Lead deposits, which accumulated in soil and snow during the 1960’s and 70’s, were primarily the result of leaded gasoline emissions originating in the Un
ited States. In the twenty years that the Clean Air Act has mandated unleaded gas use in the United States, the lead accumulation worldwide has decreased significantly. A study published recently in the journal Nature shows that air-borne leaded gas emissions from the United States were the leading contributor to the high concentration of lead in the snow in Greenland. The new study is a result of the continued research led by Dr. Charles Boutron, an expert on the impact of heavy metals on the environment at the National Center for Scientific Research in France. A study by Dr. Boutron published in 1991 showed that lead levels in arctic snow were declining. In his new study, Dr. Boutron found the ratios of the different forms of lead in the leaded gasoline used in the United States were different from the ratios of European, Asian and Canadian gasolines and thus enabled scientists to differentiate (区分) the lead sources. The dominant lead ratio found in Greenland snow matched that found in gasoline from the United States. In a study published in the journal Ambio, scientists found that lead levels in soil in the Northeastern United States had decreased markedly since the introduction of unleaded gasoline. Many scientists had believed that the lead would stay in soil and snow for a longer period. The authors of the Ambio study examined samples of the upper layers of soil taken from the same sites of 30 forest floors in New England, New York and Pennsylvania in 1980 and in 1990. The forest environment processed and redistributed the lead faster than the scientists had expected. Scientists say both studies demonstrate that certain parts of the ecosystem respond rapidly to reductions in atmospheric pollution, but that these findings should not be used as a license to pollute.
17. The study published in the journal Nature indicates that ________. A. the Clean Air Act has not produced the desired results B. lead deposits in arctic snow are on the increase C. lead will stay in soil and snow longer than expected D. the US is the major source of lead pollution in arctic snow 18. Lead accumulation worldwide decreased significantly after the use of unleaded gas in the US _____ . B. was enforced by law D. was introduced
A. was discouraged C. was prohibited by law
19. How did scientists discover the source of lead pollution in Greenland? A. By analyzing the data published in journals like Nature and Ambio. B. By observing the lead accumulations in different parts of the arctic area.. C. By studying the chemical elements of soil and snow in Northeastern America. D. By comparing the chemical compositions of leaded gasoline used in various countries. 20. The authors of the Ambio study have found that ________. A. forests get rid of lead pollution faster than expected B. lead accumulations in forests are more difficult to deal with C. lead deposits are widely distributed in the forests of the US D. the upper layers of soil in forests are easily polluted by lead emissions
阅读理解（共 20 小题，每小题 2 分，满分 40 分） 阅读下列短文，然后从各题所给的四个选项（A,B,C,D）中，选出最佳选项。 A Some novels simply entertain and others contain a powerful message in the story line and characters. In his first novel, A Wind In Montana, Mitch Davies tells a story about young adults and how they accept responsibility for their lives.
A Wind In Montana is a marvelous tale of two teenagers, Rory Coleman and Victoria
Beach, high school students at the same school, who struggle to make the right decision
for themselves. As each of them nears adulthood, they become more concerned with the future and setting goals that will bring them happiness and fulfillment. Without any advice from his parents, Rory chooses to pursue a profession in chemistry, applies for a chemistry scholarship, and determines to do everything he can to achieve it. Along the path, Rory finds that even though he has a plan, there are obstacles that could prevent him from realizing his goals. Victoria’s struggles are different from Rory’s. Although her father has decided that she should become a professional musician, Victoria has other plans for her life. Together, Rory and Victoria attempt to follow their dreams, despite the obstacles in their paths. A Wind
In Montana contains a lesson for all teens about to enter adulthood － that
disappointment and setbacks (挫折) are going to occur no matter how determined they are and that they need to develop skills along the way that will help them deal with them effectively. There are so many major decisions facing teens today －social, parents, other influencing adults and school work － and there’s no guarantee that their plans will succeed, even if they make the so-called “right” decisions. A Wind In Montana explores how two teenagers struggle with their own unique decisions and how the choices they make affect their lives. Mitch Davies’ book stands out among today’s teen books that deal with imaginary situations. A Wind In Montana is a real story about real people facing real-life situations. It’s entertaining and also helps readers think about their own lives and offers various ways to handle situations that may arise. 56. According to the passage, both Rory and Victoria _____. A. work hard at their courses C. go against their parents B. have a strong sense of self D. get along well with others
57. The third paragraph is mainly about _____. A. the value of A Wind In Montana C. Mitch Davies’ writing style B. Mitch Davies’ achievements D. the content of A Wind In
58. Unlike other teen books, A Wind In Montana ______.
A. involves some imaginary situations should take C. is based on real-life experiences adults 59. What’s the purpose of the passage? A. To review a book. C. To speak highly of an author.
B. focuses on responsibilities teens
D. discusses the future of young
B. To report a piece of news. D. To collect materials for a book.
第二节：阅读下文，根据(A-F)给出的相关信息，将最合适的段落与之进行匹配，并在答题纸 上将相应选项的标号涂黑。选项中有一项是多余选项。 A. Criteria of the ranking B. Africa countries ranking low C. Research on girls’ education in developing countries D. Northern European countries at the top E. High rate of early death of children F. Hope and improvement in sight
A yearly list of the best and worst places to be a mother and child rates the United States 11th, behind Britain. Scandinavian countries are at the top. Sweden is number one. Denmark is second. Finland is third. Save the Children, an American-based humanitarian organization, compared conditions in 110 countries. The report came out last week.
At the bottom of the list, Mali and Burkina Faso share last place. Just above them are Ethiopia, Chad, Yemen, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Mauritania. Gambia and Eritrea are also in the bottom ten, along with two Asian countries: Nepal and Cambodia. Cambodia is tied with Eritrea in 100th place.
Save the Children based its report on six conditions related to the health and security of women. These include the risk of early death, and the rate of use of modern birth-control methods. Another measure was the percentage of births with the aid of trained medical workers. Still another was the percentage of pregnant women with a shortage of iron in the blood. The study also examined reading levels among women and the involvement of women in national government. There are some conditions related to the education of both women and children.
Save the Children has published a report on the "State of the World's Mothers" for six years now. This year the group included a progress report on education for girls. Researchers examined progress made over the past ten years in 71 developing countries.
The report says Bolivia, Kenya, Cameroon and Bangladesh have made the most progress in girls' education. Listed at the bottom are Rwanda, Iraq, Malawi and Eritrea. Worldwide, the report says, 58 million girls are out of school.
Charles MacCormack is head of Save the Children. He says many children in the world are lucky just to survive the first five years of life. But Mr MacCormack calls the situation far from hopeless. He notes that world leaders have agreed on eight goals to reduce poverty, save lives and increase security by 2015.
阅读（共两节，满分 50 分） 第一节 阅读理解（共 20 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 40 分） 阅读下列短文，从每题所给的 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出最佳选项。 A A company planning to open the first hotel in space says it is on target to accept its first paying guests in 2012 despite critics questioning the investment and the length of time for the multibillion?dollar project. The Barcelona?based architects of the Galactic Suite Space Resort say it will cost $4.4 million for a three?night stay at the hotel. This price also includes an eight?week training course on an island. During their stay, guests would see the sunrise 15 times a day and travel around the world every 80 minutes.
Galactic Suite Ltd's CEO Xavier Claramunt says the project will put his company in a leading position of a new industry with a huge future ahead of it, and forecasts space travel will become common in the future. “It's very normal to think that your children, possibly within 15 years, could spend a weekend in space” he told Reuters
Television. A promising space tourism industry is beginning to take shape with construction in progress in New Mexico of Spaceport America, the world's first facility built specifically for passengers. British industrialist Richard Branson's space tours firm, Virgin Galactic, will use the facility to send tourists to space at a cost of $200,000 a ride. Galactic Suite Ltd, set up in 2007, hopes to start its project with a single pod (分离舱) in orbit 280 miles above the earth. “It will take a day and a half to reach the pod, and the passengers will join it for three days,” Claramunt said. More than 200 people have expressed an interest in traveling to the space hotel and at least 43 people have already reserved it. The numbers are similar for Virgin Galactic with 300 people already paid or signed up for the trip, but unlike Branson, Galactic Suite says they will use Russian rockets to transport their guests into space from a spaceport to be built on an island in the Caribbean. But critics have questioned the project, saying the length of time that will be used is unreasonable and also where the money is coming from to support the project. 1. What's Xavier Claramunt's attitude towards the space tourism industry? A. Quite critical. C. Highly optimistic. 2 B. Slightly worried. D. Fully satisfied.
Virgin Galactic's guests will be transported into space by using rockets produced
in________. A. Spain C. Britain B. America D. Russia
3. Which of the following is one of the critics' concerns about this project? A. It is hard to ensure the safety of tourists. B. There are many technical difficulties. C. It will be a waste of resources. D. It may lack support in money. 4. According to the passage, traveling to the space hotel ________. A. will soon be possible for common people B. has attracted the attention of some people C. will make a large profit for the tourist industry D. is considered an industry with a huge future by many people
5. What's the best title for the passage? A. The world's first space hotel is to open in 2012. B. The world's first commercial spaceport is being built. C. Space tourism：a surprising new industry. D. Space travel will become common in 15 years.
Humans： It's time to abandon Earth or Race Extinction. It could be the plot of a summer blockbuster (巨片） ，but this prediction isn't science fiction. It's a glimpse of the future ，according to famous British scientist Stephen Hawking. “I see great dangers for the human race，” he said in an interview with global
forum Big Think. ‘‘There have been a number of times in the past when its survival has been a question of touch and go. ” “I believe that the long-term future of the human race must be in space”，he said. “It will be difficult enough to avoid disasters on planet Earth in the next hundred years ，let alone the next thousand, or million. ” Hawking ，who was awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom last year, has recently voiced many concerns about the future of life on Earth. "If aliens visited us ，the outcome would be as much as when Columbus landed in America, which didn't turn out well for the Native Americans，” he said. “Such advanced aliens would perhaps become nomads (游牧者） ，looking to conquer and colonize whatever planets they can reach. ” But Hawking says he's still hopeful for the future of humanity. He told Big Think. "We've made remarkable progress in the last hundred years. But if we want to continue beyond the next hundred years ，our future is in space.” Getting to another planet will prove a challenge ，not to mention colonizing it for humanity. Katherine Freese from University of Michigan told Big Think that “the
nearest star to Earth is Proxima Centauri which is 4. 2 light years away. That means ， if you were traveling at the speed of light the whole time, it would take 4. 2 years to get there —or about 50,000 years using current rocket science.” 60. ________________________________________________ Humans are advised to abandon Earth mainly because _____. A. aliens will take up our home planet soon the Earth C. resources will be used up in the future live in 61. Thinking about the future of humans, Hawking feels that _____. A. humans will probably become extinct to humans C. other planets are ready for humans to reach D. the earth will not be habitable for humans 62. What is the writer's key point in the last paragraph? A. It is impossible to get to another planet in space. B. The present means of transport are not advanced at all. C. The near future can't see human's move to another planet. D. The planet Proxima Centauri is the closest to the earth. 63. This passage is most probably taken from _____ A. a conference interview C. a forum report B. a science fiction D. a history book B. aliens are the biggest future threat D. humans need larger space to B. many disasters will happen on
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