B3 Unit 4 Astronomy: the science of the stars
the scientific study of the universe and the heaven bodies (such as the sun, the moon, and stars), g
as, and dust within it.
The Solar System
In our solar system eight planets circle around the sun.
The Solar System
Can you name the eight planets?
Earth A. 地球 ______ Saturn F. 土星 ________ G. 天王星 Uranus _______ H. 金星 ________ Venus
B. 木星 Jupiter ______
C. 火星 ______ Mars D. 水星 Mercury ________
E. 海王星 Neptune _______
Pluto(冥王星)? a dwarf planet
In our solar system eight planets circle around the sun.
B3 Unit 4 Reading：How life began on the earth
Chinese Legends (传说)
?Pangu separates the sky from the
?His whole body then turns into all
kinds of things in the universe.
Legend: The Goddess Nuwa mended the heaven and created human beings from the clay(粘土).
The Western Religious Beliefs
According to Bible (圣经), God created the world and the first man, Adam (亚当) and the first woman, Eve (夏娃).
How life began on the earth
Para. 1 A widely accepted theory –
the Big Bang
Para. 2 The formation(形成) of the earth . Para. 3 The importance of water for life. Para. 4 The development of plants and animals
Para. 5 The arrival of humans and their impact
on the earth.
How does the author develop the passage?
A. Give examples（举例） B. In time order（以时间顺序） C. Comparison（比较）
What’s the writing style of the text?
A. Narrative 记叙文 B. Explanation 说明文 C. Essay 散文
Scan the passage quickly to answer the following questions. 1. What is the original earth’s atmosphere made up of? 2. What is fundamental to the development
3. Which kind of life-being first appeared
on the earth, plants or animals?
1. What is the original earth’s atmosphere
made up of?
Carbon, nitrogen, water vapour, and other gases.
2. What is fundamental to the development of life?
3. Which kind of life-being first appeared on the earth, plants or animals? Why?
At first, small plants began to appear
on the surface of the water, they produced
oxygen, which encouraged the later
development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish.
Stage1 The development of the earth (p1-3) time Several billion years after the “Big Bang” Between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago the earth a cloud of dust a solid globe exploded with fire and rock produce C/N water vapor, etc. Water began to appear
As the earth cooled down
Why is water so important for the beginning of life? Because water allowed the earth to
dissolve harmful gases into oceans and
Stage2 The development of life(p4-5)
Read Para. 4-5 and fill in the blanks.
Evolution of life on the earth
1small plants in water 3 green plants on land
shellfish and all sorts of fish
4 insects 5 amphibians 7 reptiles 8 dinosaurs 9 mammals 10 humans
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
Page 27 Put the order of development of life into a time line. （8 ） 1 Insects and amphibians appeared. 10 （ ） 2 Dinosaurs appeared. （3 ） 3 The earth became a solid ball. （5 ） 4 Small plants grew on the water. （9 ） 5 Reptiles appeared. （7 ） 6 Plants began to grow on dry land. （2 ） 7 The earth was a cloud of dust. （4 ） 8 Water appeared on the earth. （6） 9 Shellfish and other fish appeared. （ 1）10 The universe began with a “Big Bang”. 12 （ ）11 Clever animals with hands and feet appeared. 11 （ ）12 Mammals appeared.
1. Why was the earth different from other planets? The water remained. 2. Why did the plants grow before the animals came? Because plants provide oxygen for animals to breathe.
3. Why is it wrong in films and stories to show dinosaurs and people together? Because dinosaurs died out long before human beings developed on the earth.
4. There used to be nine planets in the solar system. Recently scientists have decided that one of them can no longer be considered a planet. Do you know the name of that planet? Do you know why they removed it? Pluto. Scientists now think it is too small to be called a planet.
5. What problem is caused by human beings? They cause global warming.
The development of the earth and the life on the earth
A theory: The Big Bang
a cloud of dust 4
a solid globe
explode with fire and rock
dissolve harmful gases and acids
nitrogen, water and other gases
small plants in the water
early shellfish and fish
insects and amphibians green plants on land
insects and amphibians
They produced young by l____ aying eggs. Dinosaurs e_____ xisted on the earth for more than 140 million years. They __________ gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them.
Man had evolved from apes.
That’s the development of life.
The earth is our only one home. Are we taking good care of the earth? What problems are humans causing ?
the earth may become too hot
putting too much carbon dioxide into the air
No life will be on the earth
As a student, what little things can we do for the earth?
We have only one earth!
We should take care of the earth!
Only if we care shall we help！
Only if we help will all be saved!
B3 Unit 4 Learning about language
__ __ __ __ __
__ __ __ __ __
_ _ _ _ _
__ __ __ __ __
__ \ \\ \ \\ __ __ __ ___
√ √ √
fundamental astronomy gave birth to existed
As a result
atoms from prevents puzzle
HOW LIFE BEGAN ON THE EARTH
No one knows exactly how the earth began, as it happened so long ago. However, according to a widely accepted theory, the universe began with a "Big Bang" that threw matter in all directions. After that, atoms began to form and combine to create stars and other bodies. For several billion years after the "Big Bang", the earth was still just a cloud of dust. 1What it was to become was uncertain until ___________________________ between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe. The earth became so violent that it was not clear the shape would last or not. It exploded loudly with fire and 2 whether _______________________________________ rock. They were in time to produce carbon, nitrogen, water vapour and other gases, which were to make the earth's atmosphere.3What _____ is even more important is that as the earth cooled down, water ___________________________ began to appear on its surface.
Water HOW had also appeared on other like Mars but unlike the LIFE BEGAN ONplanets THE EARTH earth, it had disappeared later. It was not immediately obvious4that ____ water was to be fundamental to the development of life.5What many _____________________________________________________________ ____________ scientists believe is that the continued presence of water allowed the __________________ earth to dissolve harmful gases and acids into the oceans and seas. This produced a chain reaction, which made it possible for life to develop. Many millions of years later, the first extremely small plants began to appear on the surface of the water. They multiplied and filled the oceans and seas with oxygen, which encouraged the later development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish. Next, green plants began to grow on land. They were followed in time by land animals. Some were insects. Others, called amphibians, were able to live on land as well as in the water. Later when the plants grew into forests, reptiles appeared for the first time. They produced young generally by laying eggs. After that, some huge animals, called dinosaurs, developed. They laid eggs too and existed on the earth for more than 140 million years. However, 65 million years ago the age of the dinosaurs ended. 6Why they suddenly disappeared still remains a ____________________________________ mystery. This disappearance made possible the rise of mammals on the earth. These animals were different from all life forms in the past, because they gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them.
HOW BEGAN ON THE Finally about LIFE 2.6 million years ago some small clever animals, now with hands and feet, appeared and spread all over the earth. Thus they have, in their turn, become the most important animals on the planet. But they are not looking after the earth very well. They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space. As a result of this, many scientists believe the earth may become too hot to live on. So 7whether ________ life will continue on the earth for __________________________________________ millions of years to come will depend ____________________________ on whether this problem can be solved.
____________________________________________ ______________________ _____
3 _____ ______________________
B3 Unit 4 workbook page63
Page 63 watch out / look out phrasal verb 紧急情况下提醒某人当心 e. g. You'll become an alcoholic if you don't watch out. Watch out! You nearly hit that car. Look out! There's a train coming! Watch it! You nearly knocked my head off with that ladder. watch (out) for sth. phrasal verb — to pay close attention in blocking out because you are expecting a particular situation sth. to happenbroke or you want to avoid sth. bad 注意 out e. g. She stepped outside to watch for the cab. (等) gave problems out What should I watch out for when buying an old house? (当心、留心) sold out
watch out hang out
gentle gently presentation present
Page Page63 63
___ ___ Now that we have finished the design, the company, in its turn, will do the construction. ___ The fire did not cause too much damage, because the firefighters arrived in time.
___ _ The spaceship was pulled very close to the satellite by its strong gravity.
______ ___ The sandstorm led to a chain reaction which ended in a serious train crash.
_ ___ ___ The atmosphere in the classroom relaxed after the teacher’s humorous talk cheered us up. ___ Don’t disturb her. She gave birth to a boy last night and now she is asleep. ___ ____ Most of the evidence are destroyed. Thus, it’s impossible to prove that the drug is harmful.
___ ___ Clouds are masses of very small drops of water that float in the sky.
Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get. —Mark Twain
____ ______________ existed _______________ developed__
___ protect _________________ multiplied from ______________ weather _____
You know your children are growing when they stop Your appearance will remind othersup where and how Page 64 asking you where they came from and refuse to tell you you are living. where they're going.
6 _________ __ _______________________ _______________________ 2 ___________ __ __ _____ 7 3 ______________________ ______________________ _______ 1 5 _______________ _____ _____ ____ ____ ________________________ 4
what was believed by many scientists what was suggested by Einstein
I know The only where way to I'm keep going your and health I know is the to eat truth, what and you I Page 64 don't have want,to drink be what whatyou youwant don't me like, toand be. I'm do what free to you'd be rather what I not. want. —Muhammad —Mark Twain Ali
you have not received your invitation to the party yet many people who ride bicycles do not look where they are going
B3 Unit 4 Using language
the natural force that causes an object to move toward the centre of the earth.
Isaac Newton 1642～1727
牛顿经典物理学理论体系的建立者。 1665年创立微分；1666年开始研究积分。 1666年,开始想到研究重力(gravity)问题， 苹果落地的传说，也是在此时发生的轶事。 其一生的重大科学思想是在这两年期间 （22至23岁）岁形成的。1669年，把《自 然哲学的数学原理》，《宇宙体系》)等 手稿送到剑桥大学图书馆收藏。晚年研究 宗教。
论(Theory of Relativity)等物理学的三 个不同领域取得了历史性成就，特别
Stephen Hawking born in 1942
斯蒂芬· 藿金是当今科学界的一位传奇 性人物。这不仅仅因为他是一位被誉
Listen to the tape and choose the best summary of the listening text.
A The text is about how three scientists wanted to find out about the beginning of the universe. B The text is about how the idea of gravity has developed over a long periods of time. C The text is about the important of three scientists and their work.
Listen to the tape again and fill the chart below
Isaac Albert Stephen Newton Einstein Hawking Idea
Albert Einstein In space Large large bodies objects Idea have a make space and time force bend; the which pulls larger the thing objects; the towards further space and them. time bends.
Stephen Hawking Black holes have a very large mass and pull things towards them towards their edge.
Stephen Hawking If you go DevelopThe bigger Time over the ment the object goes edge, you the slower in cannot get out; but if stronger very you do not, the gravity. strong gravity. you may be able to escape.
Read the passage and fill in the form.
On the In space earth The very disappeared gravity strong
On the moon very light
The no weight and about onevery sixth of his weight could float heavy around like a weight on the earth feather
The way gravity changed
Left the earth 1.The gravity became
2. The gravity disappeared.
On the moon 3. It became very light.
The weight changed
Left the earth
He became very heavy.
In space He had no weight and could float around like a feather. On the moon
He was about one-sixth of his weight on the earth.
The change of gravity
Leave the earth
Very strong Very heavy
On the moon
Very light The mass will be less
About the black About us hole
Circle of lights
Light went out Computers stopped working Spaceship not move
Large stars Like a mouth
Pull us into its mouth
In shock and amazement
My mouth dry Close my eyes I was bumped
Jump and went faster
My watch slower Jumped again,increase its speed as fast as light,like a bird Computer began to work again
Spit objects out
able to look
Brainstorming for writing
when where what
What will we meet on the moon? who
How to write an outline?
The first paragraph (introduction)
Body (your own ideas on the item)
Conclusion (summing up)