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英语句子成分和句子类型


英语句子成分 Sentence Components

一、句子成分
? (一)句子成分的定义:
? 构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。 ? 句子成分有主要成分和次要成分; ? 主要成分有主语和谓语; ? 次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、补

足语、同位语和插入语。

二)主语:
? 主语

(Subject) 表示句子说的是什么人或什么事,是一 个句子所叙述的主体,一般位于句首。
但在there be结构、疑问句(当主语不是 疑问词时)和倒装句中,主语位于谓语、助 动词或情态动词后面。 主语可由名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名 词、名词化的形容词和主语从句等表示。

1.During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. (名词) 2.We often speak English in class. (代词) 3.One-third of the students in this class are girls. (数词) 4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure.
(不定式)

5.Smoking does harm to the health. (动名词) 6.The rich should help the poor.
(名词化的形容词)

7.When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. (主语从句) 8.It is necessary to master a foreign language.
(it作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式)

(三)谓语
? 谓语

(Predicate) 说明主语所做的动作或 具有的特征和状态。动词在句中作谓语, 一般放在主语之后。谓语的构成如下: ? 1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构 成。如: He practices running every morning. The plane took off at ten o’clock.

(三)谓语
? 2、复合谓语:

(1)由情态动词加动词原形构成。如: You may keep the book for two weeks. (2)由助动词加动词原形,现在分词,过去分词构 成。如: Do you speak English? They are working in a field. He has caught a bad cold. (3)由系动词加表语构成。如: We are students. 注意:谓语与主语在人称与数方面要保持一致。

(四)表语
? 表语(Predicative)
? 用以说明主语的性质、特征、状态与身份,

它一般位于系动词(如be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem等)之后。 ? 表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数词、 副 词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语及表 语从句表示。例如:

1.Our teacher of English is an American. (名词) 2.Is it yours? (代词) 3.The weather has turned cold. (形容词) 4.The speech is exciting. (现在分词) 5.Three times seven is twenty one. (数词)

6.His job is to teach English. (不定式) 7.His hobby is playing football. (动名词) 8.The meeting is of great importance. (介词短语) 9.Time is up. The class is over. (副词) 10.The truth is that he has never been abroad. (表语从句)

注意:系动词(Linking verb)用于连接主语和 表语,说明主语的状态,性质特征和身份等。 1)状态系动词用来表示主语状态,只有be一词, 例如: He is a teacher. 2)持续系动词用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况 或态度,主要有keep, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如: He always kept silent at meeting. 3)表像系动词用来表示“看起来像”这一概念, 主要有seem, appear, look, 例如: He seems (to be) very sad.

注意:系动词(Linking verb)用于连接主语和表 语,说明主语的状态,性质特征和身份等。 4)感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如: This kind of cloth feels very soft. 5)变化系动词表示主语变成什么样,主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.例如: The river was beginning to run dry. 6)终止系动词表示主语已终止动作,主要有 prove, turn out, 表达“证明是;结果是”,之意, 例如: The rumor(谣言) proved false. His plan turned out a success.

(五)宾语
? 宾语(Object)表示动作的对象或承爱者,一

般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如: 1.He is doing his homework.
(名词)

2.The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. (代词、动名词) 3.How many dictionaries do you have? I have five. (名词、数词)

4.They helped the old with their housework yesterday. (名词化形容词,名词) 5.He pretended not to see me.
(不定式短语)

6.I enjoy listening to popular music.
(动名词短语)

7.I think(that)he is fit for his office.
(宾语从句)

? 宾语种类:
? (1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语),例如:

Lend me your dictionary, please. to: write, tell, pass, give, send, promise, show, hand, read, bring, throw等,例如: He sent the novel to William yesterday. for: leave, buy, build, choose, cook, draw, find, get, order, post, save等,例如: She bought a gift for her mother. ? (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补),例如: ? They elected him their monitor.
?

?下列动词只能接不定式做宾语

ask, agree, care, choose, demand, dare, decide, expect, fail, help, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish, desire等,如: He refused to lend me his bike.

?下列动词只能接动名词做宾语

admit, avoid, advise, consider, enjoy, excuse, escape, finish, imagine, mind, practise, suggest 等,如: John has admitted breaking the window .

? 下列动词既可接不定式,也可接动名词做

宾语,但意义不同,如mean, try, remember, forget, regret等。 ? forget to do表示“未发生的动作”, forget doing表示“已完成的动作”。如: ? Don't forget to come here earlier tomorrow.(还没来) ? I forgot returning the book to him. ? (书已还给他了)
?

(六)宾语补足语
? 宾语补足语(Object

Complement), 用于补充说明宾语的动作,一般位于宾 语之后,宾语与宾语补足语一起构成复 合宾语。 ? 需接复合宾语的动词有:tell,let,help, teach, ask,see,have,order, make等。“宾补”一般可由名词、形容 词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语和 从句充当。例如:

1.His father named him Xiaoming. (名词) 2.They painted their boat white. (形容词) 3.Let the fresh air in. (副词) 4.You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you. (不定式短语) 5.We saw her entering the room. (现在分词) 6.We found everything in the lab in good order. (介词短语) 7.We will soon make our city what your city is now. (从句)

(七)定语
? 修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语

(Attribute)。 ? 定语可由以下等成分表示: 1.Guilin is a beautiful city.(形容词) 2.China is a developing country; America is a developed country.(分词) 3.There are thirty women teachers in our school.(名词) 4.His rapid progress in English made us surprised.(代词)

5.Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom. (不定式短语) 6.The teaching plan for next term has been worked out. (动名词) 7.He is reading an article about how to learn English. (介词短语) 8.She is the girl who sings best in my class. (定语从句)

(八)状语
? 修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,说明

动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语 (Adverbial)。可由以下形式表示 : 1.Light travels most quickly. (副词及副词性词组) 2.He has lived in the city for ten years. (介词短语) 3.He is proud to have passed the national college entrance examination.
(不定式短语)

4.He is in the room making a model plane.
(分词短语)

5.Wait a minute.

(名词)

6.Once you begin, you must continue.
(状语从句)

9种状语种类如下:
1. How about meeting again at six? (时间状语) 2.Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) 3.I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) 4.Mr Smith lives on the third floor. (地点状语) 5.She put the eggs into the basket with great care. (方式状语)

She came in with a dictionary in her hand. (伴随状语) 6.In order to catch up with the others, I (目的状语) must work harder. 7.He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. (结果状语) 8.She works very hard though she is old.
?

(让步状语)

9.I am taller than he is. (比较状语)

(九)同位语(Appositive)对前面的名
词或代词做进一步的解释,通常由名词、 数词、代词或从句担任,如: This is Mr. Zhou, our headmaster. This is good news that he has found his son.

(十)插入语(Parenthesis)对一句话
做一些附加的解释,通常有to be honest , I think (suppose, believe…)等,如: To be frank, I don’t quite agree with you.

句子成分详解表
句子成分 主语 意义 表示句子说的是什么人或什么 事 充当词类 名,代,数,不定 式,动名词,短语或 句子 例句 We study in Shenzhen Middle School.

谓语
宾语

说明主语做什么,是什么或怎 么样
表示动作行为的对象

动词或动词词组
同主语

She is dancing under the tree.
Both of us like English.

表语
定语 状语

与联系动词连用,一起构成谓 语,说明主语的性质或特征
用来修饰名词或代词 修饰动词,形容词,副词,表 示动作发生的时间,地点,原 因,目的,方式,结果等 逻辑上与宾语是主谓关系

同主语
形,代,数,名, 副,介词短语或句子 副词,介词短语或句 子 形容词,名词,介词 短语等

Her father is a chemist. His words sound reasonable.
We have eight lessons every day. He works very hard. They held a party in Hollywood. She always keeps the house clean.

宾语 补足语

主语谓语是基础,宾表定状补辅助。宾主来自名代数,动词作谓不可无!

练习
一.指出下列句子划线部分是什么句子成分: S. ? 1. The students got on the school bus. Attribute ? 2. He handed me the newspaper. O. ? 3. I shall answer your question after class. Adverbial Predicate ? 4. What a beautiful Chinese painting! Attribute ? 5. They went hunting together early in the morning. Adverbial Adverbial

Predicative His job is to train swimmers. ? 7. He took many photos of the palaces in Beijing. O. Adverbial ? 8. There is going to be an American film S. tonight.Predicate ? 9. He is to leave for Shanghai tomorrow. Predicate ? 10. His wish is to become a scientist. S. Predicative ? 11. He managed to finish the work in time. Predicate O. advice. ? 12. Tom came to ask me for Adverbial ? 13. He found it important to master English.
? 6.

Attribute

FO.

RO.

O. ? 14. Do you have anything else to say?
? 15.

Attribute

To be honest,your pronunciation is Parenthesis Adverbial not so good. ? 16. Would you please tell me your O. address? Adverbial Adverbial ? 17. He sat there, reading a newspaper. FS.is our duty to keep our classroom ? 18. It Predicative clean and tidy. O.C. ? 19. He noticed a man enter the room. O.C. ? 20. The apples tasted sweet.

Predicative

划分句子成分 1. We are working . 2.I can swim very well . 3.The waiter brought a bottle of beer to me . 4.Why does the wind blow . 5.The rain has been pulling down for a whole day . 6.Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music . 7.Jim asked you to give his best wishes to everyone . 8.You must get the car ready by tomorrow .

9.I have a lot of clothes to wash . I have a lot of clothes to be washed . 10.He gave his son some advice on reading . 11.Read me the first paragraph . 12.I’ve ordered some soup for you . 13.He began leaning English ten years ago . 14.My being late worried my teacher . 15.That president himself would visit our school excited all of us . 16.April’ Day is the special day of the year when you play a joke on someone .

17.He usually takes a nap after lunch ,as is his habit . 18.I found the book in the corner of the room. 19.he finished lunch and went into the garden . 20.The telephone rang . 21.We study hard . 22.His father might have died . 23.Will you leave the door open when going out . 24.Can you make the dog stand still ?

25.The landlord had them working day and night . 26.I think a sound knowledge of grammar is important to good writing . 27.We all breathe ,eat, drink . 28.I woke up at 6:00 in the morning . 29.The book weighs five kilos . 30.They will be flying to London . 31.The shop assistant found some certain materials for me . 32.He promised me a new English-Chinese dictionary.

33.Please pass a newly- published magazine to me . 34.He lived in Guang Zhou . 35.The father is showing the boy how to plant trees . 36.His uncle left him some money . 37.She is teaching the piano to several of the village children and she has taught us English for 3 years . 38.I like popular music . 39.She knows what to do next . 40.It excited all of us that the president would visit our school .

二、用符号划出下列短文各句中的 主语(—)、谓语(=)、宾语(~):
?

I hope you are very well. I'm fine, but tired. Right now it is the summer vacation and I'm helping my Dad on the farm. August is the hottest month here. It is the time of year for the rice harvest, so every day I work from dawn until dark. Sometimes we go on working after dark by the lights of our tractors. We grow rice in the south of the States, but in the north where it is colder they grow wheat. We have a lot of machines on the farm.

? Although

the farm is large, my Dad has only two men working for him. But he employs more men for the harvest. My brother takes care of the vegetable garden. It doesn't often rain in the summer here. As a result, we have to water the vegetable garden. Every evening we pump water from a well. It then runs along channels to different parts of the garden.

三、用符号划出下列短文各句中的定语(—)、 状语(=)、补语(~):
?

Most Saturday evenings there is a party, even at harvest time. These parties often make us very happy. We cook meat on an open fire outside. It's great! Americans eat a lot of meat — too much in my opinion. Some of my friends drink beer. I don't, because I have to drive home after the party. In your letter you asked about the time in different areas of the States. There are five different time areas in the States. In my state we are fourteen hours behind Beijing time. How many different time areas do you have in China? Well, I must stop and get some sleep. Please give my best regards to your parents.

四、选择填空:
?(

)1. ____ will leave for Beijing. ? A. Now there the man ? B. The man here now ? C. The man who is here now ? D. The man is here now ? ( ) 2. The weather ____. ? A. wet and cold B. is wet and cold ? C. not wet and cold D. were wet and cold ? ( ) 3. The apple tasted ____. ? A. sweets B. sweetly ? C. nicely D. sweet

?(

) 4. He got up ____ yesterday morning. ? A. lately B. late ? C. latest D. latter ? ( )5. The actor ______at the age of 70. ? A. dead B. died ? C. dyed D. dying ? ( )6. ____ were all very tired, but none of ____ would stop to take a rest. ? A. We, us B. Us, we ? C. We, our D. We, we

?(

)7. He found the street much ______. ? A. crowd B. crowding ? C. crowded D. crowdedly
?(

) 8.I think _____necessary to learn English well. ? A. its B. it ? C. that D. that is

?(

) 9. The dog ____ mad. ? A. looks B. is looked ? C. is being looked D. was looked
?(

)10.I will never forget the day ______ I joined the army. ? A. that B. when ? C. in which D. where

句子的类型
1.主语+谓语 2.主语+谓语+宾语 3.主语+连系动词+表语 4.主语+谓语+双宾语(直接宾语和间 接宾语) 5.主语+谓语+复合宾语(宾语和宾语 补足语)

简单句

并列句 复合句 并列复合句

1 简单句: 只有一个主语(或并列主语)和一个谓语(或 并列谓语)的句子叫做简单句:

He learns German. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. We sang and danced yesterday evening. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening.

简单句的五种基本结构
1. 主语+谓语 2. 主语+谓语+宾语 3. 主语+系动词+表语

4. 主语+谓语+直接宾语+间接宾语
5. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语

1.主语+谓语
Danny came back. It is raining. Some of them failed.

1你应当努力学习。
You should study hard.

2 那天早上我们谈了很多。
That morning we talked a great deal.

2 主语+谓语+宾语
? 观察下面一个例句,你能找到句中的“主

语” 、“谓语” 、“宾语”吗?

I beat 主语 谓语

you 宾语 .
SVO

? 因此这是个典型的“主谓宾”句型。

3.主语+系动词+表语
She was at home then. He became famous. He got angry. They all keep silent. 1我的兄弟都是大学生。 My brothers are all college students.

2布朗夫人看起来很健康。
Mrs Brown looks very healthy.

More examples: 1). The weather is very cold. 2). She felt happy. 3). Please keep silent! 4). My father is an English teacher. 5). The Lijiang River looks especially beautiful in the early morning. 6). The surface of the table feels smooth. 7). Leaves will turn yellow in autumn. 8). The soup tasted delicious. 9). That sounds reasonable.

4.主语+谓语+直接宾语+间接宾语
Mary told us the reason.
Danny sent me a film ticket. John gave her some suggestions
1. 他把车票给列车员看。 He showed the ticket to the conductor. 2. 我父亲已经给我买了一辆新自行车。 My father has bought me a new bike.

5.主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语
Mom asked him to turn off the radio. I observe a girl go by every day. She heard a baby crying downstairs. He let us use his computer.
1 他请我们参加做游戏。 He asked us to join in the game. 2 我要你把真相告诉我。 I want you to tell me the truth.

Exercise
1. Our school is not far from my home. 主语 + 系动词 + 表语 ? 2. It is a great pleasure to talk with you ? 3. All of us considered him honest. 主+ 谓+ 宾+宾补 ? 4. My grandfather bought me a pair of sports shoes. 主+ 谓+ 宾+宾 主+ 谓+ 宾 ? 5. He broke a piece of glass. ? 6. He made it clear that he would leave the city 主+ 谓+ 宾+宾补 ? 7. Trees turn green when spring comes. ? 8. He didn't come.That is why he didn't 主+谓 know. 主+系+ 表
?

(2) 并列句 : 并列句由等立连词或分号;把两个或两 个以上的简单句连在一起构成。

1) We help them and they help us. 2) It is late, so we must hurry. 3) The future is bright; the road is tortuous.

4) ----Would you like to come to dinner tonight? ---- I’d like to , but I’m too busy. 5) We must get up early tomorrow, or we’ll miss the first bus to the Great Wall.

分句由并列连词
and, then, but, or, or else, so, for, while, when; both…and, either…or, neither…nor, not only…, but also, as well as 等来连接。

He is a basketball fan, and his wife is a volleyball fan.
Hurry up, or you’ll be late. He works hard while his brother is a lazy bone. He was enjoying his KFC when a friend came.

(3)复合句: 含有一个或一个以上从句的 句子叫复合句。 1) What’s the name of the film that you saw yesterday? 2) He said that he would go to the zoo with his mother. 3) They took a lot of pictures when they were on the Great Wall? 4) As is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.

5) Whether we’ll go camping tomorrow
depends on the weather. 6) All that is needed is a supply of oil.

7) The weather turned out to be very good,
which was more than we could expect. 8) As the day went on, the weather got worse.

(4)并列复合句:并列复合句即并列连词 连接的带从句的并列句。

English is widely used in the world, but China has the largest number of people who speak Chinese.

判断下列句子
1. Regular physical activity helps lower blood pressure. 2. We watched the train until it disappeared in the distance. 3. Traffic accidents usually happen when people are not careful enough. 4. Organizations hope to improve the public’s environmental awareness. 5. I could see people moving to and fro in the square. 6. What you said sounds all right. 7. I suppose we ought to wait till she arrives.


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