ have put them in there when the phone rang. Oh, dear. I really must be losing my __10__. Now, why did I put on my coat? 给提示词 不给提示词 动词 (时 形容 形容 词性 名 其 连 名 动 代词 介 情态 态、 词 词 转换 词 他 词 词 词 冠词 词 动词 非谓 副词 副词 语) 1 2 — 1 — 1 1 — 1 2 — 1 本样题给出提示词的包括: 词性转换(名词与动词的转换,形容词与副词的转换 ),如第 3 题提示词是 动词 go 变成了形容词 gone。 形容词或副词比较级与最高级的变化,如第 4 题提示词 early 变成了 earlier 的形式;名词单复数的变化。 动词的时态、语态及词形的变化,如第 1 题 happen 变成了过去式 happened 和第 5 题的 make 变成了 making 等。 不给出提示词的包括: 根据上下文的语境填入冠词,如第 8 题填入定冠词 the 表示特指的用法。 连词,如第 2 题填入连词 when 引导时间状语从句。 代词,如第 7 题根据内容填入代词 it 以及副词或名词等。 特点:考查词形变化的考点偏多,并且未给出提示词的空处有填实词的考 点,如第 10 题要求考生根据内容填入名词 mind/memory 等;挖空一般比较均匀, 所要填空的地方一般不会影响考生对短文的理解。 2014 年新课标高考英语语法填空题考点统计

1.语法填空题的命题特点 语法填空题是一种综合英语语言能力的测评方式,因为在完成测试文章时, 考生必须读懂文章的内容,同时猜测缺失部分的单词的意义,这样在重新构建 语篇的过程中,考生必须运用英语语言文化、语篇分析、学习策略等各方面的 能力来完成这一项任务。显然,语篇型语法填空题考查的重点是考生分析、综 合、信息转换等超出语言知识以外的语言应用能力。 (1)命题形式 ① 材料字数:1 篇文章,短文体 200 字左右,对话体 180 字左右。难度适中, 符合高中中等学生的阅读水平。 ② 试题数:10 小题。 ③ 分值:15 分,每小题 1.5 分。 ④ 试题材料形式: 一般分为短文体、对话体两种,相关情况如下表: 给提示词(4-7 个) 不给提示词(3-6 个) 名词 形容 形容 词性 动 其 连 名 动 代词 介 (单 词 词 转换 词 他 词 词 词 冠词 词 复数) 副词 副词 (2)命题特点 ① 给出提示词的较多(4-7 个); ② 考查词性变化的考点偏多,并且未给出提示词的空处有填实词的考点; ③ 每空填写不超过三个词; ④挖空一般比较均匀,所要填空的地方一般不会影响学生对短文的整体理 解。 2.语法填空题的考点 以各种词形变换为重点,如名词复数、动词第三人称单数、动词过去式过 去分词、动名词、分词等。形式的准确尤为重要。 (1) 词法

(2)句法

语法填空题是以语篇的形式在具体语境中考查语法知识的运用能力,我们 在解题前应快速浏览短文掌握大意,有把握的空格可以先进行填写。在读懂短 文的基础上,再结合短文提供的特定的语言环境去逐句分析、逐题解答。 下面我们结合有无提示词的情况进行具体分析: 一、有提示词 1.括号内提供的是动词 首先,判断要填的动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。然后根据以下两点进 行思考。 (1)若句中没有别的谓语动词,或者虽然已有谓语动词,但需填的动词与之 是并列关系时,所给动词就是谓语动词;若是谓语动词,就要考虑时态和语态。 [ 典例 ](2014· 新课标卷Ⅰ节选 )In 1969, the pollution was terrible along the Cuyahoga River near Cleveland, Ohio. It __61__(be) unimaginable that it could ever be cleaned up.(分析:第一步,观察 61 题括号内提供的是 be 动词;第二步,判 断谓语动词、非谓语动词,分析空处所在句式结构可知句子为主从复合句,句 首的 it 为形式主语,that 引导主语从句;主句中缺少谓语动词;第三步,确定 时态、语态。根据本段第一句 In 1969, the pollution was terrible 可知本段叙述的 是过去发生的事情,因此用一般过去时,由于主语是 it, 因此此处谓语动词用 was。此处句意为:在 1969 年,the Cuyahoga River near Cleveland, Ohio 被污染 得如此严重,以前没有人能够想象到这条河会被清理干净。答案为 was。) (2)若句中已有谓语动词,又不是并列谓语动词时,所给动词就是非谓语动 词;若是非谓语动词就要确定是 v.ing 形式,v.ed 形式,还是不定式。确定的 方法主要有:① 作主语或宾语时,通常用 v.ing 形式表示习惯或一般情况,用不 定式表示具体情况;② 作伴随状语时,通常用分词,若与逻辑主语之间是主动 关系,用现在分词(v.ing);若是被动关系,用过去分词(v.ed);③ 作目的状语、 形容词后的状语时,一般用不定式。 [ 典例 1](2014· 新课标卷Ⅰ节选 )It took years of work __65__ (reduce) the industrial pollution and clean the water.(分析:第一步,观察 65 题括号内提供的

是动词 reduce;第二步,判断谓语动词、非谓语动词,分析句子结构可知, 65 题所在句为简单句,谓语动词为 took,故空处需填非谓语动词;第三步,确定 形式。根据固定句式:It takes/took sb. some time to do sth.“做某事花了某人一段 时间”,可知此处应填不定式 to reduce。注意句中的 and clean 为 and 连接省略 to 的并列不定式。答案为 to reduce。) [ 典例 2](2014· 郑州模拟节选 )________(see) from the top of the tower, the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees.(分析:第一步,观察括号内提供的是动 词 see;第二步,判断谓语动词、非谓语动词,句中无连词,逗号不能连接两个 句子,故空处应用非谓语动词;第三步,确定形式,see 与句子主语 the south foot of the mountain 之间为被动关系,故用其过去分词形式在句中作状语。答案 为 Seen) [ 特别提醒] 有时所给提示词虽然是动词,但是空格处既不是考查谓语动 词也不是非谓语动词,而是要求进行词类转换。 [ 典例 3](2014· 哈尔滨模拟节选 )My first football ________(compete) was in Nagoya, Japan several years ago.(分析:提示词虽是动词 compete,但分析句子结 构可知,句中缺少的是主语,由名词 football 修饰,故空处需用名词形式,依据 语意可知此处表示“自己的第一次足球比赛”。答案为 competition。) 2.括号内提供的是形容词或副词 (1)如果括号内提供的是形容词,一般是考查副词,即要变成副词形式;如 果括号内提供的是副词,一般是考查形容词,即要变成形容词形式。 [典例](2014· 新课标卷Ⅰ 节选)The river was so polluted that it __62__(actual) caught fire and burned.(分析:提示词为形容词 actual,分析句子结构可知,空处 在句中修饰谓语动词 caught,故应该用其副词形式 actually。答案为 actually。) (2)有时也要根据语境判断是否要变成名词形式或否定含义。 [典例](2014· 长春模拟节选)At last, her courage and ________(wise) impressed both the CEO and Princeton University.(分析:提示词为形容词 wise, 分析句子结 构可知,空处与前面的名词 courage 是并列成分,一起在句中充当主语,故要 用其名词形式 wisdom。答案为 wisdom。) (3)比较等级 通常有表示范围的 in/of 介词短语或形容词前有 the 时,一般要用最高级; than 的前面一定要用比较级。 [典例 1](2014· 新课标卷Ⅰ节选)Finally, that hard work paid off and now the water in the river is __66__ (clean) than ever.(分析:提示词为形容词 clean,分析 句子结构,根据空后的 than,可知空缺处应该填提示词的比较级形式。句意: 最后人们的努力得到了回报,现在这条河比以前更干净了。答案为 cleaner。) [ 典例 2](2014· 贵阳模拟节选 )One of the ________ (bad) gift choices I ever made was for my high school English teacher ...(分析:提示词为形容词 bad,空处 为 one of the+名词复数形式,表示“……其中之一”,范围是三者或三者以上, 因此形容词需要用最高级形式 worst。答案为 worst。) 3.括号内提供的是名词 (1)如果空格是在冠词、物主代词、指示代词、不定代词、名词所有格或形 容词之后,则应考虑填名词。但不要忘记考虑名词是否变复数。 [ 典 例 ](2014· 新 课 标 卷 Ⅰ节 选 )While there are amazing stories of instant transformation, for most of us the __69__ (change) are gradual and require a lot of

effort and work, like cleaning up a polluted river.(分析:提示词为名词 change,根 据本句中谓语动词部分是系动词 are,说明主语应该是一个复数形式的名词,所 以使用 changes。答案为 changes。) (2)当括号内提供的是名词时,还可能考查形容词、副词、动词等。 [典例 1](2014· 新课标卷Ⅰ 节选)Just be __70__ (patience).(分析:提示词为 名词 patience,但空格前为系动词 be,故应用其形容词形式在句中作表语。答 案为 patient。) [ 典例 2](2014· 唐山模拟节选 )A certain man planted a rose and watered it ________(faith) and before it blossomed, he examined it.(分析:提示词为名词 faith, 但空处在句中作状语,修饰动词 watered,故应用其副词形式。注意:先将名词 faith 变成形容词 faithful,然后再变成副词 faithfully。答案为 faithfully。) 4.词性转换题 词性的判断主要是通过分析句子的成分来确定。一般情况下可以作如下分 析: (1)表语、定语和补语一般由形容词充当,有时也可以是动名词、现在分词 和过去分词等。 [典例](2014· 新课标卷样题节选)I made some sandwiches earlier and left them on the table when I went to answer the phone. But someone must have taken them because they're ________(go).(分析:提示词为动词 go,因空处在句中作表语, 故应用其形容词形式: gone adj.“离去的,不见的”。句意:因为三明治不见了, 所以有人肯定把它们拿走了。答案为 gone。) (2)修饰动词、形容词、副词,或整个句子,作状语,用副词形式。 [典例](2014· 承德模拟节选)Even days after I reported the event to the police, they failed to ________(proper) solve this situation of even return my calls.(分析:提 示词为形容词 proper,因空处在句中作状语修饰动词 solve,故应用其副词形式。 答案为 properly。) (3)作主语,或在及物动词或介词后作宾语,用名词形式。 [ 典 例 ](2014· 银 川 模 拟 节 选 )A new opera, written by a secondgeneration NigerianAmerican, tells the story of Harriet Tubman, who escaped from slavery and led others to ________(free) a century and a half ago.(分析:提示词为形容词 free, 因空处位于介词 to 之后,故应用其名词形式在句中作宾语。注意:lead to 中的 to 为介词。 答案为 freedom。) (4)在形容词性物主代词后,或者在“冠词(+形容词)”后,用名词形式。 [典例](2014· 海口模拟节选)What came out of his mouth surprised me.I'd never heard a more comforting ________(explain).(分析:提示词为动词 explain,因空 格前有不定冠词 a,故此处应用其名词形式,意为“我从来没有听过比这更安慰 人心的解释”。答案为 explanation。) 二、无提示词 纯空格填空题主要是填冠词、介词、代词、连接词(含从属连词和并列连词) 和情态动词等。首先,分析句子结构,根据句子所缺成分确定填哪类词。然后, 根据句子意思,确定具体填什么词;或根据两句间的逻辑关系确定具体用哪个 连词。 1.填代词

在简单句和并列句中,若句子缺少主语或宾语,一般是填代词。 [典例](2014· 石家庄模拟节选)I can send a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and ________ gets there almost in a second.(分析:分析句子结构可知,and 连 接前后两个句子, and 后面的句子缺主语,应填名词或代词;结合前一分句, 不难推知,“马上可到达那里”的是 the message,替代 the message 用代词 it。答 案为 it。) 2.填限定词 名词前面若没有限定词 (冠词、形容词性物主代词、不定代词等),很可能 是填限定词。 [ 典例 ](2014· 银川模拟节选 )It is said that a shorttempered man in the Song Dynasty (960 ~ 1279) was very anxious to help ________ rice crop grow up quickly.(分析:名词 rice crop 前还没有限定词,应当填限定词;根据句意,据说 宋朝有一个急性子的人急于使“他的”禾苗长得快,故填形容词性物主代词 his。 答案为 his。) 3.填介词 名词或代词在句中不作主语、表语或动词的宾语时,其前面一般是填介词。 介词可位于名词之前,如 at night, on Sunday 等;也可位于形容词之后,如 be interested in , be good at 等;还可位于不及物动词之后,如 listen to, arrive at, look for 等。 [典例](2014· 遵义模拟节选)The richest of these billionaires is Bill Gates, worth at least $41 billion, who made his money ________ starting the company Microsoft.(分析:依据句意可知 Bill Gates 是通过创办微软公司挣钱的,因此空 处填 by,此处 by 表“通过……途径”。答案为 by。) 4.填连词 连词有两类:一类是并列连词,另一类是从属连词。 我们可以根据句子的 类型判断所要填的词类。主要有以下几种结构或句型: (1)并列结构与并列句:并列结构包括由并列连词连接的词或词组;并列句 一般由“简单句+并列连词+简单句 ”构成,有时并列连词前有逗号。可以根据 上下句的内在联系判断连词,如并列关系(and)、转折关系(but)、选择关系(or)、 因果关系(so)等。 [ 典例 ](2014· 新课标卷Ⅰ节选 )But the river wasn't changed in a few days __64__ even a few months.(分析:空处连接两个并列的短语在句中作时间状语, 根据句意“但是这条河流的改变不是几天或者几个月的事情 ”可知,此处应填表 示选择的连词 or。答案为 or。) [特别提醒] 若两个句子(有两个主谓结构)之间,或者两个单词以及短语中 间,没有句号或分号,也没有连词,那空格处通常是填连接词,否则,句子结 构就不完整。 (2)状语从句:当确定为状语从句后,就要通过理解语境,判断上下文的逻 辑关系确定是哪种从句,是时间、地点、条件、原因、让步、目的或其他,最 后确定从属连词。 [ 典例 ](2014· 唐山模拟节选 )House prices vary from place to place and are usually high ________ there are famous schools.(分析:句意:各地的房价不同, 有名校的地方,房价通常很高。根据句意可知,此处需要用 where 引导地点状 语从句。答案为 where。)

(3)名词性从句:当确定为名词性从句后,可以分析从句是否缺主语、宾语 或表语,如果缺以上成分,一般情况下要使用 what,有时可能使用 who/whom 或 which;如果不缺以上成分,则考虑句子意思是否完整,意思完整的句子可 以使用 that,意思不完整的则考虑 whether, when, where, why, how, because 等。 [ 典例 ](2014· 洛阳模拟节选 )I was in the train sitting opposite a middleaged couple. They were ordinary in every respect, but ________ they did touched me deeply.(分析:空处所在的句子为 but 连接的并列分句,第二句中又含有主从复 合句;主句谓语动词为 touched,________ they did 为主语从句,且从句中缺少 did 的宾语,故应填 what。答案为 what。) (4)定语从句:当确定为定语从句后,首先要看看先行词是指人、物、时间、 地点,还是其他,然后判断关系词在从句中的成分,再根据定语从句的有关规 则确定使用哪个关系词。 [典例](2014· 新课标卷Ⅰ节选)Maybe you have a habit __67__ is driving your family crazy.(分析:分析句子结构可知,空处引导一个定语从句,修饰先行词 a habit ( 指物 ) ,且从句中缺少主语,故应填关系代词 that 或 which 。答案为 that/which。) 5.填情态动词或助动词 若结构较完整,空格后的谓语动词是原形,特别是与上下文时态不一致或 主谓不一致时,很可能是填情态动词或表示强调或倒装的助动词(do,does,did 等)。 [典例 1](2014· 齐齐哈尔模拟节选)What is acceptable in one country ________ be considered extremely rude in another.( 分析:句中 What is acceptable in one country 是主语从句,空格后的 be considered 是谓语;因其中的 be 是原形,故 空格处必定是填情态动词或助动词 does(由语境可知是一般现在时,主语是第三 人称单数);再由句意及作者的语气可知,此处需填表示“可能”的情态动词 may。 答案为 may。) [典例 2](2014· 沈阳模拟节选)He had no time or energy to play with his children or talk with his wife, but he ________ bring home a regular salary.(分析:这是一个 由 but 连接的并列句,由前一分句的谓语动词 had 是一般过去时可知,后一分 句的谓语动词 bring 也应用一般过去时;但句中 bring 用的却是原形,既与语境 的时态不符,也与主语 he 不一致,该句又不是倒装句,因此,此处必定是填情 态动词或表示强调的助动词 did;由句意和作者的语气推测,应当填对谓语动词 表示强调的助动词 did。答案为 did。) 6.填冠词 (1)下列情况下很可能填不定冠词: ①________+可数名词(单数); ②________+形容词+可数名词(单数)。 (2)下列情况下很可能填定冠词: ①________(+定语)+名词+of 等介词短语(表示特指); ②________(+定语)+名词+定语从句(表示特指); ③________(+定语)+名词+不定式短语或分词短语(表示特指)。 [典例](2014· 新课标卷Ⅰ节选)Now, years later, this river is one of __63__ most outstanding examples of environmental cleanup.(分析:此空后面的 most 是最高级 的形式,由于形容词的最高级与定冠词连用,因此此处填定冠词 the。答案为

the。) 7.根据固定搭配、典型句型确定动词、名词、介词等 固定搭配的短语及习惯用法是属于比较简单的考点,只要平时注意积累基 本上就能答对。 [ 典例 ](2014· 长春模拟节选 )Volunteer work plays an important ________ in America's high school education.(分析:此处考查短语 play a part in 的搭配用法。 答案为 part。) 8.根据语境判断词义 判断词义可以通过定义、对比、因果、联想、上下文等线索确定。 (1)定义法:定义法是指通过定义解释、定语从句、同位语等判断词义。这 类词主要是名词。 [典型](2014· 石家庄模拟节选)We are all in the position of the ________. If we plant a good seed, we will get a good harvest. If our seed is poor and full of weeds, we'll get a useless crop. If we don't plant anything, we'll harvest nothing at all.(分析: 通过后面句子的含义解释可以确定空格处词义是“农夫、农民”,特别是几个关 键 词 “plant , seed , harvest” 与 farmer 的 工 作 特 点 是 完 全 一 致 的 。 答 案 为 farmer。) (2)对比法:对比法是指通过句子的对比关系来判断所缺单词的词义,通常 可以通过一些连词或副词来判断,如 but, or, however, while, on the contrary, on the other hand 等。 [典例](2014· 贵阳模拟节选)There are more ________ teachers in my schools than men teachers.(分析:通过对比后面的 men teachers 可以确定空格处词义是 “女性”,即名词 women 作定语修饰 teachers。答案为 women。) (3)因果法:指通过句子的内在联系或句子之间存在的因果关系来判断词义。 [典例](2014· 齐齐哈尔模拟节选)The museum was so ________ that it will be impossible to see all the exhibits in one day.(分析:根据结果状语从句的含义“不可 能一天之内看完所有的展品”可以判断主句指的原因是“博物馆太大了”。答案为 large。) (4)语境线索:即通过上下语境确定空格内要填的词义。 [典例](2014· 石家庄模拟节选)One day mother looked at Nick's shoes and said, “Nick, look at your shoes. How ________ they are! You must clean them.” (分析:根 据语境“看看你的鞋子,你必须把它们弄干净”可以判断空格处词义是 “脏的 ”。 答案为 dirty。) 综上所述,语法填空题虽然难度相对较大,考查范围相对较广,考生失分 现象较为严重,但是只要考生能够清楚地了解这类题目的命题特点和命题规律, 掌握答题的技巧,在备考的过程中有针对性地多加练习,熟练语法的运用,及 时对经验进行总结,加强在语篇情境下的应用能力,在考试中就能提高准确率, 取得理想的成绩。

[随堂即时训练] A (2014· 贵阳高三质检)

W:Mr. Brown, this is your bed, and as you can see, there are three other beds in the ward. Have you 1.________(get) everything you need? M:Yes, nurse, I think 2.________. I followed the hospital's advice, and I've only brought a few 3.________(belong) with me. W : Good, you can see the reasons 4.________ we ask you to do that, the cupboard is 5.________(real) very small. M:Yes. Nurse, can you tell me what the visiting hours are? W:Yes, of course. They are in the afternoon from 2:30 to 4:30 and in the evening from 7:00 6.________ 8:00, but remember that only two people can see you at the same time. M:I see. What other rules are there? W:Yes.We start pretty early. We wake you at 6 o'clock, and breakfast is at 8 o'clock, lunch is at noon, there is tea at 3:30, and supper is at 6 o'clock. M:Oh, that's very 7.________(difference) from what I have been used to. You'd better tell me the rest of the rules here. W : Yes. Well, you can see the no 8.________(smoke) sign. We don't allow smoking in the wards, and the same 9.________(go) for alcohol. However, if you 10.________(need) to smoke, there are special rooms. M:Oh, I don't smoke, so it doesn't affect me. W:Good. 答案 1.解析: got 考查谓语动词。因为该句使用的是现在完成时态,所以填 写过去分词 got,构成 have got ...结构。 2.解析:so 考查副词。此处用 so 来代替上文提到的内容。 3.解析:belongings 考查名词。分析句子可知,a few 后用名词的复数形 式。belonging 意为“行李”。 4.解析:why 考查关系副词。分析句子可知,此处用 why 来引导定语从 句。句意:你能看到我们让你那么做的原因,橱柜真的非常小。误解分析:此 处不可用关系代词 that 或 which 来引导定语从句。因为关系代词在定语从句中 作主语或宾语,而此时定语从句中不缺少主语或宾语,故用 why 而不用 that 或 which。 5.解析:really 考查副词。此处用副词修饰形容词。 6.解析:to 考查介词。固定短语 from ... to ... “从……到……”。 7.解析:different 考查形容词。分析句子可知,此处考查形容词短语 be different from ...“不同于……”。 8.解析:smoking 考查名词。no smoking sign“禁止吸烟的标志”。 9.解析:goes 考查动词的时态。根据句中的 and 可知,该句为并列句, 所以前后的时态应是一致的,由上文的“We don't allow smoking ...”可知,该句应 为一般现在时态。误解分析:此处不可用 go,因为主语为 the same,故谓语动 词为 goes。 10.解析:(do) need 考查动词的时态。根据下文的“there are special rooms” 可知,if 条件从句中用一般现在时态,且可在 need 前加 do,表示强调。 B (2014· 吉林大学附中高三检测 )A friend's grandfather came to America from Eastern Europe. After 1.________ (settle) down at Ellis Island, he went into a

cafeteria in Manhattan to get something 2.________(eat).He sat down at an empty table and waited for someone to take his order. Of course nobody did. 3.________(final), a woman with a tray full of food sat down opposite him and informed him 4.________ a cafeteria worked. “Start out at that end,” she said. “Just go along the line and pick out what you want. At 5.________ other end they'll tell you how much you have to pay.” “I soon 6.________(learn) how everything works in America,” the grandfather told the friend. “Life's a cafeteria here. You can get anything you want as long as you are 7.________(will) to pay the price. You can even get success, 8.________ you'll never get it if you wait for someone to bring it to you. You have to get up and get it yourself.” You can't change the inevitable. The only thing you can do 9.________ to control your attitude. Once you reach that point in life, happiness and 10.________(satisfy) can't be too far away.
错误!

1.解析:settling 考查非谓语动词。介词后跟动词的 ing 形式,且 settle 与其逻辑主语 he 之间是主动关系,所以用 settling。 2.解析:to eat 考查非谓语动词。此处用不定式作定语,因此填 to eat。 3.解析:Finally 考查副词。副词作状语,所以用 Finally。 4.解析:how 考查连接词。根据第二段可知那位妇女告诉他自助餐厅是 “如何”工作的,所以用 how。 5.解析:the 考查冠词。前面提到 Start out at that end,这里说“在另一 头”,判断应该是 the other end。 6 . 解 析 : learned 考 查 时 态 。 根 据 语 境 应 该 用 一 般 过 去 时 , 因 此 用 learned。 7.解析:willing 考查形容词。表示“愿意做某事”用 be willing to do sth.。 8.解析:but 考查连词。前后两个分句之间是转折关系,所以用 but。 9 .解析: is 考查系动词。分析句子结构可知缺谓语动词,主语是 the only thing,此处填 is 构成主系表结构。 10 .解析: satisfaction 考查名词。 and 连接的是两个并列成分,因为 happiness 是名词,所以此处也应该用名词,即 satisfaction。 C (2014· 唐山模拟)About three years ago, I gave a card to a Starbucks waitress. When I went in the next day, she couldn't help crying and told me that she was 1.________(deep) moved by my note and realized what she did really mattered. I went through a hard time 2.________ I felt anything but thankful. On New Year's Day of 2008, I went for a hike, feeling 3.________(happy). I was overweight. I owned a lawyer's office, but it was losing money. On my hike, I heard a voice. It said I 4.________ not worry about what I wanted or had lost but should be grateful for what I had. The idea of a year of thankyous came into my head. This project changed my life. After I thanked my 5.________(colleague) for directing cases to me, they sent me 6.________(many). When I expressed gratitude to clients for paying on time, they 7.________(begin) doing so even more quickly. 8.________ life has improved since that hike. I'm now in great shape, and I have got my dream job. Having written my 860th note, I can say thankyou letters make 9.________ difference and that 10.________(grateful) is a path to the peace we all try to get.

答案 1.解析:deeply 考查副词。deeply“深深地”,为副词,修饰动词 moved, 表示抽象的含义。 2.解析:when 考查定语从句的关系词。when 引导的定语从句修饰先行 词 time。 3.解析:unhappy 考查形容词。前面语境谈到:我经历了艰难的一段时 间,由此判定“感到不高兴”恰当,因为 feel 表示“感觉”,后面接形容词,所以 用 unhappy。误解分析:该题学生容易填 happy 或 happily,填 happy 的学生明 白 feel 后接形容词作表语,但是忽略了前面的语境;填 happily 的学生以为 feel 后面接副词,这本身就是一种错误。 4.解析:should 考查情态动词。根据后面的语境 but should be grateful for what I had 可判定“我不应该为想得到的或者已经失去的担忧”,所以用 should。 5.解析:colleagues 考查名词单复数。根据后面的 they sent me ...判断“同 事”不止一个,所以用其复数形式,即 colleagues。 6.解析:more 考查代词。根据语境此处应填表示更多的人或物的词,所 以用代词 more。 7.解析:began 考查时态。根据前面的句子 When I expressed gratitude to clients for paying on time,可知应该用一般过去时,所以用 began。 8.解析:My 考查代词。根据语境此处应该用 My。 9.解析:a 考查固定短语。make a difference“起作用;产生影响”,为固 定短语。 10.解析:gratefulness 考查名词。从后面的内容 is a path to the peace we all try to get 可以看出,所填词应该是名词,作主语,所以用 gratefulness。 D (2014· 临汾联考 )My daughter's birthday is May 29. As it was Monday, we preferred to celebrate it 1.________(early) on Saturday. On Friday the entire family 2.________(be) busy packing the presents and putting funny pins on them. I promised my little princess that I would wake her up early in the morning and distribute the presents to her classmates. I woke up at 5:30 3.________ I realized that an earthquake struck. I woke my husband up 4.________ asked him to carry my daughter and ran out. We were watching our house 5.________(shake) from outside. However, as we 6.________(plan), we went to my daughter's school but no one was there except the teacher who warned us to get 7.________ to our house as tsunami might come soon. Returning to my house, I began to wonder about the presents: to whom we should deliver? After some 8.________(discuss), we decided to give them to the children in hospital. Entering the hospital, I was really 9.________(shock). There were thousands of people bleeding and lying outside the rooms. A boy came up with a bandage on his head. Quickly I handed over one present to 10.________. 答案 1.解析:earlier 考查比较级。前面提到生日是星期一,我们想提前到星 期六过,所以应该用比较级 earlier。 2.解析:were 考查主谓一致和时态。family 在此是“家人”的意思,所以 谓语动词用复数,同时因为是过去的时间,所以用 were。 3.解析:when 考查定语从句的关系词。5:30 在后面的定语从句中作时 间状语,所以用 when。

4.解析: and 考查连词。 “我叫醒丈夫 ”和 “让他把女儿抱出去 ”是并列关 系,所以用 and。 5 .解析: shaking 考查非谓语动词。 shake 作宾语补足语,该动作是 house 发出的,为主动,同时表示进行,所以用 shaking。 6.解析:had planned 考查时态。plan 这个动作发生在那天之前,所以用 过去完成时,即 had planned。误解分析:本题容易填 planned,单纯从后面主句 的谓语动词 went 判断用一般过去时。 7.解析:back 考查副词。这里指老师让我们回家,故用 back。 8 .解析: discussion 考查名词。 some 在此处修饰的是名词,所以用 discussion(不可数名词)。 9.解析:shocked 考查形容词。shocked 为形容词,意为“震惊的”。 10.解析:him 考查代词。前面提到 A boy came up with a bandage on his head.故应该是“我把一个礼物递给他”,所以用 him 指代这个男孩。 [专题滚动检测(二十三)] (限时:30 分钟 语法填空 2 篇+阅读理解 1 篇+ 任务型阅读) Ⅰ .语法填空 A Last week, in an unusual way, a stranger treated me with generosity. At an Asian grocery store on a busy evening, I was shopping for the items I needed 1.________ my voluntary work of cooking breakfast on Saturday at a shelter for the homeless in San Jose. I went to the store 2.________ (buy) tofu and vegetables. As I 3.________ (wait) in line to finish the purchase, the lady next to me approached me to find out 4.________ I was going to consume the big box of tofu I was buying. Enthusiastically, I replied that I was buying food to cook breakfast for homeless people. While I was getting ready to pay the bill, to my 5.________ (amaze), she offered to pay for everything.Despite multiple requests for 6.________ name, she responded that she felt good because I was doing the kind of community work which her parents once received help from 7.________ they came to this country as refugees. Hence she wanted to take 8.________ opportunity to show her gratitude. It was the 9.________ (good) reward I had ever received for my voluntary work, 10.________ began three years ago. In a strange way we are all connected and we feel for each other. That's what I call being a “human”. 答案: 1.解析:for 考查介词。由语境可知,此处应用 for 表示目的。我在购买 我做志愿者工作所需的物品。 2.解析:to buy 考查非谓语动词。此处为不定式作目的状语。 3.解析:was waiting 考查时态。由语境可知,此处描述的是当时正在发 生的事,所以用过去进行时。 4.解析:how 考查宾语从句的引导词。由语境判断应用 how。此处表示 “挨着我的那位女士接近我,想知道我将如何吃掉我买的这一大盒豆腐”。 5.解析:amazement 考查词性转换。此处是“to one's+名词”结构,故空 格处应用 amaze 的名词形式,to my amazement“使我大为惊奇的是”。 6.解析: her 考查代词。由设空特点看,此处需要限定词,再结合语境

“she responded that she felt good ...”可推知应用 her。 7.解析:when/as 考查从属连词。此处表示 “当她的父母作为难民来到这 个国家时”。 8.解析: the 考查冠词。由语境可知,此处特指当前这个付款的机会, 因此用定冠词。 9.解析: best 考查形容词的最高级。由后面表示范围的定语从句 “I had ever received for my voluntary work”可知此处应用最高级形式。 10.解析:which 考查定语从句的关系词。此处 which 指代“my voluntary work”,并在定语从句中作主语。 B Interviewer: I wonder 1.________ you could tell me something about your stampcollecting, Mr. Gibbon. Gibbon : I'd be pleased 2.________.What kind of things would you like to know? Interviewer : How old were you when you started 3.________ (collect) stamps? Gibbon:I'd just started secondary school, so I might be 12. Interviewer:And how many years have you been collecting stamps? Gibbon:Well, I'm 40 now, so I'll leave you to work that 4.________! Interviewer:OK. How did you start collecting? I mean,where did you get your first stamps? Gibbon:My father used to collect stamps, and I was 5.________ (interest) in his collection. He gave me my first packet of stamps, and 6.________ were British. Interviewer:You 7.________ (collect) stamps for all these years. How many would you say you've got altogether? Gibbon:That's not easy to answer, but 8.________ I'd say about ten thousand stamps. Interviewer:That's a lot! How much do you think they're worth? Gibbon:I'll guess ...perhaps ...about D|S15,000. Interviewer:Hmm! And which is the oldest stamp in your collection? Gibbon:That's easy to answer! I've got one of the world's first stamps — the Penny Black, 9.________ was sold in Britain in 1840. Interviewer:Do you only collect British stamps or stamps from all over the world? Gibbon:No. I specialize in Great Britain, and also China and Finland. I've got quite a good collection of these 10.________ (country). 答案: 1 .解析: if/whether 考查宾语从句的引导词。此处表示我想知道你是否 可以告诉我一些关于你集邮的事情,故应填 if/whether“是否”。 2.解析:to 考查动词不定式的省略。此处完整的句子应是“I'd be pleased to tell you something about my stamp?collecting.”,动词不定式所表示的内容与上 面相同,动词不定式省略到 to。 3.解析:collecting/to collect 考查非谓语动词。start 后接动词时要用动名 词或者不定式。 4.解析:out 考查副词。work out 表“计算,统计”之意,为固定短语,符 合语境。

5.解析:interested 考查词性转换。be interested in 表“对……感兴趣”之意, 为固定搭配,符合语境。 6.解析: they 考查代词。此处指代 “my first packet of stamps” ,因此用 they 来代替。 7.解析:have been collecting 考查时态。依据时间状语可知,Gibbon 这 些年一直都在集邮,因此用现在完成进行时,表示动作的持续性。 8.解析:roughly/appropriately 考查语境。此处表示邮票的大约数目,因 此用 roughly/appropriately。 9.解析:which 考查定语从句的关系词。这里是引导非限制性定语从句, 关系词代指 the Penny Black,且在从句中作主语,因此用 which。 10.解析:countries 考查名词单复数。此处 country 是可数名词,被 these 修饰,要用复数形式。


相关文章:
2015年高考英语课标卷I 语法填空解析
2015年高考英语课标卷I 语法填空解析_英语_高中教育_教育专区。最新高考题解析 2015 年高考英语课标卷 I 语法填空解析 山东郯城第一中学 徐保国 Yangshuo,China ...
2015年全国各地高考英语语法填空
2015年全国各地高考英语语法填空_高考_高中教育_教育专区。2015 语法填空一、广东...goes 参考解析:根据上下文,此处用一般现在时态。 49. natural 参考解析:形容词...
2015年高考语法填空专题汇编
2015年高考语法填空专题汇编_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。语法填空专题训练...10.[解析] 顺便进入。 [答案] in/by/round (9) If the population of ...
2015届语法填空专题
2015语法填空专题_高考_高中教育_教育专区。Chapter2 语法填空(显性、隐性)【...【解析】1. 由后边的“was”和“and (was) giving【and 并列结构,后面跟的...
2015全国高考英语分类汇编:语法填空
2015 全国高考英语分类汇编:语法填空一(2014 福建卷) 第一节短文填词(共 10 ...16. 【答案】 it 【试题解析】考察代词。在英语中通常使用 it 指代上文说过...
广东高考英语语法填空真题及解析(2011-2015)
广东高考英语语法填空真题及解析(2011-2015)_英语_高中教育_教育专区。最近五年语法填空真题 广东高考英语真题---语法填空题(2011---2015 年) 2011 年 第二节 ...
2015届高考英语语法填空等练习(1)(答案)
2015 高考英语语法填空等练习(1) (答案) 一、语法填空。 阅读下面材料, 在...8. 【解析】slower 考查比较级。句子中有 than 用比较级。第 1 页共 7 ...
2015 语法填空题
2015 语法填空题_高一英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区 暂无评价|0人阅读|0次下载|举报文档2015 语法填空题_高一英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。...
2015高考广东卷英语语法填空及答案
2015高考广东卷英语语法填空及答案_英语_高中教育_教育专区。2015 年高考广东卷语法填空及答案 Mr. Johnson lived in the woods with his wife and children. He...
2015高考英语语法填空答题技巧训练
2015高考英语语法填空答题技巧训练_高三英语_英语_高中教育_教育专区。2015高考英语语法填空答题技巧课件相关课堂练习精选 最新 实用2015 高考英语备考之语法填空 1. Fi...
更多相关标签:
2015高考语法填空真题 | 2015全国卷语法填空 | 语法填空 | 语法填空解题技巧 | 高考英语语法填空 | 英语语法填空固定规律 | 2017高考英语语法填空 | 广州二模英语语法填空 |