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高中英语课程标准


Since China?s reform and opening, the scale of its English education has continually grown, attended by significant achievements in teaching and learning. However, English education in its cu

rrent form is failing to meet the needs of contemporary social and economic development. The current round of reforms to the English curriculum aim to end the following practices: l Over-emphasizing the transmission and explanation of knowledge

about grammar and vocabulary l Neglecting to develop students? ability to use language for real

In their place, the reforms aim to establish a curriculum that: l l Develops students? comprehensive language competence Motivates students, is relevant to their life experiences and cognitive

level l l Promotes task-based teaching methods Involves students in experiential, practical, participatory and

cooperative learning l Develops students? positive attitudes, thinking skills, practical

abilities, cultural awareness and autonomy through the language learning process 1. The Nature of the New Curriculum
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The new English curriculum strives to accomplish far more than just help students learn English. At one level learning English should involve helping students t l Develop a certain level of comprehensive language competence and

the ability to use language for real communication l l Master certain basic language knowledge Master listening, speaking, reading and writing skills

However, at another level the curriculum should also serve students? all-round development, providing them with opportunities t l l l l l l l l Strengthen their interest in studying English Grow in self-discipline, perseverance and self-confidence Improve their cooperative, investigative and thinking abilities Develop their memory, imagination and creativity Adopt good study habits and effective learning strategies Develop as autonomous and lifelong learners Build moral integrity and a healthy outlook on life Establish both national spirit and an awareness of and respect for

cultural differences l l l 2. Broaden their horizons and enrich their life experience Take part in cultural life Develop as individuals Basic Principles of the New Curriculum
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2.1The curriculum promotes quality education (as opposed to exam-orientated education) and the all-round development of the students To promote quality education particular attention must be paid t l l l Valuing each student?s feelings Stimulating students? interest in studying English Helping students gain a sense of achievement and self-confidence

The curriculum must go beyond developing students? comprehensive language competence to include areas such as: l l l Improving students? ability to contribute to cultural and social life Developing students? practical abilities Fostering students? creativity

2.2The curriculum objectives are holistic and flexible. The fundamental aim of the new English curriculum is to develop students? comprehensive language competence. This aim is broken down into five general objectives. These objectives are then divided into nine ability levels with descriptors provided for each level. The five general objectives are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Language Skills Language Knowledge Attitudes to Learning Learning Strategies Cultural Awareness
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This design allows students to progress systematically through each level whilst meeting the full range of the curriculum?s demands. 2.3Students are put at the centre of the curriculum and individual differences are respected Students? must be at the heart of the new curriculum. For example, their developmental needs must be the central consideration when developing: l l l l Curriculum objectives The teaching and learning process The assessment process Teaching and learning resources

When implementing the curriculum each student must be allowed to develop individually under the guidance of the teacher: 2.4The curriculum promotes activity-based methods, experiential and participatory learning The curriculum promotes task-based learning whereby, under the guidance of the teacher, the students gain a sense of achievement by reaching the goals of the task. Task completion will involve the following types of learning: l l l l Sensory Experiential ?Hands on?/practical Participatory
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l

Cooperative

In order to improve their ability to use language for real communication, students should also be able t l l Adjust their learning strategies and control their emotions Form positive attitudes towards learning

2.5The curriculum recognizes the important role of formative assessment in promoting student? development The assessment system should combine formative with summative assessment. The purposes of assessment should be t l l l l l Promote students? comprehensive language competence Encourage and motivate students Help students become more autonomous learners Benefit students? healthy personal development Give teachers useful feedback from which to develop teaching and

learning l Inform the ongoing development and perfection of the English

curriculum Formative assessment should be an important part of the English teaching and learning process with a particular emphasis on: l l Encouraging students? active participation in learning Improving students? self-confidence

Summative assessment should focus on:
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l l

Testing students? integrated language skills Testing students? ability to use language

2.6The curriculum expands the range of learning resources and opportunities available The curriculum should strive to use and develop resources whose content is: l l l l l Realistic Close to the students? lives Contemporary Healthy Rich and varied

Active use should be made of: l l l Audio visual material Print media The Internet

Students should be encouraged to take responsibility for finding, using and developing learning resources themselves. 3. The Curriculum Design

The curriculum follows the international practice of dividing the general objectives into different ability levels. When designing these nine levels consideration was given to the following: l The nature of language development
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l l l

The different needs of different age groups The needs of different ethnic groups and areas The economic imbalances that exist in China

The aim is to have designed a system that is holistic and flexible. The correspondence between the level system and the grade system is shown in the following diagram: Primary School Work towards: Grade 3 Level 1 Students should start studying English in Grade 3 Grade 4 Grade 5 Grade 6 Level 1 Level 2 Level 2 The required standard for the end of primary school Junior Middle School Grade 7 (= Junior 1) Grade 8 (= Junior 2) Grade 9 (= Junior 3)
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Notes

Work towards: Level 3

Notes

Level 4

Level 5

The required standard for the end of junior middle school

Senior Middle School Senior 1 Senior 2 Senior 3

Work towards: Level 6 Level 7 Level 8

Notes

The required standard for senior middle school graduation

Level 9

An extension level for specialist schools and able students

Diagram 1: The Levels and the Grades Part 2: Introduction to the General Objectives The fundamental aim of the new curriculum is to develop students? comprehensive language competence. This comprehensive language competence is achieved through the five general objectives as shown in the following diagram: Diagram 3: Comparison of the Old and New Curriculums l Language skills and knowledge form the basis of comprehensive

language competence l The students? attitudes to learning strongly influence their learning

and development l Successful learning strategies improve the effectiveness of students?

learning
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l

Cultural awareness ensures students use language appropriately

The overall descriptors for comprehensive language competence (i.e. a combination of all five general objectives) for Levels 1 to 9 are presented below: Level Descriptors 1 Students are curious about English and enjoy listening to people speaking English. They can: l Play games, do actions and activities (e.g. colouring, joining

lines) according to simple instructions from the teacher l l l l l l l l Perform simple role plays Sing simple English songs Say simple rhymes and chants Understand simple stories by with the aid of pictures Communicate simple personal information Express simple feelings and attitudes Write letters and words Take interest in foreign cultural customs met during learning

English 2 Students show a sustained interest in and enjoyment of learning English. They can: l Use simple English greetings and exchange personal

information and information about family and friends
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l

Perform dialogues, songs, rhymes and chants about content

they have studied l l l l l 3 Understand and narrate simple stories with the aid of pictures Write simple sentences with the aid of pictures or prompts Participate and cooperate actively and happily Take the initiative to ask for help Enjoy learning about other countries? cultures and customs

Students show a positive attitude and the beginnings of self-confidence towards learning English. They can: l Understand short and simple stories about familiar topics that

they hear l Exchange information about familiar topics (e.g. school,

family life) with the teacher or classmates l Read and understand short stories and other simple written

material l l l Write simple sentences with the aid of examples or pictures Take part in simple role plays and activities Attempt to use suitable learning strategies to overcome

difficulties encountered during study l Identify cultural differences that are present when

communicating in a foreign language 4 Students can identify their own learning needs and targets and are
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fairly self-confident about learning English. They can: l Listen to and understand dialogues and short stories in

everyday communication l Communicate information and simple opinions about familiar

everyday topics l l l Write brief and simple letters Attempt to use different educational resources Gain information from oral and written materials to extend

their knowledge, solve simple problems and describe results l Help each other to overcome difficulties encountered during

learning l l l Plan and arrange sensible learning activities Actively explore learning strategies suitable for themselves Take note of cultural differences between China and other

countries during study and communication 5 Students show clear motivation and a positive, active attitude towards learning English. They can: l Listen to and understand the teacher?s statements about

familiar topics and take part in discussions l Exchange information with others and express opinions about

various topics in daily life l Read and understand texts, newspapers and magazines
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suitable for Grades 7 – 9, overcoming the barrier of unknown words to understand the main ideas l Use appropriate reading strategies according to the purpose

of reading l Draft and edit short compositions according with the aid of

prompts l Cooperate with others to complete tasks, solve problems and

report results l Assess their own learning and summarize their own learning

style l l Make use of a wide variety of resources Further increase their understanding and awareness of

cultural differences 6 Students show further motivation to study English and a growing awareness of autonomous learning. They can: l Understand the viewpoints expressed in oral or written

materials and state their own view l Effectively use oral or written language to describe personal

experience l Plan, organize and carry out a variety of English learning

activities with the teacher?s assistance l Take the initiative to exploit a range of learning resources
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and gain information through multiple channels l Adjust their own learning objectives and strategies according

to the results of self-assessment l Understand the cultural background to and connotations of

language during communication 7 Students show clear and sustained motivation to study English and a clear awareness of autonomous learning. They can: l Exchange information, ask questions, give opinions and

advice about a fairly wide range of topics l Read and understand original texts and newspapers that have

been adapted for senior middle school students l Show nascent skill in writing compositions such as notices

and letters of information l Take the initiative to plan, organize and carry out a range of

language practice activities l Take responsibility for using a wide variety of learning

resources to promote study l Monitor their own learning to continue to form learning

strategies suitable for themselves l Understand cultural differences in communication and further

form wide cultural awareness 8 Students show strong self-confidence and ability to learn
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autonomously. They can: l Communicate fairly naturally with other English speakers

about familiar topics l Express evaluative comments about the content of oral or

written materials l l Write coherent and fully structured short compositions Take responsibility for planning, organizing and carrying out

a range of language practice activities such as discussion, decision making, and reporting experiment and survey results l Use the internet and various other resources to gather and

process information effectively l Consciously evaluate learning outcomes and form effective

English learning strategies l Understand the cultural connotations and background during

communication and adopt a respectful and tolerant attitude towards cultures of different countries 9 Students are autonomous learners. They can: l Listen to and understand the main content of speeches,

discussions, debates and reports on familiar topics l Discuss and express their attitudes and opinions about topics

of universal importance inside and outside China, such as the environment, population, peace, development, etc
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l l

Act as an interpreter in everyday life Make the most of a variety of opportunities to use English for

real communication l Read popular science and literature articles with fairly wide

ranging subjects with the aid of a dictionary l Use common genres/text types to complete ordinary writing

tasks and have nascent ability to write in a literary way l l Expand and enrich learning resources autonomously Display strong global awareness

Table 1: The Overall Descriptors for Comprehensive Language Competence Part 3: The General Objectives in Detail Detailed descriptors for Levels 2 and 5 of each of the five general objectives are presented in the following tables. Please refer to the translation of the senior English curriculum (available from the VSO Programme Office) for Level 6 – 9 descriptors.

Level Skill 2 Listening

Descriptors for Language Skills Students can: 1. Understand simple live or recorded speech

with the aid of pictures and images
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2.

Understand simple stories with the aid of

pictures 3. Understand simple questions during classroom

activities 4. Understand common instructions and respond

appropriately Speaking Students can: 1. Speak with clear pronunciation and can

convey intonation 2. Take part in simple dialogues about familiar

personal and family information 3. Use some common daily expressions (e.g.

greetings, farewells, thanks, apologies, etc.) 4. Reading Tell simple stories with the teacher?s help

Students can: 1. 2. rules 3. Understand short and simple instructions in Read and recognize all words studied Read aloud simple words according to spelling

textbooks 4. Understand information expressed in simple

texts like greetings cards
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5.

Understand simple stories or short passages

with the aid of pictures and form the habit of reading for overall comprehension 6. Read aloud accurately all the stories and

passages studied Writing Students can: 1. 2. 3. Copy example sentences Write simple greetings Write short and simple headings and

descriptions to fit pictures or objects 4. Use capitalization and punctuation with basic

accuracy Other Students can: 1. 2. Use simple English to play games Perform short stories or fairy tales with the

teacher?s help 3. 4. 5. Say 30-40 simple nursery rhymes or chants Perform 30-40 English songs Understand English cartoons and programmes

of a suitable level (on average 20-25 minutes per week) 5 Listening Students can:
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1.

Understand speakers? intentions according to

their stress and intonation 2. Understand and extract information and

viewpoints from talk about familiar topics 3. Understand the main ideas, using contextual

clues to deal with unfamiliar words 4. Understand stories and narratives spoken at

near natural speed, including their cause and effect structures 5. 6. Speaking React in a suitable way to what is heard Take simple notes about what is heard

Students can: 1. Provide information, express simple views and

opinions and take part in discussions about simple topics 2. Exchange information and cooperate with

others to complete tasks 3. 4. Correct oneself appropriately during speech Inquire for information and ask for help

effectively 5. Carry out situational dialogues according to

different topics
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6. 7.

Perform short plays in English Uuse natural pronunciation and intonation and

an appropriate tone during the above activities Reading Students can: 1. Infer the meaning of new words from the

context and word formation rules 2. Uunderstand the logical relationships between

each sentence in a paragraph 3. Pick out the main ideas in texts and understand

the plot in stories, predicting its development and possible endings 4. Understand reading material of different

common genres/text types 5. Use appropriate reading strategies to find

information according to different reading purposes 6. Use dictionaries and other reference material

to carry out learning 7. Hhave read material other than that included in

the textbook, totaling over 150 000 words Writing Students can: 1. Gather and organize material according to the

purpose of the writing
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2.

Ddraft short letters and passages

independently, editing them with the teacher?s guidance 3. Use common linking devices to express

oneself fluently and logically in writing 4. 5. Write simple descriptions of people or things Wwrite simple paragraphs, instructions and

explanations according to prompts given in pictures or tables Table 2: Level Descriptors for Language Skills Objective N.B. The original includes Language Skills descriptors for Levels 1,3,4,6,7,8 and 9

Level Knowledge 2 Pronunciation

Descriptors for Language Knowledge Students can 1. Know incorrect pronunciation can affect

communication 2. 3. 4. 5. Know how to say the alphabet Understand simple spelling rules Understand words have stress patterns Pronounce clearly with natural

intonation
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Vocabulary

Students can: 1. Learn the 600-700 words and 50 or so

common expressions associated with the topics for this unit 2. letters Uunderstand words are formed from

Grammar

Students can: 1. forms 2. Know the difference between the main Know nouns have singular and plural

pronouns 3. Know verbs can change forms in

different situations 4. Understand prepositions to express time,

place and position 5. Understand the basic forms and

functions of simple English sentences Functions Students can understand the basic forms for expressing simple communicative functions such as greetings, farewells, thanks, accepting apologies, introductions, requests, etc.
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Topics

Students can understand and express simple information about the following topics: numbers, colours, time, weather, food, clothes, toys, plants and animals, the body, personal and family circumstances, school, friends, hobbies and sports, festivals, etc.

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Phonetics

Students can: 1. Understand the significance of phonetics

within language learning 2. Uunderstand English phonetics includes

pronunciation, stress, linking, intonation and rhythm 3. Speak with basically accurate, natural

and fluent pronunciation and intonation in daily communication 4. Understand and express different

intentions by altering stress and intonation appropriately 5. Spell words and phrases according to

their pronunciation Vocabulary Students can: 1. Understand English vocabulary includes
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such items as words, phrases, expressions and collocations 2. Understand and distinguish between the

basic meanings of words and their meanings in special situations 3. Use vocabulary to describe things,

behaviour and characteristics, explain principles, etc. 4. Learn and use 1500-1600 words and

200-300 expressions and collocations Grammar Students can: 1. Understand common forms and

structures and their functions 2. Llearn and distinguish between the

functions of different forms and structures during real language use 3. Understand and master how to describe

of people and things 4. Understand and master how to describe

specific factual and behavioural phenomena and develop the ability to describe processes 5. Begin to master how to describe time,
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place and position 6. Understand and master how to compare

people, objects and things Functions Students can: 1. Understand and suitably express

everyday communicative functions such as greetings, farewells, thanks, introductions and so on 2. Effectively express themselves in

everyday communication with others Topics Students are: 1. Familiar with topics closely related to

themselves, their families and school life 2. Ffamiliar with topics related to everyday

life, hobbies and interests, social customs, science and culture, etc. Table 3: Level Descriptors for Language Knowledge Objective

Level 2 1.

Descriptors for Attitudes to Learning Students listen to and speak English, recite rhymes, sing

songs, tell stories and play games with interest. 2. Students imitate happily, open their mouths bravely,
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participate actively and ask for help autonomously. 5 1. Students have clear learning objectives that can be met

through communication. 2. Students have an interest in and desire to learn English,

happily taking part in a variety of language practice activities. 3. Students have the self-confidence to learn English well and

the courage to use English to express themselves. 4. Students can actively cooperate with and help others in

small groups to complete learning tasks. 5. Students can experience the pleasure of learning English

through contact with English songs, reading material, etc. 6. Students pay attention to and understand other people?s

feelings during communication. 7. When students encounter problems they can take the

initiative to ask for help from the teacher or their classmates. 8. When encountering English during daily life, students

happily investigate its meaning and try to copy it. 9. Students have a deepened understanding of their own

culture. 10. Students happily get in touch with and understand the cultures of different countries. Table 4: Level Descriptors for Affective Attitudes Objective
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Level 2

Strategy Type Basic Learning Strategies

Descriptors for Learning Strategies Students can: 1. Actively cooperate with others to

complete learning tasks 2. Take initiative to ask the teacher or

classmates for help 3. 4. learnt 5. Build connections between words and Establish a simple study plan Independently practice what has been

what they represent 6. 7. Learn with concentration and focus Try to read English stories and other

kinds of non-curricular reading material 8. Actively use the English they have

learnt to express themselves and communicate 9. Take note of simple English found in

daily life and the media 10. Begin to use simple students? English/Chinese dictionaries
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5

Cognitive Strategies Students can: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Preview material as necessary Learn with concentration and focus Actively think when learning Note key points well during learning Uuse pictures and other non-linguistic

clues well to understand main ideas 6. Uuse association to help learn and

remember words 7. Take the initiative to review, sort and

summarize what they have learnt 8. Try to discover language rules and

infer general rules from single cases 9. Realize they have made mistakes

when using English and correct themselves appropriately 10. Use knowledge of Chinese when necessary to help them understand English more effectively 11. Try to read English stories and other non-curricular reading material Metacognitive Students can:
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Strategies

1.

Know their own English learning

objectives clearly 2. clearly 3. 4. learn 5. Pay attention to understanding and Establish simple study plans Grasp the main content of what they Know their own learning needs

reflecting on their own progress and shortcomings 6. Actively explore learning styles that

are suitable for themselves 7. Often share studying experiences with

teachers and classmates 8. Actively participate in classroom and

extracurricular English learning activities Communication Strategies Students can: 1. Communicate with others in English

during classroom and extracurricular learning activities 2. Make good use of opportunities to

communicate in English
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3.

Concentrate on expressing their

meaning when communicating 4. Use gestures, facial expressions and

so on to help communicate when necessary 5. Ask for help effectively when they

experience communication problems 6. Recognize cultural differences in

Chinese and foreign modes of communication Resource Strategies Students can: 1. Enrich their learning through the use

of audio visual materials 2. Use dictionaries and simple reference

books to find information 3. Take note of all the English used in

real life and the media 4. Begin to use learning resources

available in libraries or on the Internet Table 5: Level Descriptors for Learning Strategies Objective

Level 2 Students can:

Descriptors for Cultural Awareness

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1.

Know the simple forms of address, greetings and farewells

in English 2. etc. 3. 4. Know the main international sports and entertainments Know the names of the most popular foods and drinks in Rrespond appropriately to ordinary compliments, requests,

English speaking countries 5. Know the capitals and flags of the major English speaking

countries 6. Know the important symbols of major countries, such as

the UK?s Big Ben 7. 5 Know the main festivals of English speaking countries

Students can: 1. Understand common body language, gestures and facial

expressions used in English communication 2. Use different forms of address, greetings and farewells

appropriately in English 3. Know the difference between male and female names and

common affectionate forms of address 4. Know the names commonly used by family members to

refer to each other in English speaking countries 5. Understand dress codes for formal and informal occasions
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in English speaking countries 6. Understand eating and drinking customs in English

speaking countries 7. Respond appropriately to other people?s compliments,

requests, etc. 8. etc. 9. Begin to understand the geographical position, climate, Use appropriate forms to give compliments, make requests,

history and so on of English speaking countries 10. Understand the cultural significance of common plants and animals in English speaking countries 11. Understand that natural phenomena possibly have cultural significance in the English language 12. Understand the traditional leisure and sporting activities of English speaking countries 13. Understand the main holidays and festivals of English speaking countries and how they are celebrated 14. Deepen their knowledge of Chinese culture Table 6: Level Descriptors for Cultural Awareness Part 4: Guidelines for Implementation 1. Suggestions for Teaching and Learning
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1.1 Lay the groundwork for students? all-round and lifelong development Teaching and learning should meet the diverse needs of all students, ensuring the healthy development of their mind and body. In particular the teacher should pay attention to the following: l Encourage students to use English bravely, taking a lenient attitude

towards mistakes they make during the learning process. l Provide students with ample opportunities to collaborate with others

and to become autonomous learners. l l Give students plenty of space for self-development. Encourage students to develop their language skills in an integrated

way through experiential, practical, cooperative and inquiry-based learning. l Create conditions that allow students to explore questions they are

personally interested in and solve problems by themselves. 1.2 Create a relaxed, democratic and harmonious learning environment Positive attitudes are an essential condition for effective learning. Negative attitudes can not only reduce the effectiveness of study but also adversely affect students? long-term development. In particular, teachers should heed the following: l Respect each individual student, actively encouraging everyone to try

and safeguarding their self-esteem and enthusiasm.
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l

Integrate students? English education with their emotional education.

Develop cooperative spirit by organizing learning activities that let students work together, help each other and experience group recognition and achievement. l Pay particular attention to introverted students or weak learners,

trying to give them as many language practice opportunities as possible. l Establish a friendly and democratic channel of communication

between students and teacher, frequently reflecting on the learning process and results together, and offering mutual help and support. 1.3 Use task-based learning methods to promote students comprehensive language competence Teachers should try to adopt task-based learning methods as much as possible. Teachers should creatively design learning activities that are relevant to the students? real lives, according to the overall curriculum objectives and content. Teachers should engage students? interest in the activity and organize them effectively so that they participate actively and complete the tasks, learning and using English through thinking, carrying out surveys, discussing, communicating and cooperating. Attention should be paid to the following points when designing tasks: l l Activities must have clear and achievable aims and objectives. Activities must be relevant to students? life experiences and interests;

the content and style should be as true to life as possible.
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l

Activities must benefit the development of students? language

knowledge, language skills and ability to use language for real communication. l Activities should be of a cross-curricular nature, promoting the

integrated development of students? thinking and imagination, aesthetic and artistic sense, cooperative and creative spirit. l Activities should make students gather, process and use information,

using English to communicate with others in order to develop their ability to use English to solve real problems. l Activities should not purely be limited to the classroom but also

extend to out of school learning.

N.B. In July 2005 VSO?s curriculum advisor, Professor Zhang Lianzhong, mentioned that this section of the curriculum will be revised such that “we will take the TBL (Task-Based Learning) approach as one of the useful tools within the big box of Communicative Language Learning.” 1.4. Provide increased guidance about learning strategies Helping students to adopt good study habits and effective learning strategies is one of the important tasks of the new curriculum. Teachers should consciously give students guidance about learning strategies so that, through learning and using English, they are learning how to learn. To this end the teacher should observe the following:
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l

Give students chances to establish their own study targets and the

means of fulfilling these. l Help students to use inference, research and inquiry style methods to

carry out their learning. l Develop students? practical abilities and creative thinking by

designing inquiry based activities. l Encourage students to use observation, discovery and induction to

acquire language knowledge and grasp language functions. l Help students to carry out self-assessment during the learning

process and adjust their own learning objectives and strategies appropriately according to the results. 1.4 Develop students? awareness of and ability in cross-cultural communication Language and culture are closely related, language being the main transmitter and carrier of culture. Teachers should work hard to help students achieve the following during the English learning process: l Understand foreign cultures, especially those of English speaking

countries l l l l Use English appropriately Constantly broaden their cultural horizons Deepen their understanding of their own culture Develop an awareness of and ability in cross-cultural communication
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1.5 Use modern teaching technology and expand learning opportunities In order to increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning, teachers should make good use of modern technology, expand the range resources and opportunities through which students can learn, thereby modernizing learning ways. Conditions permitting, teachers should try t l Use audiovisual material and the Internet to enrich the learning

content and form and improve outcomes. l Use computer and multi-media software to explore new teaching and

learning methods and promote more individualized study. l Create conditions for students to study more independently through

sensible use of a variety of learning resources, such as broadcasts, print media, libraries and the Internet. 1.6 Organize lively and active extracurricular activities to promote students? English learning Teachers should arrange a variety of extracurricular activities according to the students? age and interests to help them expand their knowledge, broaden their horizons, strengthen their intellect and individuality and use their talents. The content and form of these carefully planned activities should be rich and varied. Suggestions include: l l l Recitals Songs Story telling
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l l l l l l

Speeches Performances English corner English wall displays Cclass discussions Exhibitions

The teacher should be good at leading these activities to maintain students? interest and foster their creativity and initiative. 1.7 Continue to develop professionally Teachers should aim t l Familiarize themselves with the principles, objectives, content,

teaching and learning methods, psychological theories and language learning research findings of this curriculum l Select and adjust English teaching and learning strategies according

to their students? psychological characteristics l l l Develop their ability to organize and monitor activities Use a variety of teaching skills and methods flexibly Master the use of modern educational technology, using it

increasingly in their own continuing study and real classroom practice l l Consciously deepen their knowledge of Chinese and foreign cultures Actively and creatively explore which teaching and learning methods

best suit their students? needs, local conditions and the objectives
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l

Continuously reflect on their own practice, endeavouring to become

a creative and research driven teacher 1.8 Follow high frequency principles to ensure effective teaching and learning In Grades 3-6 there should be a minimum of four teaching and learning periods per week, with shorter periods for the younger years. For Grades 5 and 6 classes should not exceed two periods in length. In order to ensure the effectiveness of teaching and learning, class sizes should not exceed 40 at primary level. Grades 7 –9 and senior school students should have a minimum of four lessons a week. N.B. The original provides five sample learning activities here that have not been translated. 2. Suggestions for Assessment and Evaluation

Assessment and evaluation is an important component of the new curriculum. Assessment should be carried out according to the requirements of the curriculum standards, focusing not only on the results but also the process of learning. The primary purposes of assessment are t l Let students continuously experience progress and success during the

learning process l l Let students know their own progress and build confidence Promote all aspects of students? comprehensive language

competence
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l

Provide the teacher with feedback on the teaching and learning

process l Help the teacher reflect on their own teaching practice and adjust it

accordingly l l Help the teacher continuously improve the quality of their teaching Provide the school with prompt feedback on the implementation of

the curriculum l l Help improve educational management Inform the ongoing development and perfection of the new English

curriculum The assessment system should diversify both the subjects and forms of assessment. Assessment should focus on students? comprehensive language competence, combining both formative assessment (concentrating on the study process) and summative assessment (concentrating on the learning outcomes). 2.1 Ensure that students are the subjects (not objects) of assessment Students are at the centre of learning. The development of their comprehensive language competence should be the starting point for both teaching and learning and assessment. l Assessment should help students know their own progress, develop

self-confidence, reflect on and adjust their own study process, thereby ensuring the continuous development of their language ability.
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l l

Teachers should help students carry out self-assessment. Students should be active participants and collaborators in a variety

of assessment activities. l Assessment should be an organic part of teaching and learning

activities. l Assessment should help students to analyse their own successes and

shortcomings, clarifying the direction in which they need to work. 2.2 Make sure formative assessment plays a role in student development Formative assessment is an important component and driving element of teaching and learning. Formative assessment should check the students? learning outcomes, attitudes and strategies during the everyday learning process. The purpose of formative assessment is to encourage students, help students adjust the learning process effectively, help students gain a sense of achievement, strengthen their self-confidence, and improve their cooperative spirit. Formative assessment helps students develop from passive objects of assessment to active participants in the assessment process. In order to let formative assessment become an organic part of the study process its important t l l l Establish an open and relaxed atmosphere for assessment Use both tests and other methods Use a combination of individual and small group assessment

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l

Encourage students, classmates, teachers and parents to collectively

participate in assessment, thereby diversifying the subjects of assessment Formative assessment can take many forms, such as: l l l l l l l Comparison and assessment of classroom learning activities Self assessment of learning outcomes A learning portfolio Questionnaires Interviews Feedback from parents Everyday quizzes and tests

Formative assessment can be recorded in the form of descriptions, levels or marks. No matter what method is used, the role of assessment in encouraging learners must not be forgotten. According to the assessment results, teachers should give students individual feedback, ensuring their steady progress and encouraging them to reflect on and better themselves. 2.3 Make sure assessment methods are varied and flexible Teachers must select assessment methods suitable for the age of the students and the learning conditions. During formal assessment teachers should permit students to select assessment methods that suit their characteristics or strengths. If students get unsatisfactory results during a certain test they should be allowed to negotiate with the teacher to retake the test after sufficient preparation.
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2.4 Make sure assessment feedback is used to increase the effectiveness of teaching and learning The teacher should ask themselves the following questions: l Does the assessment help promote autonomous learning and

self-confidence? l l l Does the assessment reflect the students? achievements? Does the assessment reflect the teachers? strengths and weaknesses? Does the assessment reflect problems in the students? learning

process? Teachers should promptly adjust their teaching methods and plans according to assessment feedback. 2.5 Summative assessment should focus on checking students? comprehensive language competence Summative assessment (such as end of term exams and graduation exams) is the main means of measuring the level of students? comprehensive language competence. It also reflects the effectiveness of the teaching and learning process and is a major indicator of the schools? quality in managing teaching and learning. Summative assessment must have the target of assessing students? comprehensive language competence, striving to scientifically and comprehensively check students? language level at the end of a particular stage of learning. The following should be observed:
42

l

Exams should include oral, listening and writing amongst other

components in assessing students? comprehensive language competence . l Listening tests must account for a minimum of twenty percent of

termly, yearly and graduation exams. l Listening tests should check students? understanding and ability to

gain information rather than asking them to distinguish between different pronunciations. l Writing exams should avoid testing knowledge of phonetics or

grammar in isolation. l There should be an increase in questions that require students to use

English in a specific language context. l Objective questions with a single correct answer should be reduced

in favour of more subjective questions with several correct answers. l Exam results should not be publicly displayed nor students ranked in

order of their results. 2.6 Recognize the special characteristics of assessment for Grades 3 – 6 The main purpose of assessment at primary level should be to encourage students? interest and active participation in learning English. Assessment methods should be varied and choice should be offered. Formative assessment should be the main type, focusing mainly on students? performance and ability to cooperate during a variety of everyday teaching and learning activities.
43

l

In Grades 3 and 4 end of term or end of year assessment should use

assessment activities similar to normal teaching and learning activities. Through observing students? behaviour and discussing with them teachers should assess their ability to use English to do things. l For end of term or year assessment in Grades 5 and 6 a combination

of oral and written tests can be used. Oral tests should check students? ability to use language to communicate about content close to their real lives. Written tests should focus on checking their listening and reading skills, using methods that are as active and lively as possible. 2.7 Pay attention to the relationship between assessment and teaching and learning Pay attention to the proportion of teaching and learning time spent on assessment. Only carry out assessment that has useful results. Avoid over-elaborate and time-consuming assessment processes. Don?t let assessment become the sole end of teaching and learning. 2.8 The assessment of each level should be founded on the general objectives The general objectives should be the basis for all assessment. Since the assessment of Level 2 will be organized by individual places and schools, formative assessment should be the main means. The same applies to all other levels apart from Levels 5 and 8, whose assessment is organized by national and provincial education bodies. Selection exams should unite
44

the requirements of this curriculum with those of local conditions to establish suitable levels and test demands. N.B. Six examples of assessment documents are provide in the original. They are just listed here. Example 1: Self assessment questionnaire for Grade 7-9 students about learning strategies Includes statements such as: l l I can concentrate during study. During communication I use gestures and facial expressions to help

express myself. l I often use associations to help study and remember new words

Students choose between ?never?, ?rarely?, ?sometimes?, ?often? and ?always?. Example 2: Assessment reference sheet for Grade 3-6 for English ?playing, performing, watching, speaking and listening? Example 3: Formative assessment scheme for Grade 3-6 listening at Level 2 Example 4: Guidelines for using student portfolios Portfolios might include: l Some kind of baseline assessment

45

l

A record of the students? classroom performance – e.g. participation

in role-plays, volunteering to read something aloud, etc. l Examples of the students? best written homework, as selected by

themselves l l Teachers? and parents? observations on the students? study situation Results of tests and quizzes marked by the teacher, student or

students? classmates, either as grades or written comments l Students? self-assessments and reflections on their own attitude,

methods and outcomes Example 5: Guidelines for oral tests End of term or end of year oral tests should test students? real ability to express themselves orally. Students can be tested in groups of two, three or four. According to a situation or topic (that might be presented through words or pictures), students discuss and communicate. Teachers should assess their oral expression, communicative ability and effectiveness. The following questions may be useful: l Is information coherent and easily expressed? (Students may make

grammar and vocabulary mistakes that affect the accuracy but the basic information is still transmitted effectively.) l Are the pronunciation, intonation and rhythm natural? Can the

speaker be understood?
46

l

Does the speaker use appropriate communication strategies, such as

repetition, clarification, using expressions and gestures, to complete the activity successfully? Example 6: Reference sheet for the assessment of writing for Levels 3 – 8. 3. 4. Exploitation and Use of Curricular Resources The compilation of teaching materials and guidelines for their use

N.B. A full translation of these final two sections is incorporated in the translation of the senior English curriculum available from the Programme Office.

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