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必修三Unit4Reading How Life Began on the Earth


B3 Unit 4 Astronomy: the science of the stars
浙江省余姚中学 卢建立

Astronomy:
the scientific study of the universe and the heaven bodies (such as the sun, the moon, and stars), gas, and dust within it.

The Solar System

In our solar system eight planets circle around the sun.

The Solar System

Can you name the eight planets?
Earth A. 地球 ______ Saturn F. 土星 ________ G. 天王星 Uranus _______ H. 金星 ________ Venus

B. 木星 Jupiter ______
C. 火星 ______ Mars D. 水星 Mercury ________

E. 海王星 Neptune _______
Pluto(冥王星)? a dwarf planet

1111

In our solar system eight planets circle around the sun.

B3 Unit 4 Reading:How life began on the earth

Warming up

Chinese Legends (传说)
?Pangu separates the sky from the

earth.
?His whole body then turns into all

kinds of things in the universe.

Legend: The Goddess Nuwa mended the heaven and created human beings from the clay(粘土).

The Western Religious Beliefs
According to Bible (圣经), God created the world and the first man, Adam (亚当) and the first woman, Eve (夏娃).

How life began on the earth

skimming
Para. 1 A widely accepted theory –
the Big Bang

Para. 2 The formation(形成) of the earth . Para. 3 The importance of water for life. Para. 4 The development of plants and animals
onthe earth.

Para. 5 The arrival of humans and their impact
on the earth.

Task 1:

How does the author develop the passage?
A. Give examples(举例) B. In time order(以时间顺序) C. Comparison(比较)

Task 2:
What’s the writing style of the text?
A. Narrative 记叙文 B. Explanation 说明文 C. Essay 散文

Scanning
Scan the passage quickly to answer the following questions. 1. What is the original earth’s atmosphere made up of? 2. What is fundamental to the development
of life?

3. Which kind of life-being first appeared

on the earth, plants or animals?

1. What is the original earth’s atmosphere

made up of?

Carbon, nitrogen, water vapour, and other gases.
2. What is fundamental to the development of life?

Water.

3. Which kind of life-being first appeared on the earth, plants or animals? Why?

At first, small plants began to appear
on the surface of the water, they produced

oxygen, which encouraged the later
development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish.

More details

Stage1 The development of the earth (p1-3) time Several billion years after the “Big Bang” Between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago the earth a cloud of dust a solid globe exploded with fire and rock produce C/N water vapor, etc. Water began to appear

As the earth cooled down

Why is water so important for the beginning of life? Because water allowed the earth to

dissolve harmful gases into oceans and
seas.

Stage2 The development of life(p4-5)

Read Para. 4-5 and fill in the blanks.
Evolution of life on the earth

plants

animals

1small plants in water 3 green plants on land

2

shellfish and all sorts of fish
4 insects 5 amphibians 7 reptiles 8 dinosaurs 9 mammals 10 humans

6 forests

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Page 27 Put the order of development of life into a time line. (8 ) 1 Insects and amphibians appeared. 10 ( ) 2 Dinosaurs appeared. (3 ) 3 The earth became a solid ball. (5 ) 4 Small plants grew on the water. (9 ) 5 Reptiles appeared. (7 ) 6 Plants began to grow on dry land. (2 ) 7 The earth was a cloud of dust. (4 ) 8 Water appeared on the earth. (6) 9 Shellfish and other fish appeared. ( 1)10 The universe began with a “Big Bang”. 12 ( )11 Clever animals with hands and feet appeared. 11 ( )12 Mammals appeared.

Detailed reading

1. Why was the earth different from other planets? The water remained. 2. Why did the plants grow before the animals came? Because plants provide oxygen for animals to breathe.

3. Why is it wrong in films and stories to show dinosaurs and people together? Because dinosaurs died out long before human beings developed on the earth.

4. There used to be nine planets in the solar system. Recently scientists have decided that one of them can no longer be considered a planet. Do you know the name of that planet? Do you know why they removed it? Pluto. Scientists now think it is too small to be called a planet.

5. What problem is caused by human beings? They cause global warming.

The development of the earth and the life on the earth

A theory: The Big Bang

1

settled into

2

a cloud of dust 4
Cool down

a solid globe
explode with fire and rock

3

dissolve harmful gases and acids

water

atmosphere:

carbon,

nitrogen, water and other gases

small plants in the water

early shellfish and fish

insects and amphibians green plants on land

insects and amphibians

reptiles

mammals

dinosaurs

reptiles

dinosaurs

They produced young by l____ aying eggs. Dinosaurs e_____ xisted on the earth for more than 140 million years. They __________ gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them.

mammals

Man had evolved from apes.

That’s the development of life.

The earth is our only one home. Are we taking good care of the earth? What problems are humans causing ?

Greenhouse effect

discussion
the earth may become too hot

putting too much carbon dioxide into the air

No life will be on the earth

As a student, what little things can we do for the earth?

solar energy

plant trees

prevent desertification

recycle rubbish

save water

purify air

We have only one earth!
We should take care of the earth!

Only if we care shall we help!

Only if we help will all be saved!

B3 Unit 4 Learning about language
浙江省余姚中学 卢建立

Page 28

_ _
_ _

_

__ __ __ __ __

__ __ __ __ __

_ _ _ _ _

__ __ __ __ __

__ \ \\ \ \\ __ __ __ ___

Page 28

√ √ √



Page 28

fundamental astronomy gave birth to existed

As a result
atoms from prevents puzzle

Page 28

Page 29

HOW LIFE BEGAN ON THE EARTH
No one knows exactly how the earth began, as it happened so long ago. However, according to a widely accepted theory, the universe began with a "Big Bang" that threw matter in all directions. After that, atoms began to form and combine to create stars and other bodies. For several billion years after the "Big Bang", the earth was still just a cloud of dust. 1What it was to become was uncertain until ___________________________ between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe. The earth became so violent that it was not clear the shape would last or not. It exploded loudly with fire and 2 whether _______________________________________ rock. They were in time to produce carbon, nitrogen, water vapour and other gases, which were to make the earth's atmosphere.3What _____ is even more important is that as the earth cooled down, water ___________________________ began to appear on its surface.

Water HOW had also appeared on other like Mars but unlike the LIFE BEGAN ONplanets THE EARTH earth, it had disappeared later. It was not immediately obvious4that ____ water was to be fundamental to the development of life.5What many _____________________________________________________________ ____________ scientists believe is that the continued presence of water allowed the __________________ earth to dissolve harmful gases and acids into the oceans and seas. This produced a chain reaction, which made it possible for life to develop. Many millions of years later, the first extremely small plants began to appear on the surface of the water. They multiplied and filled the oceans and seas with oxygen, which encouraged the later development of early shellfish and all sorts of fish. Next, green plants began to grow on land. They were followed in time by land animals. Some were insects. Others, called amphibians, were able to live on land as well as in the water. Later when the plants grew into forests, reptiles appeared for the first time. They produced young generally by laying eggs. After that, some huge animals, called dinosaurs, developed. They laid eggs too and existed on the earth for more than 140 million years. However, 65 million years ago the age of the dinosaurs ended. 6Why they suddenly disappeared still remains a ____________________________________ mystery. This disappearance made possible the rise of mammals on the earth. These animals were different from all life forms in the past, because they gave birth to young baby animals and produced milk to feed them.

HOW BEGAN ON THE Finally about LIFE 2.6 million years ago some small clever animals, now with hands and feet, appeared and spread all over the earth. Thus they have, in their turn, become the most important animals on the planet. But they are not looking after the earth very well. They are putting too much carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, which prevents heat from escaping from the earth into space. As a result of this, many scientists believe the earth may become too hot to live on. So 7whether ________ life will continue on the earth for __________________________________________ millions of years to come will depend ____________________________ on whether this problem can be solved.

EARTH

Page 29

_______________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________

_______________________________________________ _______________________________________

______________________________________________________
_________________________________________________ ___________________________________

Page 29
1 5
_______

4 2

____________

____________________________________________ ______________________ _____

3 _____ ______________________

___________________ _________________

6

B3 Unit 4 workbook page63
浙江省余姚中学 卢建立

Page 63 watch out / look out phrasal verb 紧急情况下提醒某人当心 e. g. You'll become an alcoholic if you don't watch out. Watch out! You nearly hit that car. Look out! There's a train coming! Watch it! You nearly knocked my head off with that ladder. watch (out) for sth. phrasal verb — to pay close attention in blocking out because you are expecting a particular situation sth. to happenbroke or you want to avoid sth. bad 注意 out e. g. She stepped outside to watch for the cab. (等) gave problems out What should I watch out for when buying an old house? (当心、留心) sold out
watch out hang out

Page 63

religions

religious

like

unlike

gentle gently presentation present

Page Page63 63

___ ___ Now that we have finished the design, the company, in its turn, will do the construction. ___ The fire did not cause too much damage, because the firefighters arrived in time.

___ _ The spaceship was pulled very close to the satellite by its strong gravity.
______ ___ The sandstorm led to a chain reaction which ended in a serious train crash.

Page 63

_ ___ ___ The atmosphere in the classroom relaxed after the teacher’s humorous talk cheered us up. ___ Don’t disturb her. She gave birth to a boy last night and now she is asleep. ___ ____ Most of the evidence are destroyed. Thus, it’s impossible to prove that the drug is harmful.

___ ___ Clouds are masses of very small drops of water that float in the sky.

Page 63

Climate is what we expect, weather is what we get. —Mark Twain
lived
____ ______________ existed _______________ developed__

___ protect _________________ multiplied from ______________ weather _____

_

__ climate

_____________

prevent ______

from _____________

You know your children are growing when they stop Your appearance will remind othersup where and how Page 64 asking you where they came from and refuse to tell you you are living. where they're going.
6 _________ __ _______________________ _______________________ 2 ___________ __ __ _____ 7 3 ______________________ ______________________ _______ 1 5 _______________ _____ _____ ____ ____ ________________________ 4

从句可得是主谓结构哦!

what was believed by many scientists what was suggested by Einstein

I know The only where way to I'm keep going your and health I know is the to eat truth, what and you I Page 64 don't have want,to drink be what whatyou youwant don't me like, toand be. I'm do what free to you'd be rather what I not. want. —Muhammad —Mark Twain Ali

you have not received your invitation to the party yet many people who ride bicycles do not look where they are going

B3 Unit 4 Using language
浙江省余姚中学 卢建立

Gravity
the natural force that causes an object to move toward the centre of the earth.

Gravity

Isaac Newton

Albert Einstein

Stephen Hawking

Isaac Newton 1642~1727

牛顿经典物理学理论体系的建立者。 1665年创立微分;1666年开始研究积分。 1666年,开始想到研究重力(gravity)问题, 苹果落地的传说,也是在此时发生的轶事。 其一生的重大科学思想是在这两年期间 (22至23岁)岁形成的。1669年,把《自 然哲学的数学原理》,《宇宙体系》)等 手稿送到剑桥大学图书馆收藏。晚年研究 宗教。

Albert Einstein

(1879~1955)

爱因斯坦在量子论、分子运动论、相对
论(Theory of Relativity)等物理学的三 个不同领域取得了历史性成就,特别

是狭义相对论的建立和光量子论的提
出,推动了物理学理论的革命,他对 社会进步事业也有重要贡献。

Stephen Hawking born in 1942

斯蒂芬· 藿金是当今科学界的一位传奇 性人物。这不仅仅因为他是一位被誉
为继爱因斯坦后最著名的科学思想家 和最杰出的理论物理学家,还在于他

是在常人无法想象的身体状况下进行
研究和创造性工作的。

Listen to the tape and choose the best summary of the listening text.
A The text is about how three scientists wanted to find out about the beginning of the universe. B The text is about how the idea of gravity has developed over a long periods of time. C The text is about the important of three scientists and their work.

Listen to the tape again and fill the chart below
Isaac Albert Stephen Newton Einstein Hawking Idea
Develop ment

Albert Einstein In space Large large bodies objects Idea have a make space and time force bend; the which pulls larger the thing objects; the towards further space and them. time bends.

Isaac Newton

Stephen Hawking Black holes have a very large mass and pull things towards them towards their edge.

Stephen Hawking If you go DevelopThe bigger Time over the ment the object goes edge, you the slower in cannot get out; but if stronger very you do not, the gravity. strong gravity. you may be able to escape.

Isaac Newton

Albert Einstein

spacewalk

Read the passage and fill in the form.

On the In space earth The very disappeared gravity strong

On the moon very light

The no weight and about onevery sixth of his weight could float heavy around like a weight on the earth feather

The way gravity changed
Left the earth 1.The gravity became

very strong.
In space

2. The gravity disappeared.

On the moon 3. It became very light.

The weight changed
Left the earth

He became very heavy.

In space He had no weight and could float around like a feather. On the moon

He was about one-sixth of his weight on the earth.

The change of gravity
Leave the earth

Very strong Very heavy
In space

Disappeared
Floated weightlessly
On the moon

Very light The mass will be less

About the black About us hole
Circle of lights

About others
Light went out Computers stopped working Spaceship not move

Large stars Like a mouth
Pull us into its mouth

In shock and amazement

turn away
Feel sick
My mouth dry Close my eyes I was bumped

Jump and went faster
My watch slower Jumped again,increase its speed as fast as light,like a bird Computer began to work again

Spit objects out

and banged
able to look

exciting

Brainstorming for writing
when where what

What will we meet on the moon? who

problems

Solution

How to write an outline?

heading
The first paragraph (introduction)

Outline
(main idea)
Body (your own ideas on the item)

Conclusion (summing up)


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