非 谓 语 动 词
的一些特点。 1. 作主语 例如：To learn English well is not easy. 或 It is not easy to learn English well. 动词不定式的基本形式是“to+动词原形”，有时可以不带 to。 （一）动词不定式的用法：动词不定式没有人称和数的变化，在句子中不能作谓语，但可
动词不定式作主语时，往往用 it 作形式主语，这种句型可归纳为下面的句型： It is + adj.+ 动词不定式 2. 作宾语 3. 作表语 4. 作定语 5. 作状语 Most of us like to watch football matches. My wish is to become a teacher. I have nothing to say about that thing. He stopped to have a look. He told me to be here on time. not + to + 动词原形 He asked me not to make such a mistake. 如果要说明不定式的动作执行者，可以用 for It is + adj.+ for sb. to do sth.
（二）动词不定式的否定形式 （三） 动词不定式与疑问词连用
疑问代词 who, what, which 和疑问副词 when, where, how, why 等后面可以接动词不定式， 构成动词不定式短语， 可以在句子中作主语、 (2) How to use the machine is a question. (3) The question is when to go there.
宾语、表语等成分。 例如：(1) He doesn’t know how to use the machine.
（四） 动 词 不 定 式 的 时 态 和 被 动 形 式
不定式的时态有三种：1. 一般时 to do 2.进行时 to be doing 3.完成时 to have done I like to read English. 一般时的被动式 to be done The work is to be done soon. He seemed to be reading something at that time. He seemed to have cleaned the room. 完成时的被动式 to have been done The boy is said to have been sent to hospital yesterday.
分词是动词非谓语形式的一种，包括现在分词和过去分词。现在分词表示：主动，动作正在进行。过去分词表示：被动，动作已经完成。 分词在句中可以作定语、表语、状语和宾语补足语。例如： Have you read the book written by Lu Xun？
1．作定语 Do you know the boy standing at the gate?
2．作表语 We are excited at the news. The news he told us is exciting. 3．作宾语补足语 I heard him singing a song in the classroom. We found the ground covered with snow.
4．作状语 While lying in bed, he listened to some music.
Seen from the hill, the village looks move beautiful.
现在分词分一般式和完成式，而过去分词则没有时态形式的变化。现在分词的一般式表示动作与谓语动词同时发生，或在谓语动词之前发生。例 现在分词的完成时， 表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之前。 常用作状语。 例如：Having finished
如： Knowing his uncle would come, he began to make some preparations. his homework, he went to bed.
（三）现在分词的语态 （四）分词的否定形式 （五）分词独立主格结构
一般时的被动 being done
完成式的被动 having been done
This is one of the new supermarkets being built in our city. 由 not+分词构成，例如：
Having been told many times, he was able to operate the machine. Not having heard the news. I wrote to him again.
Not knowing how to work out the maths problem, I went to the teacher for help. 当分词的逻辑主语与主句的主语不同时，带逻辑主语的分词短语成为独立主格结构，在句法功能上起状语作用。例如： The meeting being over, they all left the room.
Weather permitting, they will go and visit the science museum.
动名词是动词非谓语形式的一种,由动词加 ing 构成。动名词既有动词特征，也有名词特征。 ⑶ I have finished reading the novel. ⑷ We have got a swimming pool in our school.
（一）动名词的作用： 动名词在句中可以作主语、宾语、表语和定语。例如：⑴ Smoking does great harm to people’s health. ⑵ My job is looking after children.
（二）动名词的否定形式由 not +动名词构成。例如： He made me angry by not taking the medicine. （三）动名词的复合结构由名词所有格或物主代词加上动名词构成。例如： Would you mind my opening the door? （四）动名词的时态，动名词的一般时表示的动作可以与谓语动词同时发生或在前，或在后。 例如： We all enjoy listening to music.(同时发生) Do you remember meeting me there?（在谓语动词前发生） 动名词的完成式表示在谓语动词之前完成的动作。例如： I regret not having been taken to the Great Wall when I was a child. She attended the party without being invited. （五）动名词的语态 一般时 doing being done 完成时 having done having been done Being caught in the storm is a terrible thing.
注 意 : 1．不定式完成式表示不定式的动作在谓语动词之前发生。
例如：The house needs cleaning. = The house needs to be cleaned.
例如：I’m sorry to have broken your glasses. He needs to clean the house first.
2. 在动词 need, want, require 后用动名词表示被动含义，相当于动词不定式的被动式；而用动词不定式的主动式表示主动含义。
3. 在介词后一般用动名词作宾语，但在少数介词，如 but, except 后用动词不定式作宾语，但要注意“to”的省略，如 but 前有“do”则省去“to” 。 例如：I have done nothing but help him with his luggage. I have no choice but to wait for him at the bus stop.
4. 分词的完成式一般不用来作定语，因此，要表示完成主动的意思常用定语从句。例如：The accident which happened yesterday was very serious. 1. _____ anything about the accident ,he went to work as usual. A. Not known 2. —Have you decided when_____? 3. I really enjoy_____ that kind of job. 4. —There’s a hole in your bag. —Yes, tomorrow morning. A. do A. to leave B. Known not B. to be leaving C. to do A. mend B. lie C. to not shut C. Knowing not D. Not knowing D. are you leaving
C. will you leave
D. to be doing B. mending C. lay D. not shut B. having delivered D. breaking D. doing C. being invited D. inviting D. weighed C. having been delivered D. delivered C. mended D. laying D. to be mended
—l know. I am going to have it_____. A. lying
5. The next morning she found the man in bed, _____ dead. 6. Tell him_____ the window. A. to shut not
B. not to shut
7. The furniture ______on October 15 was seriously damaged because of a road accident . A. being delivered 8. He had his leg_____ in the match yesterday. A. to break 9. I can’t imagine_____ that with them. A. do B. to do A. invited B. broken C. break C. being done B. to invite
10. Most of the people_____ to the party were famous scientists. 11. —Good morning. Can I help you? 12. Slowly she opened the letter, _____. A. her hands trembled slightly
—I’d like to have this package_____, madam.
A. be weighed B. to be weighed
C. to weigh
B. slightly her hands were trembled A. parties concerned A. Given
C. her hands slightly trembling B. parties concerning B. To give
C. trembling her hands slightly D. concerning parties
13. All ______will be present at the conference .
C. concerned parties
14. _____ more attention, the trees could have grown better.
C. Giving A. to have rested
D. Having given B. resting C. to rest D. how dresses to be made D. rest
15. She reached the top of the hill and stopped_____ on a big rock by the side of the path. 16. Last summer I took a course on_______. A. how to make dresses
B. how dresses be made
C. how to be made dresses C. to be tied
17. The murderer was brought in, with his hands_____ behind his back. A. being tied 18. The secretary worked late into the night, _____ a long speech for the president. 19. I can hardly imagine Peter_____ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. 20. —The light in the office is still on. —Oh, I forgot_____. A. sail
B. having tied A. to prepare B. to sail
D. tied C. prepared D. was preparing
B. preparing C. sailing
D. to have sailed D. having turned it off D. to be first playing
A. turning it off
B. turn it off C. to turn it off
21. The Olympic Games, ______ in 776 B.C., did not include women players until 1912. A. first playing 22. Not having finished his homework, _____ to watch the game. A. so he was forbidden B. he forbade
B. to be first played C. first played C. he was forbidden
D. mother forbid him
23. The _____ world population is the result of recent advances in medical science.
B. increase C. being increasing D. Increasing
24. _____ it with me and I’ll see what I can do. A. When left
C. If you leave D. Leave B. paying C. paid D. to pay B. makes C. made D. to make D. to have been studying D. do not make C. to read D. reading
25. Cleaning women in big cities usually get______ by the hour. A. pay 27. Robert is said_____ abroad, but I don’t know what country he studied in.
26. European football is played in 80 countries, ______ it the most popular sport in the world.
A. to have studied A. not make
B. to study B. not to make
C. to be studying C. not making B. reads
28. The purpose of new technologies is to make life easier, _____ it more difficult. 30. I’ve worked with children before, so I know what______ in my new job. 31. It is impossible to avoid ______by advertisements in a modern society.
29. When I got back home I saw a message pinned to the door, ______ “Sorry to miss you and I will call later.” A. expected B. to expect
C. to be expecting D. expects C. to influence D. hide D. influenced
A. to be influenced B. being influenced B. hid
32. Some people believe that some numbers show the ______side of a person’s personality. A. hiding 33 —How do you deal with the disagreement between the company and the customers? A. to solving…making B. to solving…made C. to solve…making D. to solve…made
—key ______ the problem is to meet the demand _______ by the customers.
34. Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains______ whether they will enjoy it.
A. to see
B. to be seen C. seeing D. seen
35. It is said in Australia there is more land than the government knows______. A. it what to do with B. what to do it with C. what to do with it D. to do what with it 36. The research is so designed that once______ nothing can be done to change it. 37. The teacher asked us______ so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make 38. ______ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. A. begins B. having begun D. not to make D. Given C. beginning D. begun
C. not making C. Giving
A. Having given
B. To give
39. Walking past the park, I couldn’t help ______some children flying kites.
A. stop to watch B. stopping watch C. stopping to watch D. to stop to watch A. when taking B. when taken C. when to take D. when to be taken
40. Generally speaking, ______ according to directions, the drug has no side-effect. 43. —What do you think made the woman so upset？ —_____ weight.
A. As she put on B. Put on
C. Putting on
D. Because of putting on B. known C. to know D. being known
44. The manager,______ his factory’s products were poor in quality, decided to give his workers further training. A. knowing 45. The man we followed suddenly stopped and looked as if _______ whether he was going in the right direction. 46. Don’t be discouraged. ______ things as they are and you will enjoy every day of your life. 47. Friendship is like money, easier made than ____. A. kept B. to be kept C. keeping
A. seeing B. having seen
C. to have seen D. to see
A. Taking B. To take C. Take D. Taken D. being kept
48. ______the meeting himself gave them a great deal of encouragement. A. The president will attend B. The president to attend C. The president attended D. The president’s attending