当前位置:首页 >> 农林牧渔 >>

开心果基本情况


中文学名: 开心果 拉丁学名: Pistachio 别称: 阿月浑子、胡棒子、无名子 二名法: Pistacia vera L. 门: 被子植物门 Magnoliophyta 纲: 双子叶植物纲 Magnoliopsida 目: 无患子目 Sapindales 科: 漆树科 Anacardiaceae 属: 黄连木属 Pistacia 种: 阿月浑子 P. vera 分布区域: 地中海沿岸各国,美国西南部、俄罗斯、中国新疆等地 采收和储藏: 7-8 月采收成熟的果实,晒干备用 开心果,又名必思答,绿仁果等。原产于伊朗,分布在伊朗、伊拉克、俄罗斯、叙利亚 以及中国大陆的新疆等地, 目前已广泛栽培。 传说五世纪时的波希战争中, 波斯人英勇无比, 在恶劣的环境中愈战愈勇,最终打败了希腊人,其“秘密武器”就是士兵们吃了一种神奇的 干果——开心果。因此,古代波斯国国王将开心果视为“仙果” 。开心果也被称为是“美国 花生” 。 现今的阿月浑子最早在西亚被培育。 在其栽培技术从伊朗中部流传至地中海地区之前已 长期作为一种重要作物。近年来有更多的阿月浑子在世界商业化栽培,比如澳大利亚,新墨 西哥和加利福尼亚。美国农业部的大卫·费尔乔德在 1904 年将阿月浑子引入加利福尼亚, 但直到 1929 年才作为经济作物推广。

基本资料
阿月浑子属漆树科(Anacardiaceae)黄连木属(Pistacia) 植物,约有 20 个种,分为中亚类群和地中海类群两类, 该种是由瑞典植物学家林奈于 1753 年,在他的《植物志 种》一书中发表的。其果实拉丁学名为 Pistacia vera,50% 数量左右是坚果,其仁可食用。主治肾虚腰冷、阳痿、脾 虚等。 《中国植物志》收入了这个种,记载该种的形态特征 是一种小乔木,高 5~7 米,奇数羽状复叶,有小叶 3~5 个,但常为 3 个。小叶卵形或阔椭圆形,长 4~10 釐米,宽 2.5~6.5 釐米,全缘。圆锥花 序长 4~10 釐米。 雌雄异株,雄花有花被片 3~5,大小不等。雌花花被片 3~5,膜质。子 房卵圆形,果实较大,长圆形,长约 2 釐米,宽约 1 釐米。先端急尖,熟时呈黄绿色或粉红 色。 中国《本草拾遗》首次记录阿月浑子,云: “阿月浑子……生西国诸蕃,云与胡榛子同 树,一岁榛子,二岁浑子也。《纲目》亦录著,引《海药本草》云: ” “按徐表《南州记》云: 无名木生岭南山谷,其实状若榛子,号无名子,波斯家呼为阿月浑子也。《纲目拾遗》亦录 ” 著,其云“与榛子同类” 。以上所述即与本品相符。

分布区域
阿月浑子属干旱亚热带的古老树种,据考生存在 4000 万年前第三纪时期,是亚热带旱 生。森林干燥地带中一个树种,人工栽培有 3500 余年。我国种植的品种是唐代从中亚引入 栽培,至今已有 1300 多年,属中亚类群,表现抗旱,耐热,喜光。生长季节要求平均气温 为 24~26℃,夏季能抗 40℃高温,冬季能耐短暂的-30℃严寒。我国栽培阿月浑子虽然历史 悠久,但多为零星种植,主要集中分布在新疆天山以南的喀什和田、阿克苏地区,以疏附县 和疏勒县种植的较多。 世界主要分布在地中海沿岸各国。原产于伊朗,分布于意大利、法国、希腊、土耳其、 叙利亚、阿富汗、伊拉克等国,美国西南部、加利福尼亚州亦有一定种植面积,俄罗斯以及 中国大陆的新疆等地,也已广泛栽培。

全球产量和需求情况 全球产量和需求情况 和需求
2005-2008 年全球开心果产量情况(吨) 年全球开心果产量情况(
序号 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 国家 伊朗 美国 土耳其 叙利亚 中国 希腊 阿富汗 突尼斯 意大利 吉尔吉斯 巴基斯坦 马达加斯加 乌兹别克 科特迪瓦 摩洛哥 塞浦路斯 墨西哥 毛里求斯 阿塞拜疆 2005 年 229 657 128 367 60 000 44 642 34 000 8 847 2 457 2 000 2 719 300 597 210 300 100 50 15 26 5 11 2006 年 250 000 107 955 110 000 73 183 36 000 8 233 2 457 2 700 1 024 500 632 220 203 100 50 12 4 5 15 2007 年 315 500 188 696 73 416 52 066 38 000 8 148 3 600 2 500 2 782 800 536 230 200 100 50 25 10 5 3 2008 年 192 269 126 100 120 113 52 600 40 000 8 100 2 500 2 500 2 000 800 773 230 200 100 50 24 10 5 3

("Food and Agricultural commodities production". Food and Agriculture Organization. 联合国粮食
及农业组织 http://faostat.fao.org/site/339/default.aspx. Retrieved 2011-05-08)

中国是全球开心果消费量最大的国家,年需求 8 万吨,其次是美国,年需求 4.5 万吨, 第三、四位的是俄罗斯和印度,需求量分别为 1.5 万吨和 1 万吨。伊朗开心果种植面积已经 由 1979 年的 5 万公顷增加到现在的 45 万公顷,拥有全球最多数量的开心果种植园。 "No. (
3686 | Domestic Economy | Page 4". Iran daily. May 23, 2010 http://iran-daily.com/1389/3/2/MainPaper/3686/Page/4/Index.htm#. Retrieved 2011-01-17)

主要品种
在中亚和地中海两个阿月浑子类群中,后者不耐旱,不抗寒,一般气温下降到-9℃时, 就会发生冻害。目前我国新疆栽培的是中亚类群,主要品种有: 早熟阿月浑子主要产于新疆疏附县, 树势较弱, 叶有光泽, 椭圆形由三片小叶组成复叶, 果穗三角形,纵横经 0.9 厘米×9.5 厘米,平均每穗有 16 个侧枝,每侧枝有 1~2 个果,果 实近椭圆形,顶端和阳面红色,坚果小,平均单果核重 0.62 克,纵横径长 2.1 厘米×1.3 厘 米,坐果率低,在喀什地区 4 月下旬开花,8 月中、下旬成熟。 短果阿月浑子主产新疆疏附,疏勒两县,树势中等,叶深绿色,有稀疏茸毛,椭圆形, 多由 3 片小叶组成复叶。果实中大,卵形,黄白色,果尖而细,平均单果核重 0.62 克,纵 横径长 2.1 厘米×1.3 厘米。坐果率低偏,在喀什地区 4 月下旬开花,8 月中,下旬成熟。 长果阿月浑子树势生长健壮,叶深绿色,叶片大,由 3~5 片小叶组成复叶,果长卵圆 形, 果面有红晕, 果大, 平均单果核重 0.76 克, 纵横径为 2.5 厘米×1.1 厘米, 含油量 54.6%。 坐果率高,丰产性强。为最有发展前景的品种。目前新疆喀什市以及甘肃省甘谷开心果,种 植的最多。4 月下旬至 5 月初开花,9 月上旬成熟。 我国种植面积小, 多是人工用棍杆打落, 拣拾, 收集果实。 经脱皮, 清洗, 晾晒, 贮藏。 我国产量少,不能满足市需求,大都直接上市销售,尚无深加工。我国适宜种植阿月浑子的 地域广,坚果市场前景大。亟待引进,选育优良品种,大力推广。目前仅有新疆以及甘肃省 甘谷县有种植。

营养价值
开心果果仁是高营养的食品,每 100 果仁含维生素 A20 微克,叶酸 59 微克,含铁 3 毫 克,含磷 440 毫克,含钾 970 毫克,含钠 270 毫克,含钙 120 毫克,同时还含有烟酸、泛 酸、矿物质等。种仁含油率高达 45.1%。由于开心果中含有丰富的油脂,因此有润肠通便的 作用,有助于机体排毒。开心果 又是滋补食药,它味甘无毒,温肾暖脾,补益虚损,调中 顺气,能治疗神经衰弱、浮肿、贫血、营养不良、慢性泻痢等症。

Pistachio Profile
Home ? Commodities & Products ? Nuts ? Pistachio Profile By Hayley Boriss, Agricultural Issues Center, University of California. Updated April 2010 by Diane Huntrods, AgMRC, Iowa State University.

Background
Pistachio (Pistacia vera) trees originated in the dry lands and desert climates of Asia Minor. They

were introduced into the United States in 1854, but the U.S. commercial industry did not develop until 1976. Over the last 30 years, the U.S. pistachio industry has grown rapidly in California, the major commercial pistachio-producing state in the United States.

Overview
Approximately 98 percent of U.S. pistachios are produced in California. Other states raising pistachios include Arizona, Nevada, New Mexico and Texas. The 2009 pistachio crop was worth $787.4 million in value, 38 percent more than the previous year (NASS 2010). U.S. production of pistachios increased to 193,000 tons, rising 39 percent (NASS 2010). NASS reported a yield of 3,060 pounds per acre, compared to 2,360 pounds in 2008. Tthe United States is generally the second leading producer (and exporter) of pistachios behind Iran.

Marketing
Most pistachios are sold as unshelled nuts as opposed to shelled nuts. In 2009 320 million pounds of unshelled pistachios were sold, while only 66 million pounds were sold shelled (NASS 2010). The unshelled nuts are primarily sold for domestic consumption as a roasted and salted snack food. A smaller portion of nuts, often those that are not usable for nonmanufactured snacks because they have not split or are badly stained, are used as ingredients in candies, baked goods, ice cream, confectioneries and flavorings. They can also be added to dressings, casseroles and other dishes. Pistachio growers successfully led an initiative to establish a pistachio federal marketing order. The marketing order went into effect August 1, 2005 and is designed to increase demand for pistachios and enhance future grower returns through quality control regulations. Funded by assessments on California pistachio producers, the order establishes maximum tolerance levels for aflatoxin, mandates testing and certification for aflatoxin and sets minimum nut quality standards.

Production
The Kerman variety, the leading female commercial variety in the United States, originated from seed found in the Kerman region of Iran. Kerman pistachios account for nearly all production because of their large size, kernel texture and widely split shells. Pistachio trees require several years of growth until they begin bearing nuts, with significant production occurring at 7 to 10 years and peak production occurring at 20 to 25 years. Like other

nut trees, pistachios are alternate bearing, often producing a large crop one year followed by a lighter crop the next year. Once established, the trees can be productive for years if conditions are favorable. However, the life expectancy of commercial pistachios is estimated at about 50 to 80 years, when the trees become too large to harvest mechanically. Pistachios grow in grape-like clusters, with each nut's shell surrounded by a fleshy hull. The nut is ready for harvest in early fall when the hull takes on a rosy light hue and the interior shell splits open. Pistachios are mechanically shaken from the trees and are sent to processing mills to be hulled and dried. The hull must be removed and the nuts dried within 12 to 24 hours from harvest or the shell becomes stained. Before the U.S. industry developed equipment to decrease processing time, imported pistachios often had dyed shells to hide staining. Like many tree nuts, pistachios are susceptible to aflatoxin contamination in the growing, harvesting and processing phases of production. Aflatoxins are toxic and carcinogenic compounds produced by a fungus that can grow on the nut. The risk of aflatoxin contamination can be reduced through drying and proper storage. Most U.S. pistachios orchards are irrigated. Unfavorable weather, including mild winter temperatures and humid or wet summers can result in poor kernel development and quality as well as promote aflatoxin contamination. In addition, strong winds or rainfall during blooming months can interfere with fertilization and thereby fruit set. The alternate bearing nature of pistachios, coupled with a prolonged period required for maturity can significantly affect total crop size from year to year (as well as longer cycles), creating variability in prices and total crop value. This has led to industry implementation of inventory building in high production years to compensate for subsequent years of decreased supply. The price of pistachios depends on the degree of shell splitting and the color of the kernel. Pistachios enclosed in shells that have not opened are worth less than those that have opened, specifically because if not split, the shells must be opened by mechanical means. Kernel color is another factor in determining value—the deeper the green of the kernel, the higher the value. In 2009 pistachio nuts brought $2.04 per pound, relatively unchanged from 2008 prices (NASS 2010). U.S. consumption of pistachios remains low relative to other nuts. Per person consumption of pistachios reached 0.23 pounds in 2007 (ERS 2008). However, nutritional research and advertising of the health benefits of nuts have helped increase consumption of all nuts. Pistachios in particular are rich in calcium, vitamin B6, thiamine, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, copper and fiber. Exports/Imports U.S. pistachio exports have been increasing in recent years, reaching 145,000 metric tons (MT) in 2009. That year, the leading destination for U.S. exports was Belgium, followed by the Netherlands and Hong Kong. A majority of shipments to Hong Kong are re-exported to China where consumers are increasingly looking for this product in baked and confectionary goods.

(FAS 2010). FAS (2010) reported that 1,200 MT of pistachio nuts were imported in 2009, primarily from Turkey and Iran. (http://www.agmrc.org/commodities__products/nuts/pistachio_profile.cfm)

价格情况
US Pistachio Production and Price (1991-2008)

Figure presents US pistachio production and price variation from 1991 to 2008. As one can see, there is an inverse correlation between price and production quantity. Like many tree nuts, there is an “on” and “off” year cycle in pistachio production, which means in one year there would be a larger amount of pistachios produced, but in the following year a relatively smaller amount. In order to stabilize the price, the marketing order held a reserve pool to compensate the shortages in supplies in the “off” years. Jolly and Norris (1992) have modeled this by simulating US pistachio prices using a simple linear regression model to estimate the relationship between production and bearing acres. Results showed the high significance of both bearing acreage and the alternate bearing variables. This implies the importance of proactive management such as pistachio (Zheng, Zijuan, "WORLD PRODUCTION AND TRADE OF PISTACHIOS: THE ROLE OF THE U.S. AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE EXPORT DEMAND OF U.S. PISTACHIOS" (2011). Masters Theses. Paper 123. http://uknowledge.uky.edu/gradschool_theses/123)

相关机构和公司 相关机构和公司
1、美国西部开心果协会(The Western Pistachio Association) 、 国西部开心果协会( )
美国西部开心果协会是唯一一个民主组织由美国开心果种植者组成并代表美国开心果 种植者。 30 年前,美国西部开心果协会的创始者首先成立了加州开心果协会,他们对当时还处 在雏形中的开心果产业的未来充满信心, 这些创始者怀揣着远大的理想, 他们相信成立一个 开心果行业协会能够帮助他们推广当时对消费者来说还比较新的开心果, 并且, 这个行业协 会可以辅导开心果种植者和开心果产业的成员们如何生产和加工开心果。

2、美国加州派拉蒙农场(Paramount Farms) 、美国加州派拉蒙农场( )
Paramount Farms 是全球规模最大的开心果和杏仁综合供应商。Paramount Farms 在加 利福尼亚州的圣华金河谷拥有超过 70,000 英亩的开心果和杏仁种植园。 Paramount Farms 的 30,000 英亩开心果果园是西半球最大的种植园。在以杏仁闻名的 加利福尼亚州,Paramount Farms 是最大的杏仁种植商,拥有超过 40,000 英亩的固定杏仁 种植园。您可在美国国内的食品百货店的农产品区找到带有 Sunkist? 标志和“Everybody's Nuts? 品牌以及其他专有品牌及散装的 Paramount Farms 坚果。 Paramount 可提供各种带壳 和不带壳开心果产品,以及全系列的杏仁产品,包括生杏仁、烘烤、漂白或调味的整杏仁、 碎杏仁、杏仁条、杏仁块。


相关文章:
开心果产业的前景分析
开心果产业的前景分析_农学_农林牧渔_专业资料。开心果产业的前景分析 1、前言 气候变化和几千年来的人类活动最终导致陕北黄土高原植被破坏,土 壤严重侵蚀,土地退化...
2017年中国开心果行业现状及市场前景预测(目录)_图文
2017年中国开心果行业现状及市场前景预测(目录)_经济/市场_经管营销_专业资料。...年中国限额以上超级市场零售企业基本情况 31 图表 12 2009-2016 年中国限额以上...
开心果的故事
开心果的故事 有一天女孩知道了一件打死她也不愿相信的事情,如果是别人说的,她一定会 和人家拼命,但是告诉她这件事情的人,不是别人,而是她最最亲的奶奶。她...
中国开心果行业市场调查分析与发展趋势研究预测报告_图文
中国开心果行业市场调查分析与发展趋势研究预测报告_经济/市场_经管营销_专业资料...企业基本情况 68 二、企业经营情况分析 68 三、企业经济指标分析 70 四、企业...
开心果的功效与作用
开心果的功效与作用开心果的果仁具有很高的营 养价值,又是滋补食药,它味甘无毒,温肾暖脾,补益虚损,调中顺气,能治疗神经衰弱、浮肿、贫血、 营养不良、慢性泻痢...
2016-2021年开心果行业深度调查及发展前景研究报告
情况, 分析 5-10 家企业。 ) 第一节 A 公司 一、企业基本概况 二、企业产品结构分析 三、开心果产品特点及市场表现 四、2013-2015 年企业经营与财务状况...
博莱客告诉你几种情况下的开心果不能吃
博莱客告诉你几种情况下的开心果不能吃_饮食_生活休闲。五种情况下的坚果不能吃 博莱客告诉你哪几种情况下的坚果不能吃!坚果已经变成一种很流行的零食了很多人...
2016-2022年中国开心果产业集中度调查及十三五未来前景...
基本情况 二、企业主要经济指标 三、企业偿债能力分析 四、企业盈利能力分析 五、企业运营能力分析 第八章中国开心果行业发展预测 第一节 2016-2022 年我国开心果...
99%的人不知道的知识-开心果的惊人加工内幕
99%的人不知道的知识-开心果的惊人加工内幕_社会民生_生活休闲。食品加工行业加工内幕99%的人不知道的知识 ——开心果加工惊天内幕你知道开心果的本色是什么颜色吗...
简介坚果的营养价值
文章参考自:http://www.hksykt.com/ 核桃可以补脑,腰果可以补脾胃,开心果可以...所 以呢, 选择坚果也要根据自己的实际情况来选择, 不要不管三七二十一只要...
更多相关标签: