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how to polish up your writing


Writing is a headache to the majority of students. They often achieve low marks in it. And the problem is that they don’t know what to do about it.

Tips on how to improve your wr

iting

江苏卷书面表达评分标准 1.本题总分为25分,按5个档次给分。 2.评分时,先根据文章的内容和语言初步确 定其所属档次,然后以该档次的要求来衡量, 确定或调整档次,最后给分。 3.词数少于130或多于170的,从总分中减去 2分。 4.评分时应注意的主要内容为:内容要点, 应用词汇和语法结构的数量和准确性及上下 文的连贯性。

江苏卷书面表达评分标准

5.拼写与标点符号是语言准确性的一个方 面。评分时应视其对交际的影响程度予以 考虑。英、美拼写及词汇用法均可接受。

6.如书写较差以至于影响交际,将分数降 低一个档次。

江苏卷书面表达评分标准

第五档 很好(21-25分) 第四档 好(16-20分) 第三档 一般(11-15分) 第二档 较差(6-10分) 第一档 差(1-5分) 不得分:(0分)

第五档(很好):(21-25分) 1.完全完成了试题规定的任务。 2.覆盖所有内容要点。 3.应用了较多的语法结构和词汇。 4.语法结构或词汇方面有些许错误, 但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词汇 所致;具备较强的语言运用能力。 5.有效地使用了语句间的连接成分, 使全文结构紧凑。 6.完全达到了预期的写作目的。

江苏卷书面表达评分标准
从语言运用角度来讲,该评分标准具有很 高的区分度。 评分标准特别提出了对“应用词汇和语法 结构的数量和准确性”以及是否“有效地 使用了语句间的连接成分”规定了不同的 层次要求,使得这一标准具有很好的区分 度。

江苏卷书面表达评分标准
在评分时,阅卷老师的主要依据有两个:内 容要点是否齐全,以及所运用语言的档次。 也就是说,在要点齐全的基础上,语言的档 次决定了文章最后的得分档次。显然该评分 标准突出了对考生语言运用能力的考查。 因此,高考阅卷时,阅卷员的打分有很大的 区分度。

目前很大一部分学生的作文都在15分左右, 写作满分25分,15分也就是个及格分,那 么15分和20多分的作文到底区别在哪里呢? 15分的作文可能内容要点齐全,也没什么 语法错误,但通篇是简单词汇、简单句子 的堆砌,没有任何亮点。而20多分的作文 在词汇句型方面作了很好的包装,能给阅 卷老师眼前一亮的感觉。

What can we do accordingly to make our writing stand out among tens of thousands of compositions?

要点 语言 书写

词汇

句型
连接

81. 请根据你对以下两幅图的理解,以 “Actions Speak Louder than Words”为题, 用英语写一篇作文。

你的作文应包括以下内容: 1. 简要描述两幅图的内容; 2. 概述你对两幅图中不同做法的理解; 3. 举例说明两幅图对你的启示。

书面表达评分的另一个重要依据是语言, 主要包括应用词汇和语法结构的数量和准 确性、上下文的连贯性及语言的得体性。

词汇是语言的最基本建筑材料,文章的好 坏,选词很关键。一篇优秀的文章在很大 程度上是通过作者所运用的词汇来体现的。 书面表达用词要贴切而丰富,我们可以适 当使用一些有深度或难度的词汇。阅卷老 师能从你的选词上一眼看出你是一个什么 水平的考生。 然而,大多数同学不具备词汇升级意识, 一想到“好”,就是“good”;一想到 “坏”,就是“bad”;一想到“重要”就 是“important”;一想到“有用”就是 “help”…… 而这些词汇的堆砌会使文章 显得千篇一律,毫无新意。

设想一下,阅卷老师一天要批阅上千份内 容相同的书面表达,机械、单调、疲劳! 那么考生如何使自己的文章脱颖而出,给 老师眼前一亮的感觉呢? 我们要尽量避免“低能词汇”,让自己的 词汇升级。如果我们在组织自己的思维时 能有意识地使用它们的近义词或近义表达 方式,就可以做到别开生面,使文章有一 种清新的感觉。

1. I believe that through joint efforts we can build a low carbon society. → I am convinced/confident/positive that through joint efforts we can build a low carbon society. 2. We should know that hard work is the key to success. → We should be aware that hard work is the key to success. We should not ignore the fact that hard work is the key to success. We should bear/keep in mind that hard work is the key to success.

3. Suddenly I had a good idea. → Suddenly I came up with a good idea. Suddenly a good idea occurred to/struck me.
4. He spends all his spare time in reading. → He devotes all his spare time to reading. If possible, he always takes the time to read various books.

5. John likes playing basketball very much. → John has a preference for basketball. John has a great love/affection for basketball.
6. Most of the interviewees prefer watching TV at home to going to the cinema. → The majority of/A high percentage of the interviewees prefer watching TV at home to going to the cinema.

7. It is important to take regular exercise. → It is of great importance to take regular exercise. Taking regular exercise plays an important part/role in keeping us healthy. Taking regular exercise is vital to keeping us healthy. Taking regular exercise counts/matters a lot. We should attach great importance to regular exercise. The importance of regular exercise cannot be stressed too much.

8. The plan was a failure. → The plan turned out to be a failure. The plan ended in failure. 9. We should try our best to protect the environment. → We should make efforts/make every effort to protect the environment. We should spare no effort to protect the environment. We should do all that we can to... We should do what we can to...

10. Regular exercise is good for our health. → Regular exercise does good to our health. Regular exercise benefits our health a lot. Regular exercise is beneficial to our health. Regular exercise is of great benefit to our health. Our health benefits a lot from regular exercise. We should take exercise on a regular basis. on a daily basis

11. Listening to music makes us feel relaxed. → Listening to music enables us to feel relaxed. 12. Whenever I play with my friends, we will chat a lot, sharing our joys and sorrows with each other. → Whenever I hang out/socialize with my friends, we will chat a lot, sharing our joys and sorrows with each other.

13. It is useless trying to persuade him, since he won’t listen. → It is no use/good trying to persuade him, since he won’t listen. It makes no sense to try to persuade him, since he won’t listen. There is no point/sense in trying to persuade him, since he won’t listen. It is a waste of time trying to persuade him, since he won’t listen.

14. Do you think in the future new inventions will totally change the way we live? → Do you think in the years/days to come new inventions will totally change the way we live?
15. Sometimes we fail to realize that happiness is just around us. → There are times/occasions when we fail to realize that happiness is just around us.

16. Whenever we are in trouble, they will help us immediately. → Whenever we are in trouble, they will lend us a helping hand immediately. Whenever we are in trouble, they will come to our aid/help/assistance immediately. 17. I suggest that something be done to deal with the situation. → I strongly recommend that something be done to deal with the situation.

the former…the latter… 18. Personally, I agree with the latter view. → Personally, I am in total agreement with the latter view. Personally, I approve of the latter view. Personally, I am in favor of the latter view. Personally, I favor/support the latter view. Personally, I am for the latter view.

19. I didn’t know how to describe the beautiful scenery. → The beautiful scenery was beyond description. The beautiful scenery left me at a loss /lost for words. Words failed me when I saw the beautiful scenery.

20. He is busy preparing for the final exam. → He occupies himself in preparing for the final exam. He is occupied in preparing for the final exam. He buries himself in preparing for the final exam. He is buried in preparing for the final exam.

此外,在英语写作中,遣词一定要避免重复。 用词多样化可以使句子表意生动,增强文章 的整体表达效果。例如: Some people believe that... Others, however, argue/assume/insist /claim/stress/emphasize/hold the view that…

如果说词汇是语言的最基本建筑材料,那么 句型就是语言的框架结构。在恰当应用高级 词汇的同时,考生也要注意句型的多样化。 简单句用的太多,会造成文章读起来单调乏 味。 评分标准中特别强调了“使用较复杂结构” 的能力,这就要求我们不能简单地平铺直叙, 应该在保证要点全面、表达正确的基础上, 提高表述的层次,写出丰富多彩的句子来, 以表现自己“具备较强的语言运用能力”。 交叉使用长短句,能够使文章错落有致。

① 定语从句 定语从句,尤其是非限制性定 语从句的使用,能使上下文更加流畅。 1. It was quite an experience for us both. I’ll never forget it for the rest of my life. → It was quite an experience for us both, which I’ll never forget for the rest of my life.

2. She was always speaking highly of her role in the play. Of course it made the others unhappy. → She was always speaking highly of her role in the play, which, of course, made the others unhappy. 3. Independent study has many advantages. One of the advantages is that it makes sure students study at their own pace. → Independent study has many advantages, one of which is that it makes sure students study at their own pace.

4. She may be late. In that case we ought to wait for her. → She may be late, in which case we ought to wait for her.
5. My favorite singer is Jay Chou. I think he is a genius. → My favorite singer is Jay Chou, who I think is a genius.

②名词性从句 1. After a long time, the bus finally came. → After what seemed to be a long time, the bus finally came.

2. It takes determination to do anything well. → Determination is a good quality and it is what it takes to do anything well.

3. It is important to make exercise part of our daily routine. → What counts/is important is to make exercise part of our daily routine.

4. He didn’t turn up. The fact disappointed everybody. → The fact that he didn’t turn up disappointed everybody. 5. Although she is short, she is an excellent basketball player. → Despite the fact that she is short, she is an excellent basketball player.

③状语从句
1. Soon we will turn our dream into a reality. → It won’t be long before we turn our dream into a reality. 2. The book was so good that he didn’t realize he had been reading it for three hours. → The book was so good that before he realized it he had been reading it for 3 hours.

3. I will stick to my decision. I don’t care whether you like it or not. → Whether you like it or not, I will stick to my decision. 4. Although she is short, she is an excellent basketball player. → While she is short, she is an excellent basketball player. Short as she is, she is an excellent basketball player. 5. I moved to Mars a long time ago. → It has been a long time since I moved to Mars.

④巧用it作形式主语/宾语 1. We should realize that everyone is responsible for the environment. → It should be realized that everyone is responsible for the environment. 2. I must stress that everything has its pros and cons. → It must be stressed that everything has its pros and cons.

3. George made it clear that he is against this project. 4. The Internet makes it convenient for us to get in touch with each other. 5. China's rapid development makes it possible for people to fulfill their dream of having a car of their own.

★it 作形式主语时的常用结构:

1. It is+形容词+that从句 It is important/vital/necessary/essential /likely/fortunate/obvious/certain that…
2. It is+名词+that从句 It is a pity/a shame/an honor/a miracle /common knowledge/no wonder that… It is my hope/belief that…

3. It is+过去分词+that从句 It is said/reported/known/believed /suggested/recommended/required /estimated that… It has been proved/decided/announced that…
4. It+不及物动词+that 从句 It seems/appears/happens/turns out that...

⑤分词 分词短语的使用可以使句子表意更加简洁生动。 1. Nowadays, we can easily travel from one place to another. As a result, we can bridge the gap between different cultures. → Nowadays, we can easily travel from one place to another, thus bridging the gap between different cultures.

2. I have to work even at weekends. I do endless homework and attend classes as well. → I have to work even at weekends, doing endless homework and attending classes as well.

3. If you work hard, you’ll surely succeed. → Working hard, you’ll surely succeed. 4. Although he has been told many times, he can’t remember it. → Told many times, he can’t remember it.

5. As she was caught in the heavy rain, Jennifer didn’t arrive on time. → Caught in the heavy rain, Jennifer didn’t arrive on time.

★连词+分词 when, while, if, once, though, unless, as, if, even if… If given another chance, I will do it much better.

When completed, the museum will be open to the public next year. Even if invited to the party, I wouldn’t go.

⑥特殊句式 1. A terrible accident happened yesterday. It killed nine people and injured almost eighty. → A terrible accident happened yesterday, with nine people killed and almost eighty injured.

2. John’s success has nothing to do with good luck. Years of hard work has made him what he is today. → John’s success has nothing to do with good luck. It is years of hard work that has made him what he is today. ★Why was it that he came so late? ★I really don’t know who it was that broke the window. ★---I'm sorry; I shouldn't have been so rude to you. ---You did lose your temper but that's OK.

3. He didn’t realize he was wrong until he failed. → Not until he failed did he realize he was wrong. It was not until he failed that he realized he was wrong.

4. I want to have a computer of my own very much. → How I wish to have a computer of my own!

5. If everyone does his/her part, we can make a big difference. → If everyone did his/her part, we could make a big difference.

评分标准指出,书面表达应该注意“上下 文的连贯性”,并能“有效地使用语句间的 连接成分,使全文结构紧凑”。 这种连贯性可以通过恰当使用连接词来实 现的。连接词承上启下,能够令读者对后续 的句子产生心理上的预期和准备,从而使整 篇文章显得紧凑连贯。

1.表示先后关系:first of all, to begin with, in the first place, then, afterwards, at the same time, meanwhile, later, later on, finally, eventually 2.表示转折关系:yet, however, nevertheless 3.表示因果关系:as a result, as a consequence, consequently, therefore, thus

4.表示递进关系: besides, what’s more, moreover, furthermore, in addition, additionally, on top of that, what’s worse, worse still, to make matters worse 5.表示突出强调:above all, after all, at least, at most, surely, indeed, certainly ,of course 6.表示解释说明:that is (to say), in other words, namely, for example/instance, for one thing, for another, in that case

7.表示比较对比:on the contrary, by contrast, on the one hand, on the other hand

8.表示情绪:to one’s joy/surprise /disappointment/satisfaction/horror/relief 9.表示概括总结:in a word, in short, in conclusion, in brief, to sum up, in general, generally speaking, on the whole, as a whole, all in all

评分标准规定“如书写较差,以至影响交际, 将分数降低一个档次”。

最近,你班就春节期间该不该燃放烟花爆竹 进行了一场讨论。请你根据以下信息,给一 家英文报纸写一篇短文,客观介绍你们的讨 论情况,并就如何安全燃放烟花爆竹提出你 的看法。
60%赞成 40%反对 你的观点

1.增加节日气氛
2.传统的中国文 化习俗

1.造成人身伤害
……

2.污染环境

燃放烟花爆竹:set off fireworks

Recently, our class has held a discussion over whether or not fireworks should be set off during the Spring Festival.

About 60% of us are in favor of fireworks, saying setting off fireworks, as a traditional Chinese custom, is worth preserving. In addition, it can add to the festival atmosphere, bringing happiness to everyone.

On the other hand, about 40% of the students hold the opposite opinion, arguing that fireworks might cause serious injuries and even deaths if set off carelessly. What’s more, it has negative effects on the environment. We ought to raise our awareness of protecting the environment and set an example to others by never setting off fireworks.

Personally, I approve of the latter view because every one of us should do our part in making the world a greener place. While fireworks in the night sky are really a splendid sight, what we cannot afford to lose is the environment. As for safety rules, I suggest that fireworks be set off at the fixed time and fixed places. Besides, children must be accompanied by adults when setting off fireworks.

一点又一点,小鸟筑成巢。

合抱之木,生于毫末。 九层之台,起于累土。


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